tm211852-9_424b4 - none - 36.0939418s
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 Filed Pursuant to Rule 424(b)(4)
 Registration Nos. 333-252666 and 333-252748
28,536,888 Shares
[MISSING IMAGE: lg_opendoorwhitebg-4c.jpg]
Common Stock
We are offering 28,536,888 shares of our common stock.
Our common stock is listed on The Nasdaq Global Select Market (the “Nasdaq”) under the symbol “OPEN.” On February 4, 2021, the last reported sale price of our common stock as reported on the Nasdaq was $28.48 per share.
Investing in our common stock involves a high degree of risk. See the “Risk Factors” beginning on page 9.
Per Share
Total
Public offering price
$ 27.00 $ 770,495,976.00
Underwriting discounts and commissions(1)
$ 0.81 $ 23,114,879.28
Proceeds, before expenses, to us
$ 26.19 $ 747,381,096.72
(1)
See “Underwriting” for additional disclosure regarding the underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses.
We have granted the underwriters the right to purchase up to an additional 4,280,533 shares of common stock.
The underwriters expect to deliver the shares against payment in New York, New York on February 9, 2021.
Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities, or passed upon the accuracy or adequacy of this prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.
Joint Book-Running Managers
Citigroup Goldman Sachs & Co. LLC
Barclays
Deutsche Bank Securities
Oppenheimer & Co.
Co-Managers
BTIG KeyBanc Capital Markets Wedbush Securities TD Securities Zelman Partners LLC
Academy Securities Loop Capital Markets Ramirez & Co., Inc. Siebert Williams Shank
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F-1
We and the underwriters have not authorized anyone to provide any information or to make any representations other than those contained in this prospectus. We and the underwriters take no responsibility for, and can provide no assurance as to the reliability of, any other information that others may provide you. We are offering to sell, and seeking offers to buy, shares of common stock only in jurisdictions where offers and sales are permitted. The information contained in this prospectus is accurate only as of the date of this prospectus, regardless of the time of delivery of this prospectus or of any sale of the common stock.
This prospectus includes industry and market data that we obtained from periodic industry publications, third‑party studies and surveys, filings of public companies in our industry and internal company surveys. These sources may include government and industry sources. Industry publications and surveys generally state that the information contained therein has been obtained from sources believed to be reliable. Although we believe the industry and market data to be reliable as of the date of this prospectus, this information could prove to be inaccurate. Industry and market data could be wrong because of the method by which sources obtained their data and because information cannot always be verified with complete certainty due to the limits on the availability and reliability of raw data, the voluntary nature of the data gathering process and other limitations and uncertainties. In addition, we do not know all of the assumptions regarding general economic conditions or growth that were used in preparing the forecasts from the sources relied upon or cited herein.
 
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TRADEMARKS
This document contains references to trademarks and service marks belonging to other entities. Solely for convenience, trademarks and trade names referred to in this prospectus may appear without the ® or TM symbols, but such references are not intended to indicate, in any way, that the applicable licensor will not assert, to the fullest extent under applicable law, its rights to these trademarks and trade names. We do not intend our use or display of other companies’ trade names, trademarks or service marks to imply a relationship with, or endorsement or sponsorship of it by, any other companies.
 
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SELECTED DEFINITIONS
Unless otherwise stated in this prospectus or the context otherwise requires, references to:

“2020 Plan” are to the Opendoor Technologies Inc. 2020 Incentive Award Plan;

“Business Combination” are to the Domestication together with the Merger;

“Bylaws” are to our bylaws dated as of December 18, 2020;

“Certificate of Incorporation” are our certificate of incorporation dated December 18, 2020;

“Closing” are to the closing of the Business Combination on December 18, 2020;

“Company,” “we,” “us” and “our” are to Opendoor Technologies Inc.;

“common stock” are to shares of our common stock, par value $0.0001 per share;

“Continental” are to Continental Stock Transfer & Trust Company;

“DGCL” are to the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware;

“Domestication” are to the domestication of Social Capital Hedosophia Holdings Corp. II as a corporation incorporated in the State of Delaware;

“Exchange Act” are to the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended;

“Exchange Ratio” are to the quotient obtained by dividing (i) 500,000,000 by (ii) the aggregate fully—diluted number of shares of Opendoor common stock issued and outstanding immediately prior to the Merger;

“founder shares” are to the SCH Class B ordinary shares purchased by the Sponsor in a private placement prior to the initial public offering, and the SCH Class A ordinary shares that will be issued upon the conversion thereof;

“GAAP” are to accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America;

“HSR Act” are to the Hart-Scott-Rodino Antitrust Improvements Act of 1976, as amended;

“iBuyer” are to a company that uses technology to make cash offers on residential real estate;

“IPO” are to our initial public offering that was consummated on April 30, 2020;

“IRS” are to the U.S. Internal Revenue Service;

“JOBS Act” are to the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012;

“Management Awards” are to equity awards under the 2020 Plan in the form of restricted stock units expected to be granted to certain of our employees within 90 days following the Closing;

“Merger” are to the merger of Merger Sub with and into Opendoor, with Opendoor surviving the merger as our wholly owned subsidiary;

“MLS” are to multiple-listing services providers;

“NAR” are to National Association of Realtors;

“Nasdaq” are to the Nasdaq Global Select Market;

“NPS” are to the Net Promoter Score;

“Opendoor Awards” are to Opendoor Options, Opendoor Restricted Stock Awards and Opendoor RSUs;

“Opendoor common stock” are to shares of Opendoor common stock, par value $0.00001 per share;

“Opendoor Options” are to options to purchase shares of Opendoor common stock;

“Opendoor PIPE Investor” are to a PIPE Investor that is a holder of shares of Opendoor capital stock or securities exercisable for or convertible into Opendoor capital stock as of the date of the Merger Agreement and not a Sponsor Related PIPE Investor;
 
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“Opendoor Restricted Stock Awards” are to restricted shares of Opendoor common stock;

“Opendoor RSUs” are to restricted stock units based on shares of Opendoor common stock;

“Opendoor Stockholders” are to the stockholders of Opendoor and holders of Opendoor Awards prior to the Business Combination;

“Opendoor Technologies” are to SCH after the Domestication and its name change from Social Capital Hedosophia Corp. II;

“Opendoor Technologies Options” are to options to purchase shares of our common stock;

“Opendoor Technologies Restricted Stock” are to restricted shares of our common stock;

“Opendoor Technologies RSUs” are to restricted stock units based on shares of our common stock;

“ordinary shares” are to the SCH Class A ordinary shares and the SCH Class B ordinary shares, collectively;

“OSN” are to OS National LLC;

“Person” are to any individual, firm, corporation, partnership, limited liability company, incorporated or unincorporated association, joint venture, joint stock company, governmental authority or instrumentality or other entity of any kind;

“PIPE Investment” are to the purchase of shares of our common stock pursuant to the Subscription Agreements;

“PIPE Investment Amount” are to the aggregate gross purchase price received by SCH prior to or substantially concurrently with Closing for the shares in the PIPE Investment;

“PIPE Investors” are to those certain investors participating in the PIPE Investment pursuant to the Subscription Agreements;

“pro forma” are to giving pro forma effect to the Business Combination;

“Organizational Documents” are to the Certificate of Incorporation and the Bylaws;

“public shareholders” are to holders of public shares, whether acquired in SCH’s initial public offering or acquired in the secondary market;

“public shares” are to the SCH Class A ordinary shares (including those that underlie the units) that were offered and sold by SCH in its initial public offering and registered pursuant to the IPO registration statement or the shares of our common stock issued as a matter of law upon the conversion thereof at the time of the Domestication, as context requires;

“public warrants” are to the redeemable warrants (including those that underlie the units) that were offered and sold by SCH in its initial public offering and registered pursuant to the IPO registration statement or the redeemable warrants of Opendoor Technologies issued as a matter of law upon the conversion thereof at the time of the Domestication, as context requires;

“real sellers” are to those that accept Opendoor’s offer or go on to list their home for sale on the MLS within 60 days of requesting an offer from Opendoor;

“redemption” are to each redemption of public shares for cash pursuant to the Cayman Constitutional Documents and the Organizational Documents;

“Registration Rights Agreement” are to the Registration Rights Agreement to be entered into at Closing, by and among Opendoor Technologies, the Sponsor, certain former stockholders of Opendoor, Cipora Herman, David Spillane, ChaChaCha SPAC B, LLC, Hedosophia Group Limited and 010118 Management, L.P.;

“Sarbanes Oxley Act” are to the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002;

“SCH” are to Social Capital Hedosophia Holdings Corp. II prior to its domestication as a corporation in the State of Delaware;

“SCH Class A ordinary shares” are to SCH’s Class A ordinary shares, par value $0.0001 per share;
 
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“SCH Class B ordinary shares” are to SCH’s Class B ordinary shares, par value $0.0001 per share;

“SCH units” and “units” are to the units of SCH, each unit representing one SCH Class A share and one-third of one redeemable warrant to acquire one SCH Class A ordinary share, that were offered and sold by SCH in its initial public offering and registered pursuant to the IPO registration statement (less the number of units that have been separated into the underlying public shares and underlying warrants upon the request of the holder thereof);

“SEC” are to the United States Securities and Exchange Commission;

“Securities Act” are to the Securities Act of 1933, as amended;

“Sponsor” are to SCH Sponsor II LLC, a Cayman Islands limited liability company;

“Sponsor Related PIPE Investors” are to a PIPE Investor that is an affiliate of the Sponsor (together with their permitted transferees);

“Sponsor Support Agreement” are to that certain Support Agreement, dated September 15, 2020, by and among the Sponsor, SCH, each officer and director of SCH and Opendoor, as amended and modified from time to time;

“Subscription Agreements” are to the subscription agreements pursuant to which the PIPE Investment will be consummated;

“Third-Party PIPE Investment” are to any PIPE Investment made by a Third-Party PIPE Investor;

“Third-Party PIPE Investment Amount” are to the aggregate gross purchase price received by SCH prior to or substantially concurrently with Closing for the shares in the Third-Party PIPE Investment;

“Third-Party PIPE Investor” are to any PIPE Investor who is not (i) a Sponsor Related PIPE Investor, (ii) the Sponsor, or (iii) an Opendoor PIPE Investor;

“trust account” are to the trust account established at the consummation of SCH’s initial public offering at JP Morgan Chase Bank, N.A. and maintained by Continental, acting as trustee;

“Trust Agreement” are to the Investment Management Trust Agreement, dated April 27, 2020, by and between SCH and Continental Stock Transfer & Trust Company, as trustee; and

“warrants” are to the public warrants and the private placement warrants.
Additionally, unless the context otherwise requires, references in this prospectus to the “Company,” “we,” “us” or “our” refer to the business of Opendoor, which became the business of Opendoor Technologies and its subsidiaries following the Closing.
 
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CAUTIONARY STATEMENT REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This prospectus contains statements that are forward-looking and as such are not historical facts. This includes, without limitation, statements regarding the financial position, business strategy and the plans and objectives of management for our future operations. These statements constitute projections, forecasts and forward-looking statements, and are not guarantees of performance. Such statements can be identified by the fact that they do not relate strictly to historical or current facts. When used in this prospectus, words such as “anticipate,” “believe,” “continue,” “could,” “estimate,” “expect,” “intend,” “may,” “might,” “plan,” “possible,” “potential,” “predict,” “project,” “should,” “strive,” “would” and similar expressions may identify forward-looking statements, but the absence of these words does not mean that a statement is not forward-looking.
Forward-looking statements in this prospectus and in any document incorporated by reference in this prospectus may include, for example, statements about:

our public securities’ potential liquidity and trading;

our ability to raise financing in the future;

our success in retaining or recruiting, or changes required in, our officers, key employees or directors;

the impact of the regulatory environment and complexities with compliance related to such environment;

factors relating to our business, operations and financial performance, including:

the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic;

our ability to maintain an effective system of internal controls over financial reporting;

our ability to grow market share in our existing markets or any new markets we may enter;

our ability to respond to general economic conditions;

the health of the U.S. residential real estate industry;

risks associated with our real estate assets and increased competition in the U.S. residential real estate industry;

our ability to manage our growth effectively;

our ability to achieve and maintain profitability in the future;

our ability to access sources of capital, including debt financing and securitization funding to finance our real estate inventories and other sources of capital to finance operations and growth;

our ability to maintain and enhance our products and brand, and to attract customers;

our ability to manage, develop and refine our technology platform, including our automated pricing and valuation technology;

the success of our strategic relationships with third parties; and

other factors detailed under the section entitled “Risk Factors.”
These forward-looking statements are based on information available as of the date of this prospectus and current expectations, forecasts and assumptions, and involve a number of judgments, risks and uncertainties. Accordingly, forward-looking statements should not be relied upon as representing our views as of any subsequent date, and we do not undertake any obligation to update forward-looking statements to reflect events or circumstances after the date they were made, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, except as may be required under applicable securities laws.
As a result of a number of known and unknown risks and uncertainties, our actual results or performance may be materially different from those expressed or implied by these forward-looking statements. You should not place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements.
 
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PROSPECTUS SUMMARY
This summary highlights selected information from this prospectus and may not contain all of the information that is important to you in making an investment decision. Before investing in our securities, you should carefully read this entire prospectus, including our financial statements and the related notes included in this prospectus and the information set forth under the headings “Risk Factors” and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.” See also the section entitled “Where You Can Find Additional Information.”
Unless context otherwise requires, references in this prospectus to the “Company,” “we,” “us” or “our” refer to the business of Opendoor, which became the business of Opendoor Technologies following the Closing.
Our Company
We are a leading digital platform for residential real estate. In 2014, we founded Opendoor to reinvent one of life’s most important transactions with a new, radically simple way to buy and sell a home with more convenience, control and cost savings than ever before. By leveraging software, data science, product design and operations, we have rebuilt the entire service model for real estate and have made buying and selling possible on a mobile device. We believe our digital, on demand experience will be the future of how people buy or sell a home.
Our goal is to redefine residential real estate, the largest undisrupted category in the United States. In 2019 alone, more than 5.3 million existing homes were sold, representing more than $1.6 trillion in transactions. Additionally, with 68% of Americans living in a home they own, housing is the single largest consumer expenditure in the United States, ahead of transportation, food, insurance, and healthcare. Yet, in a world with purchases increasingly migrating online, the real estate transaction has largely remained unchanged. Online penetration represents less than 1% of home transactions, based on iBuyer volumes in 2019.
We streamline the process of buying and selling a home into a seamless digital experience, eliminating uncertainty for sellers. Sellers can go to Opendoor.com, receive an offer, sign and close on the date of their choice. Buyers can simply download the Opendoor app, tour and visit homes in a few taps with self tours, shop for financing at competitive rates, and make an offer, all with just a mobile device. We have built a simple, on demand way to buy and sell a home.
Over the past five years, customers have shown their desire for our digital, on demand real estate solution. Since launch, we have bought and sold over 80,000 homes, making us one of the largest buyers and sellers of single family homes in the United States. We have achieved growth at scale, with revenue growth of over 100% in each of the last four fiscal years. In 2019, we sold almost 19,000 homes and generated $4.7 billion in revenue. In that year, more than 560,000 consumers requested an Opendoor offer on their home, averaging approximately one every minute, and our homes were visited over 1.6 million times, averaging over 4,500 visits per day.
More importantly, we have just scratched the surface and believe we are in the early stages of the digital transformation of real estate. Over the coming years, we plan on increasing our market share, launching dozens of cities, and expanding our products and services to become a digital, one-stop shop for buyers and sellers of residential real estate. Our goal is to build the largest, most trusted platform for residential real estate and empower millions of Americans with the freedom to move.
The Problem
The typical process of buying or selling a home is complex, uncertain, time consuming and primarily offline. A traditional home sale requires countless decisions, often brings unexpected costs, and takes approximately three months from start to finish. Ultimately, the consumer is left dissatisfied with a broken, stressful and disjointed experience. For the nearly 90% of sellers that list their home on the market using an agent, this is their typical experience:

Find a listing agent.   Before the seller can list, they must find a qualified agent. 75% of sellers contact only one real estate agent before listing.
 
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Prepare the home for listing.   The seller often needs to get the home “sale ready” and this preparation requires time and money. Homeowners spend an average of $6,200 to prepare their home for sale just on paint, cleaning and staging and this spend can be significantly higher if upgrades are necessary to the kitchen, flooring or bathrooms.

List the home.   A home needs to be listed for over 50 days on average before it goes into contract.

Host open houses and home visits.   During the process, the seller will host dozens of strangers walking through their home, and deal with the hassle of cleaning up and clearing out, often on short notice and during inconvenient times.

Receive an offer.   Once an offer is received, the seller has to negotiate the offer, negotiate the closing date, and deal with any contingencies the buyer may have.

Negotiate repairs or fix issues identified by buyers.   After the offer is accepted, the buyer conducts an inspection, which often forces the seller to re-negotiate the offer or fix issues, increasing the homeowner’s costs and potentially delaying closing.

Wait for closing.   Once the contract is signed, it still takes an average of 35 days to close. The seller is reliant on the home buyer and a disparate set of counterparties—such as their agent, mortgage broker and escrow officer—to coordinate and complete the closing process.

Fall-through risk.   Finally, there is a 20% chance the contract falls through between signing and closing (based on average MLS contract fall through rates in our markets in 2019), forcing the home seller to start the entire process all over again.
Additionally, approximately two-thirds of our customers who are selling a home are also home buyers. These customers face an additional set of challenges to line up their home purchase with their sale:

Contingencies.   Many Americans cannot purchase their next home until they sell their existing home. Few Americans can qualify for two mortgages and few have enough money for two down payments. These buyers often have to submit offers contingent on selling their current home, putting them at a disadvantage versus other buyers.

The “double move”.   Alternatively, homeowners can sell their current home, move into a rental, and then buy a new home, forcing them to move twice and bear those costs.
Our Solution
Opendoor is an end-to-end real estate platform enabling consumers to buy and sell a home online. Today, our product and service offerings include:

A modern way to sell.   By selling to Opendoor, homeowners can avoid the stress of open houses, home repairs, overlapping mortgages and the uncertainty that can come with listing a home on the open market. Using our mobile app and website, sellers can receive a competitive cash offer online. Post offer, we conduct a virtual interior home assessment and a contact-free exterior assessment to verify the home data information. Sellers can then select their preferred closing date and close electronically (where permitted). We also recently launched “List with Opendoor” in select markets. This broadens our product suite for potential home sellers and gives them the choice between two superior sales options.
Customers have responded positively to this modern way of selling. As a result, we achieved a real seller conversion rate of 34% in 2019. We define real sellers as homeowners who are intent on selling their home and either enter into a contract to sell their home to Opendoor or list their home on the MLS within 60 days after receiving an offer from us. At a 6% service charge, we found that almost one in two real sellers chose to sell their home to Opendoor. Even with a higher service charge of 10%, approximately 20% of real sellers still chose to sell to Opendoor. More importantly, due to our focus on delighting the customer, we have a best-in-class Net Promoter Score of 70 from our sellers.

A modern way to buy.   Opendoor has built an on-demand, seamless and digital home buying experience. Unlike the traditional process that is intermediated by agents, Opendoor home buyers can use our app or website to self-tour or virtually tour homes at their convenience, shop for financing,
 
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submit an offer and close on their timeline. In 2019, we also launched “Buy with Opendoor” in select markets, which is a seamless buying experience that taps into Opendoor’s capabilities such as cash offers, home operations, and digital, automated fulfillment for all homes listed on the market.

A modern way to move.   For customers who are both selling and buying, we have built a trade-in product that enables customers to buy and sell in a coordinated transaction, eliminating resale contingencies, double moves and double mortgages.

A digital one-stop shop.   A large number of services revolve around and are dependent on the home transaction. After we have earned our customers’ trust, we are able to introduce a range of services adjacent to the core real estate transaction in a highly convenient and integrated way, including title insurance and escrow services and Opendoor Home Loans, a tech-enabled mortgage platform for customers looking to buy or refinance a home.
Proprietary Data and Pricing Accuracy in Home Valuation
Since Opendoor’s founding, we have built world-class data science capabilities and systematized tooling to gather, aggregate and synthesize an expanding catalogue of proprietary, hyperlocal data in order to improve and automate pricing decisions. We have conducted over 150,000 home assessments during which we collect over 100 data points on each home and its surroundings. Utilizing this base of unique offline data, our algorithms use machine learning to drive pricing decisions through demand forecasting, outlier detection, risk pricing, and inventory management. Over time, we have significantly improved pricing accuracy and our number of fully automated home valuations.
Low Cost Transaction Platform
Each component of our real estate business and our customer experience has been custom built from the ground up, focused on creating a scalable and vertically-integrated transaction platform that will delight customers. We have also built world-class capabilities in pricing, home operations, fulfillment, capital markets and customer service. Instead of relying on the traditional, inefficient processes in place, we have intentionally developed our systems around technology, automation and centralization. This platform is the foundation of our lower cost structure which allows us to drive down our costs per unit as we scale and, ultimately deliver a lower cost service for customers.
We have established a network of hundreds of local service providers that use our proprietary technology to identify and complete home repairs and maintenance, which optimizes our system to reduce delays, eliminate waste and improve quality, while also capturing additional data. Lastly, due to our scale, we have also driven down the cost of materials employed in our home repair processes through volume discounts. In addition, we have designed our home inventory management processes and home access technology to ensure our homes are regularly cleaned, well-maintained and safe to enable our on-demand, self-tour experience.
Strategic Growth Priorities
Our growth strategy is to innovate and execute on the following key strategic priorities:

Increase penetration in existing markets.   Approximately 1.1 million homes were sold in our existing markets in 2019. In 2019, our resales represented approximately 1.7% of all transactions in those markets, driving $4.7 billion in revenue. In the same year, we estimate that only 6% of sellers in our markets received an offer from Opendoor and either sold their home to us or subsequently listed their home on the MLS within 60 days. We are focused on driving penetration and growing market share in our existing markets as we increase awareness and more home sellers and buyers look to transact online.

Expand to new markets. At 21 markets, we are just scratching the surface today. We believe we have a massive opportunity to expand our reach to the top 100 markets in the United States. Nearly 90% of existing homes in these markets fall into the price range of $100,000 to $750,000, which represents housing inventory that we are confident is in the addressable market for our products and services. In addition, we plan to continue to invest to double the markets we serve in 2021.
 
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Expand product and service offerings. In line with our focus on delivering a seamless experience, we are building a digital one-stop shop moving experience. In many of our markets, we already offer tech-enabled title insurance, escrow and mortgage services. We plan to add additional services over time to further simplify the transaction and delight customers, such as home insurance, home warranty, moving and storage, and home repair and maintenance.
Risk Factors
Our business is subject to numerous risks and uncertainties, including those highlighted in the section entitled “Risk Factors” immediately following this prospectus summary, that represent challenges that we face in connection with the successful implementation of our strategy and the growth of our business. In particular, the following considerations, among others, may offset our competitive strengths or have a negative effect on our business strategy, which could cause a decline in the price of shares of our common stock and result in a loss of all or a portion of your investment:

COVID-19 has adversely affected our business and may continue to adversely affect our business.

Our business and operating results may be significantly impacted by general economic conditions, the health of the U.S. residential real estate industry and risks associated with our real estate assets.

We have a history of losses, and we may not achieve or maintain profitability in the future.

We operate in a competitive and fragmented industry, which could impair our ability to attract users of our products, which could harm our business, results of operations and financial condition.

We have identified a material weakness in our internal control over financial reporting and may identify additional material weaknesses in the future or fail to maintain an effective system of internal control over financial reporting, which may result in material misstatements of our consolidated financial statements or cause us to fail to meet our periodic reporting obligations.

Our business is dependent upon access to desirable inventory. Obstacles to acquiring attractive inventory, whether because of supply, competition, or other factors may have a material adverse effect on our business, sales and results of operations.

We operate in a highly regulated industry and are subject to a wide range of federal, state and local laws, rules and regulations. Failure to comply with these laws, rules and regulations or to obtain and maintain required licenses, could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Our growth depends in part on the success of our strategic relationships with third parties.

We process, store and use personal information and other data, which subjects us to governmental regulation and other legal obligations related to privacy, and violation of these privacy obligations could result in a claim for damages, regulatory action, loss of business, or unfavorable publicity.

We utilize a significant amount of indebtedness in the operation of our business, and so our cash flows and operating results could be adversely affected by required payments of debt or related interest and other risks of our debt financing.
Accounting Treatment
The Business Combination was accounted for as a reverse recapitalization, in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“GAAP”). Under the guidance in ASC 805, Opendoor Technologies was treated as the “acquired” company for financial reporting purposes. Accordingly, the Business Combination will be treated as the equivalent of Opendoor issuing stock for the net assets of Opendoor Technologies, accompanied by a recapitalization whereby no goodwill or other intangible assets are recorded. Operations prior to the Business Combination will be those of Opendoor.
Corporate Information
SCH incorporated under the name “Social Capital Hedosophia Holdings Corp. II” on October 18, 2019 as a Cayman Islands exempted company for purposes of effecting a merger, share exchange, asset acquisition,
 
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share purchase, reorganization or similar business combination with one or more businesses. On December 18, 2020, SCH domesticated into a Delaware corporation and changed its name to “Opendoor Technologies Inc.” in connection with the Domestication.
Our principal executive office is located at 410 N. Scottsdale Road, Suite 1600, Tempe, AZ 85281. Our telephone number is 415-896-6737. Our website address is www.opendoor.com. Information contained on our website is not a part of this prospectus, and the inclusion of our website address in this prospectus is an inactive textual reference only.
Recent Developments
Preliminary estimates for year ended December 31, 2020
Our regular financial reporting closing process is currently underway, and we plan to report full-year 2020 financial results no later than March 15, 2021. We have provided below estimated ranges of certain financial metrics regarding the results for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020. These results are based on our preliminary unaudited results for such periods and are subject to revision based upon the completion of our year-end financial closing processes and other developments that may arise prior to the time our financial results are finalized. The information is derived from preliminary financial reports which are subject to change in connection with the completion of our normal closing procedures and such changes could be material. However, management believes these preliminary financial reports are reasonable. Our preliminary estimated financial results are forward-looking statements based solely on information available to us as of the date of this prospectus and our actual results may differ from these estimates. You should not place undue reliance on these estimates. The information presented herein should not be considered a substitute for the financial information to be filed with the SEC in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020 once it becomes available. Our preliminary estimated financial results contained in this prospectus have been prepared in good faith by, and are the responsibility of, management based upon internal reporting for the year ended December 31, 2020. Deloitte & Touche LLP has not audited, reviewed, compiled or performed any procedures with respect to the following preliminary estimated financial results. Accordingly, Deloitte & Touche LLP does not express an opinion or any other form of assurance with respect thereto. For additional information, see “Cautionary Statement Regarding Forward-Looking Statements” and “Risk Factors”.
Year Ended December 31,
(in thousands)
2020 (Preliminary
and unaudited)
2019
Revenue
$2,578,000 to $2,583,000
$ 4,740,583
Adjusted EBITDA(a)
$(103,000) to $(98,000)
$ (217,896)
Adjusted EBITDA margin
(4.0)% to (3.8)%
(4.6)%
a)
Adjusted EBITDA is a non-GAAP financial measure that our management uses to assess our underlying financial performance. The measure is also commonly used by investors and analysts to compare the underlying performance of companies in our industry. We believe the measure provides investors with meaningful period over period comparisons of our underlying performance, adjusted for certain charges that are non-recurring, non-cash, not directly related to our revenue-generating operations or not aligned to related revenue.
Adjusted EBITDA is a supplemental measure of our operating performance and has important limitations. For example, this measure excludes the impact of certain costs required to be recorded under GAAP. The measure also includes impairment costs that were recorded in prior periods under GAAP and excludes, in connection with homes held in inventory at the end of the period, impairment costs required to be recorded under GAAP in the same period. The measure could differ substantially from similarly titled measures presented by other companies in our industry or companies in other industries. Accordingly, this measure should not be considered in isolation or as a substitute for our results as reported under GAAP.
 
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The following table reconciles Adjusted EBITDA to our net loss, which is the most directly comparable GAAP measure, for the year ended December 31, 2019. Net loss for the year-ended December 31, 2020 cannot be estimated at this time as the financial closing process for certain components of this measure have not been completed to a degree of certainty that would permit us to present estimated ranges of outcome. We are unable to present a quantitative reconciliation of preliminary and unaudited Adjusted EBITDA for the year ended December 31, 2020 to the most directly comparable GAAP measure, net loss, without unreasonable efforts due to the inherent difficulty in forecasting and quantifying with reasonable accuracy significant items required for the reconciliation. Key items required to forecast net loss that also comprise reconciling items for estimated Adjusted EBITDA are significant and are not currently determinable until the year-end closing procedures are complete. The significant and not currently determinable key items include stock-based compensation and inventory impairment – current period. Accordingly, we are unable to provide a reconciliation of preliminary and unaudited Adjusted EBITDA for the year ended December 31, 2020 net loss without unreasonable effort, although it is important to note that such reconciling items will be material to our year-end results prepared in accordance with GAAP. As a result, the preliminary and unaudited Adjusted EBITDA for the year-ended December 31, 2020 (a non-GAAP measure) cannot be reconciled to net loss, the comparable GAAP measure.
Year Ended December 31,
(in thousands)
2019
Net loss (GAAP)
$ (339,170)
Adjustments:
Stock-Based Compensation
13,196
Derivative and warrant fair value adjustment(1)
(6,243)
Intangibles Amortization Expense(2)
2,945
Inventory impairment – Current Period(3)
10,363
Inventory impairment – Prior Periods(4)
(14,941)
Restructuring(5) 3,428
Convertible note PIK interest, amortization and derivative fair value adjustment(6)
4,102
Depreciation and amortization, excluding amortization of intangibles and right of us assets
15,043
Property Financing(8)
84,314
Other interest expense(9)
21,312
Interest Income(10)
(11,999)
Income Tax Expense
252
Other(7) (498)
Adjusted EBITDA
$ (217,896)
Adjusted EBITDA Margin
(4.6)%
(1)
Represents the unrealized gains and losses on our derivative and warrant liabilities, which are marked to fair market value at the end of each period.
(2)
Represents amortization of intangibles acquired in the OSN and Open Listings Co acquisitions which contribute to revenue generation and are recorded as part of purchase accounting. The acquired intangible assets have useful lives ranging from 2 to 5 years and amortization is expected until the intangible assets are fully amortized.
(3)
Inventory impairment – Current Period is the inventory impairment charge recorded during the period presented associated with homes that remain in inventory at period end.
(4)
Inventory impairment – Prior Periods is the inventory valuation adjustments recorded in prior periods associated with homes that sold in the period presented.
(5)
Restructuring costs consist mainly of employee termination benefits, relocation packages and retention
 
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bonuses as well as costs related to the exiting of certain non-cancelable leases. These costs related mainly to the centralization of our administrative and selling functions, including the relocation of local teams to Phoenix.
(6)
Includes non-cash payment-in-kind (“PIK”) interest, fair value adjustments, and amortization of the embedded derivative as discount on the convertible notes issued from July through November 2019. We exclude convertible note PIK interest, fair value adjustments, and amortization from Adjusted Net Loss since these are non-cash in nature and will be converted into equity.
(7)
Includes primarily gain or loss on disposal of fixed assets, gain or loss on interest rate lock commitments and gain or loss on the sale of marketable securities.
(8)
Includes interest expense on our senior revolving credit facilities and our asset-backed mezzanine term debt facilities.
(9)
Includes amortization of debt issuance costs and loan origination fees, commitment fees, unused fees, and other interest related costs on our senior revolving credit facilities and our mezzanine term debt facilities.
(10) Consists mainly of income earned on marketable securities.
 
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THE OFFERING
Common stock offered by us
28,536,888 shares.
Common stock to be outstanding immediately after this
offering
572,947,417 shares (or 577,227,950 shares if the underwriters exercise in full their option to purchase additional shares).
Option to purchase additional shares of common stock
The underwriters have an option to purchase up to an aggregate of 4,280,533 additional shares of our common stock from us at the public offering price, less underwriting discounts and commissions. The underwriters can exercise this option at any time within 30 days from the date of this prospectus.
Use of proceeds
We estimate that the net proceeds from the sale of shares of our common stock in this offering will be approximately $746.3 million (or approximately $861.9 million if the underwriters’ option to purchase additional shares of our common stock from us is exercised in full), based on the public offering price of $27.00 per share, and after deducting underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us.
We intend to use the net proceeds from this offering to invest in increasing existing market and expand into new markets, and for working capital and general corporate purposes. See the section titled “Use of Proceeds” for additional information.
Risk factors
You should read the section titled “Risk Factors” in this prospectus for a discussion of factors to consider carefully before deciding to invest in shares of our common stock.
Nasdaq Global Select Market symbol
"OPEN."
The common stock to be outstanding immediately after this offering is based on 544,410,529 shares of common stock outstanding as of September 30, 2020 on a pro forma basis after giving effect to the Business Combination, and excludes:

28,805,374 shares of common stock reserved for issuance upon the exercise of options to purchase common stock outstanding as of September 30, 2020 on a pro forma basis after giving effect to the Business Combination, having a weighted-average exercise price of $1.82;

31,802,968 shares of common stock reserved for issuance upon settlement of the restricted stock units outstanding as of September 30, 2020 on a pro forma basis after giving effect to the Business Combination;

19,933,333 shares of common stock issuable upon exercise of outstanding warrants outstanding as of September 30, 2020 on a pro forma basis after giving effect to the Business Combination at an exercise price of $11.50 per share;

43,508,048 shares of common stock reserved for future grant or issuance under our 2020 Plan; and

6,723,761 shares of common stock due to: (i) the award of RSUs to Eric Wu, Carrie Wheeler and Daniel Morillo in December 2020; (ii) the application of the treasury stock method for options; and (iii) the exercise of options and terminations of employees resulting in the forfeiture of such employee’s options since September 30, 2020.
Unless otherwise indicated, this prospectus reflects and assumes the following:

no exercise of outstanding options or warrants or settlement of unvested RSUs referred to above; and

no exercise by the underwriters of their option to purchase up to an additional 4,280,533 shares of our common stock.
 
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RISK FACTORS
An investment in our securities involves a high degree of risk. You should carefully consider the risks described below before making an investment decision. Our business, prospects, financial condition, or operating results could be harmed by any of these risks, as well as other risks not currently known to us or that we currently consider immaterial. The trading price of our securities could decline due to any of these risks, and, as a result, you may lose all or part of your investment.
In the course of conducting our business operations, we are exposed to a variety of risks. These risks are generally inherent to the U.S. residential real estate industry or otherwise generally impact iBuyers like us. Any of the risk factors we describe below have affected or could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. The market price of shares of our common stock could decline, possibly significantly or permanently, if one or more of these risks and uncertainties occurs. Certain statements in “Risk Factors” are forward-looking statements. See “Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements.”
Risks Related to Our Business and Industry
COVID-19 has adversely affected our business and may continue to adversely affect our business.
Our success depends on a high volume of residential real estate transactions throughout the markets in which we operate. This transaction volume affects all of the ways that we generate revenue, including our ability to acquire new homes and generate associated fees, our ability to sell homes that we own, the generation of commissions from our brokerage business, the number of loans our mortgage business originates and potentially resells, and the number of transactions our title and settlement business closes. The COVID-19 pandemic has significantly and adversely affected, and may continue to significantly and adversely affect, residential real estate transaction volume. For example, beginning in March 2020 through the second quarter of 2020 governmental authorities put in place limitations on in-person activities related to the sale of residential real estate. As a result, we decreased acquisitions of home inventory and decreased the volume of home inventory on our platform. We sold 9,064 homes during the nine months ended September 30, 2020, compared to 13,786 homes during the nine months ended September 30, 2019, representing a decrease of 34%, and decreased our inventory from $1,312 million as of December 31, 2019 to $152 million as of September 30, 2020. We cannot assure you of the long-term impact on the growth of our business of these responsive measures as a result of COVID-19.
We believe that COVID-19’s impact on our transaction volume depends in part on the impact of potential limitations imposed by governmental authorities on processes and procedures attendant to residential real estate transactions, such as in-home inspections and appraisals and in-person showings and county recordings, as well as COVID-19’s overall impacts on the U.S. economy. We believe that consumer spending on real estate transactions may be adversely affected by a number of macroeconomic factors related to COVID-19, including but not limited to:

increased unemployment rates and stagnant or declining wages;

decreased consumer confidence in the economy and recessionary conditions;

volatility and declines in the stock market and lower yields on individuals’ investment portfolios; and

more stringent mortgage financing conditions, including increased down payment requirements.
Our business and operating results may be significantly impacted by general economic conditions, the health of the U.S. residential real estate industry and risks associated with our real estate assets.
Our success depends, directly and indirectly, on general economic conditions, the health of the U.S. residential real estate industry, particularly the single family home resale market, and risks generally incident to the ownership of residential real estate, many of which are beyond our control. A number of factors could have a negative impact and harm our business, including the following:

downturns in the U.S. residential real estate market—both seasonal and cyclical—which may be due to one or more factors, whether included in this list or not;
 
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the continuing and future impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on buying and selling trends in the residential real estate market;

potential governmental or regulatory changes or requirements in response to the COVID-19 pandemic that may affect our business;

changes in national, regional, or local economic, demographic or real estate market conditions;

slow economic growth or recessionary or inflationary conditions;

increased levels of unemployment or declining wages;

declines in the value of residential real estate and/or the pace of home appreciation, or the lack thereof;

illiquidity in residential real estate;

overall conditions in the housing market, including macroeconomic shifts in demand, and increases in costs for homeowners such as property taxes, homeowners’ association fees and insurance costs;

low levels of consumer confidence in the economy and/or the U.S. residential real estate industry;

low home inventory levels or lack of affordably priced homes;

increased mortgage interest rates or down payment requirements and/or restrictions on mortgage financing availability;

changes in household debt levels;

volatility and general declines in the stock market;

federal, state, or local legislative or regulatory changes that would negatively impact owners or potential purchasers of single family homes or the residential real estate industry in general, such as the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017, which limited deductions of certain mortgage interest expenses and property taxes; or

natural disasters, such as hurricanes, windstorms, tornadoes, earthquakes, wildfires, floods, hailstorms and other events that disrupt local, regional, or national real estate markets.
We have a history of losses, and we may not achieve or maintain profitability in the future.
We have incurred net losses on an annual basis since we were founded. We incurred net losses of $240 million and $339 million for the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2019, respectively, and a net loss of $199 million for the nine months ended September 30, 2020. We had an accumulated loss of $790 million and $989 million as of December 31, 2019 and September 30, 2020, respectively. We expect to continue to make future investments in developing and expanding our business, including technology, recruitment and training, marketing, and pursuing strategic opportunities. These investments may not result in increased revenue or growth in our business. Additionally, we may incur significant losses in the future for a number of reasons, including:

our inability to grow market share in our existing markets or any new markets we may enter;

our expansion into new markets, for which we typically incur more significant losses immediately following entry;

increased competition in the U.S. residential real estate industry;

changes in our fee structure or rates;

our failure to realize anticipated efficiencies through our technology and business model;

costs associated with enhancements of our products;

failure to execute our growth strategies;

declines in U.S. residential real estate transaction volumes;

increased marketing costs;
 
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lack of access to housing market data that is used in our pricing models at reasonable cost;

hiring additional personnel to support our overall growth;

loss in value of real estate or potential impairments in the value of our assets due to changes in market conditions in the area in which real estate or assets are located;

increases in costs associated with holding our real estate inventories, including financing costs;

the availability of debt financing and securitization funding to finance our real estate inventories; and

unforeseen expenses, difficulties, complications and delays, and other unknown factors.
Accordingly, we may not be able to achieve or maintain profitability and we may continue to incur significant losses in the future. Moreover, as we continue to invest in our business, we expect expenses to continue to increase in the near term. These investments may not result in increased revenue or growth in our business. If we fail to manage our losses or to grow our revenue sufficiently to keep pace with our investments and other expenses, our business will be harmed. In addition, as a public company, we will also incur significant legal, accounting and other expenses that we did not incur as a private company.
Because we incur substantial costs and expenses from our growth efforts before we receive any incremental revenues with respect thereto, we may find that these efforts are more expensive than we currently anticipate or that these efforts may not result in an increase in revenues to offset these expenses, which would further increase our losses.
Our limited operating history makes it difficult to evaluate our current business and future prospects and the risk of your investment.
Our business model and technology is still nascent compared to the business models of the incumbents in the U.S. residential real estate industry. We launched our first market in 2014 and do not have a long history operating as a commercial company. Our operating results are not predictable and our historical results may not be indicative of our future results. Few peer companies exist and none have yet established long-term track records that might assist us in predicting whether our business model and strategy can be implemented and sustained over an extended period of time. It may be difficult for you to evaluate our potential future performance without the benefit of established long-term track records from companies implementing a similar business model. We may encounter unanticipated problems as we continue to refine our business model and may be forced to make significant changes to our anticipated sales and revenue models to compete with our competitors’ offerings, which may adversely affect our results of operations and profitability.
We operate in a competitive and fragmented industry, which could impair our ability to attract users of our products, which could harm our business, results of operations and financial condition.
We operate in a competitive and fragmented industry, and we expect competition to continue to increase. We believe that our ability to compete depends upon many factors both within and beyond our control, including the following:

the financial competitiveness of our products for consumers;

the volume of our customers;

the timing and market acceptance of our products, including new products offered by us or our competitors;

our selling and marketing efforts;

our customer service and support efforts;

our continued ability to develop and improve our technology to support our business model;

customer adoption of our platform as an alternative to traditional methods of buying and selling residential real estate; and

our brand strength relative to our competitors.
 
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Our business model depends on our ability to continue to attract customers to our digital platform and the products we offer, and enhance their engagement with our products in a cost-effective manner. New entrants continue to join our market categories at a rapid pace. Our existing and potential competitors include companies that operate, or could develop, national and/or local real estate businesses offering services, including real estate brokerage services, mortgage, and title insurance and escrow services, to home buyers or sellers.
Many of our competitors have well-established national reputations and may market similar products and services. Several of these companies are larger than us and have significant competitive advantages, including better name recognition, higher financial ratings, greater resources, lower cost of funds and additional access to capital, and more types of offerings than we currently do. These companies may also have higher risk tolerances or different risk assessments than we do. In addition, these competitors could devote greater financial, technical and other resources than we have available to develop, grow or improve their businesses. If we are not able to continue to attract customers to our platform and products, our business, results of operations and financial condition will be harmed.
We have experienced rapid growth since inception which may not be indicative of our future growth and, if we continue to grow rapidly, we may not be able to manage our growth effectively.
We have experienced rapid growth and demand for our products since inception. We expect that, in the future, even if our revenue increases, our rate of growth may decline. In any event, we will not be able to grow as fast or at all if we do not, among other things:

increase the number of customers using our platform;

acquire sufficient inventory at an attractive cost and quality to meet the increasing demand for our homes;

increase customer conversion;

increase our market share within existing markets and expand into new markets;

increase our brand awareness;

retain adequate availability of financing sources;

obtain necessary capital to meet our business objectives.
Furthermore, in order to preserve our market position, we may expand into new markets or launch new products or services in existing or new markets more quickly than we would if we did not operate in such a highly competitive industry. Expanding into new markets may prove to be challenging as some markets may have very different characteristics than the markets we currently operate in, some of which may be unanticipated or unknown to us. These differences may result in greater pricing inaccuracies, as well as higher capital requirements, hold times, repair costs and transaction costs that may result in those markets being less profitable for us than those that we currently operate in.
Prospective sellers and buyers of homes may choose not to transact online, which would prevent us from growing our business.
Our success depends, in part, on our ability to attract customers who have historically purchased homes through more traditional channels. The online market for homes is significantly less developed than the online market for other goods and services such as books, music, travel and other consumer products. If this market does not gain widespread acceptance, our business may suffer. Furthermore, we may have to incur significantly higher and more sustained advertising and promotional expenditures or offer more incentives than we currently anticipate in order to attract consumers to our platform and convert them into sellers or buyers. If the online market for residential real estate does not continue to develop and grow, our business will not grow and our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected.
Our business is dependent upon our ability to accurately price and portfolio manage inventory and an ineffective pricing or portfolio management strategy may have a material adverse effect on our business, sales and results of operations.
We appraise and price the homes we buy and sell using data science and proprietary algorithms based on a number of factors, including our knowledge of the real estate markets in which we operate. This assessment
 
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includes estimates on time of possession, market conditions, renovation costs and holding costs, and anticipated resale proceeds. Conversion rates and customer satisfaction may be negatively impacted if valuations are too low and/or fees are too high. Additionally, following our acquisition of a home, we may need to decrease our anticipated resale price for that home if we discover defects or other conditions requiring remediation or impacting the value of the home that were unknown to us at the time of acquisition. We may be unable to acquire or sell inventory at attractive prices or to finance and manage inventory effectively, and accordingly our revenue, gross margins and results of operations would be affected, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Property values may decline during the time between when we make an offer to purchase a home and when the closing of the purchase actually occurs and may adversely affect our business.
The time between when we make an offer to purchase a property and when we close the purchase can vary from weeks to several months, depending on the needs of our customers. In the interim period, there can be adverse impacts on the value or liquidity profile of the home. We may not be able to or wish to renegotiate or cancel a contract because doing so would negatively impact customer satisfaction and our brand, and potentially subject us to loss of our earnest money deposit or litigation. In the event the value of such homes declines significantly, we could experience losses, which in the aggregate could be detrimental to our business and results of operations.
Our business is dependent upon our ability to expeditiously sell inventory. Failure to expeditiously sell our inventory could have an adverse effect on our business, sales and results of operations. Holding homes in inventory exposes us to risks, such as increased holding costs.
Our purchases of homes are based in large part on our estimates of projected demand. If actual sales are materially less than our forecasts, we would experience an over-supply of inventory. An over-supply of home inventory will generally cause downward pressure on our sales prices and margins and increase our average days to sale. Our inventory of homes purchased has typically represented a significant portion of total assets. Having such a large portion of our total assets in the form of non-income producing homes inventory for an extended period of time subjects us to significant holding costs, including financing expenses, maintenance and upkeep expenses, insurance expenses, property tax expenses, homeowners’ association fees, other expenses that accompany the ownership of residential real property and increased risk of depreciation of value. If we have excess inventory or our average days to sale increases, the results of our operations may be adversely effected because we may be unable to liquidate such inventory at prices that allow us to meet margin targets or to recover our costs.
We have identified a material weakness in our internal control over financial reporting and may identify additional material weaknesses in the future or fail to maintain an effective system of internal control over financial reporting, which may result in material misstatements of our consolidated financial statements or cause us to fail to meet our periodic reporting obligations.
We have identified a material weakness in our internal control over financial reporting. A material weakness is a deficiency, or a combination of deficiencies, in internal control over financial reporting such that there is a reasonable possibility that a material misstatement of our annual or interim financial statements will not be prevented or detected on a timely basis. The material weakness relates to our general information technology controls, including the design and implementation of access and change management controls. Additionally, key components of the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (“COSO”) framework have not been fully implemented, including control and monitoring activities relating to: (1) electing and developing general control activities over technology to support the achievement of objectives; and (2) electing, developing, and performing ongoing and/or separate evaluations to ascertain whether the components of internal control are present and functioning.
We are in the process of engaging a third party consultant, as well as in the process of designing and implementing measures to improve our internal control over financial reporting to remediate this material weakness. While we are designing and implementing measures to remediate the material weakness, we cannot predict the success of such measures or the outcome of our assessment of these measures at this time. We can give no assurance that these measures will remediate the deficiencies in internal control or that additional
 
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material weaknesses or significant deficiencies in our internal control over financial reporting will not be identified in the future. Our failure to implement and maintain effective internal control over financial reporting could result in errors in our financial statements that may lead to a restatement of our financial statements or cause us to fail to meet our reporting obligations.
As a public company, we will be required, pursuant to Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, to furnish a report by management on, among other things, the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting for future annual reports on Form 10-K to be filed with the SEC. This assessment will need to include disclosure of any material weaknesses identified by our management in our internal control over financial reporting. Our independent registered public accounting firm will also be required to attest to the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting in future annual reports report on Form 10-K to be filed with the SEC. We will be required to disclose changes made in our internal controls and procedures on a quarterly basis. Failure to comply with the Sarbanes-Oxley Act could potentially subject us to sanctions or investigations by the SEC, the applicable stock exchange or other regulatory authorities, which would require additional financial and management resources. We have begun the process of compiling the system and processing documentation necessary to perform the evaluation needed to comply with Section 404 in the future, but we may not be able to complete our evaluation, testing and any required remediation in a timely fashion.
We experience seasonality and our operating results are likely to fluctuate on a quarterly and annual basis, and, as a result, our historical performance may not be a meaningful indicator of future performance.
We expect our revenue and results of operations to vary significantly from period to period in the future, based in part on, among other things, consumers’ home buying patterns. The residential real estate market is seasonal, with greater demand from home buyers in the spring and summer, and typically weaker demand in late fall and winter, resulting in fluctuations in the quantity, speed and price of transactions on our platform. We expect our financial results and working capital requirements to reflect seasonal variations over time, although our growth and market expansion have obscured the impact of seasonality in our historical financials to date.
In addition, our operating results are tied to certain key business metrics that have fluctuated in the past and are likely to fluctuate in the future. As a result of such variability, our historical performance, including from recent quarters or years, may not be a meaningful indicator of future performance and period-to-period comparisons also may not be meaningful.
If we do not innovate or provide customers with an efficient and seamless transaction experience, our business could be harmed.
The industry for residential real estate transaction services, technology, information marketplaces and advertising is dynamic, and the expectations and behaviors of customers and professionals shift constantly and rapidly. Our success depends on our continued innovation to provide new, and improve upon existing, products that make real estate transactions faster, easier and less stressful for our customers. As a result, we must continually invest significant resources in research and development to improve the attractiveness and comprehensiveness of our products, enable smoother and more efficient real estate transactions, adapt to changes in technology and support new devices and operating systems. Changes or additions to our products may not attract or engage our customers, and may reduce confidence in our products, negatively impact the quality of our brands, upset other industry participants, expose us to increased market or legal risks, subject us to new laws and regulations or otherwise harm our business. Furthermore, if we are unable to successfully anticipate or keep pace with industry changes and provide products that our customers want to use, on the devices they prefer, then those customers may become dissatisfied and use competitors instead. If we are unable to continue offering high-quality, innovative products, we may be unable to attract additional customers and real estate partners or retain our current customers and real estate partners, which could harm our business, results of operations and financial condition.
Our business model and growth strategy depend on our marketing efforts and ability to attract buyers and sellers to our platform in a cost-effective manner.
Our long-term success depends in part on our ability to continue to attract more buyers and sellers to our platform in each of our markets. We believe that an important component of our growth will be the growth of
 
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potential customers to our website. Our marketing efforts may not succeed for a variety of reasons, including changes to search engine algorithms, ineffective campaigns across marketing channels, and limited experience in certain marketing channels like television. External factors beyond our control may also affect the success of our marketing initiatives, such as filtering of our targeted communications by email servers, buyers and sellers failing to respond to our marketing initiatives, and competition from third parties. Any of these factors could reduce the number of customers coming to our platform.
Our business model relies on our ability to scale rapidly and to decrease incremental customer acquisition costs as we grow. If we are unable to recover our marketing costs through increases in customer traffic and in the number of transactions by users of our platform, or if our broad marketing campaigns are not successful or are terminated, it could have a material adverse effect on our growth, results of operations and financial condition.
Our business depends on a strong brand, and if we are not able to maintain and enhance our brand, our ability to expand our customer base will be impaired.
We believe that the brand identity that we have developed has significantly contributed to the success of our business and maintaining and enhancing the “Opendoor” brand is critical to expanding our customer base and current and future partners. If we fail to promote and maintain the “Opendoor” brand, or if we incur excessive expenses in this effort, our business, operating results and financial condition could be adversely affected.
Our decision to expand existing product and service offerings into new markets or to launch new product or service offerings may consume significant financial and other resources and may not achieve the desired results.
We regularly evaluate expanding our products into new markets or launching new product offerings in existing or new markets. Any expansion or new offering requires significant expenses and the time of our key personnel, particularly at the outset of the process. We typically experience increased losses in new markets as we adjust to competitive environments with which we are unfamiliar and invest to build our brand presence within those markets. Our plans to expand and deepen our market share in our existing markets and possibly expand into additional markets is subject to a variety of risks and challenges. These risks and challenges include the varying economic and demographic conditions of each market, competition from local and regional residential brokerage firms, variations in transaction dynamics, and pricing pressures. We cannot assure you that we will be able to increase revenues and create business model efficiencies in new markets in the manner we have in our more mature existing markets.
Housing markets and housing stock in different areas can vary widely and certain markets may be more adaptable to our current business model than others. As we continue to expand, we may launch our product in markets that prove to be more challenging for our business model. As we expand from markets with a relatively new and homogeneous housing stock to markets with older and more diverse housing stock, we will have to adapt our business and operations to local conditions. The valuation technologies and systems that we currently use may not be as effective at accurately valuing homes in markets with older and more diverse housing stock. In addition, homes that we purchase in markets with relatively older housing stock may require more capital expenditures on improvements and repairs. We may also expand into markets with higher average home prices and fewer available homes within our target price range. If we are unable to adapt to these new markets and scale effectively, our business and results of operations may be adversely affected.
New markets and new product offerings may also subject us to new regulatory environments, which could increase our costs as we evaluate compliance with the new regulatory regime. Notwithstanding the expenses and time devoted to expanding an existing product offering into a new market or launching a new product offering, we may fail to achieve the financial and market share goals associated with the expansion.
If we cannot manage our expansion efforts efficiently, our market share gains could take longer than planned and our related costs could exceed our expectations. In addition, we could incur significant costs to seek to expand our market share, and still not succeed in attracting sufficient customers to offset such costs.
A significant portion of our costs and expenses are fixed, and we may not be able to adapt our cost structure to offset declines in our revenue.
A significant portion of our expenses are fixed and do not vary proportionately with fluctuations in revenues. We need to maintain and continue to increase our transaction volumes to benefit from operating
 
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efficiencies. When we operate at less than expected capacity, fixed costs are inflated and represent a larger percentage of overall cost basis and percentage of revenue. Certain services we use, subscriptions and fees have fixed costs and are necessary for operation of the business. The other portion of fixed costs are necessary in order to invest in future growth. Given the early stage of our business, we cannot assure you that we will be able to rationalize our fixed costs.
Our growth depends in part on the success of our strategic relationships with third parties.
In order to grow our business, we anticipate that we will continue to depend on relationships with third parties, such as settlement service providers, lenders, real estate agents, valuation companies, vendors we use to service and repair our homes, third party partners we rely on for referrals, such as homebuilders and online real estate websites or institutional buyers of our inventory, such as single family rental REITs. Identifying partners, and negotiating and documenting agreements with them, and establishing and maintaining good relationships requires significant time and resources.
In addition, we rely on our relationships with multiple-listing services providers (MLS) in all our markets both as key data sources for our pricing and for listing our inventory for resale. Many of our competitors and other real estate websites have similar access to MLSs and listing data and may be able to source real estate information faster or more efficiently than we can. If we lose existing relationships with MLSs and other listing providers, whether due to termination of agreements or otherwise, changes to our rights to use or timely access listing data, an inability to continue to add new listing providers or changes to the way real estate information is shared, our ability to price or list our inventory for resale could be impaired and our operating results may suffer.
If we are unsuccessful in establishing or maintaining successful relationships with third parties, our ability to compete in the marketplace or to grow our revenues could be impaired and our operating results may suffer. Even if we are successful, we cannot assure you that these relationships will result in increased customer usage of our product or increased revenues.
We rely on information supplied by prospective sellers in pricing homes and use technology to conduct physical inspections remotely.
We make offers based on our review of offer requests completed by the prospective seller. While we may seek to confirm or build on information provided in such an offer request through our own due diligence, we rely on the information supplied to us by prospective sellers to make offer decisions, and we cannot be certain that this information is accurate. If owner-supplied information is inaccurate, we may make poor or imperfect pricing decisions and our portfolio may contain more risk than we believe. We are also experimenting with conducting our pre-closing visual inspections of homes remotely through videos submitted to us by the sellers and this shift has been accelerated by health concerns associated with COVID-19, and this change may become permanent. It is possible that these video inspections may not be effective in identifying undisclosed issues, conditions or defects that an in-person inspection might otherwise reveal, which could result in us incurring unforeseen costs during the resale process.
Declining real estate valuations and impairment charges could result in recording impairment charges and may also adversely affect our financial condition and operating results.
There are risks inherent in owning properties and inventory risks are substantial for our business. Home prices can be volatile and the values of our inventory may fluctuate significantly and we may incur impairment charges due to changes in market conditions and/or economic sentiment. We periodically review the value of our properties to determine whether their value, based on market factors and generally accepted accounting principles, has permanently decreased such that it is necessary or appropriate to take an impairment loss in the relevant accounting period. Such a loss would cause an immediate reduction of net income in the applicable accounting period and would be reflected in a decrease in our balance sheet assets. Even if we do not determine that it is necessary or appropriate to record an impairment loss, a reduction in the intrinsic value of a property would become manifest over time through reduced income from the property and would therefore affect our earnings and financial condition.
 
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Our business is concentrated in certain geographic markets. Exposure to local economies, regional downturns or severe weather or catastrophic occurrences or other disruptions or events may materially adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.
Today, we are in 21 markets across the United States. For the nine months ended September 30, 2020, approximately 47% of our revenue was generated from our top four markets by revenue, which consisted of the metropolitan areas of Phoenix, Dallas, Atlanta and Raleigh. As a result of this concentration, local and regional conditions in these markets, including those arising from COVID-19’s impacts may differ significantly from prevailing conditions in the United States or other parts of the country. Any unforeseen events or circumstances that negatively affect these areas could materially adversely affect our revenues and profitability. These risks include, without limitation: possible declines in the value of real estate; risks related to general and local economic conditions; demographic and population shifts and migration; possible lack of availability of mortgage funds; overbuilding; extended vacancies of properties; increases in competition, property taxes and operating expenses; changes in zoning laws; increased labor costs; unemployment; costs resulting from the clean-up of, and liability to third parties for damages resulting from, environmental problems; casualty or condemnation losses; and uninsured damages from floods, hurricanes, earthquakes or other natural disasters.
In addition, our top markets are primarily larger metropolitan areas, where home prices and transaction volumes are generally higher than other markets in the United States. To the extent people migrate outside of these markets due to lower home prices or other factors, and this migration continues to take place over the long-term, then the relative percentage of residential housing transactions may shift away from our historical top markets where we have generated most of our revenue. If we are unable to effectively adapt to any shift, including failing to increase revenue from other markets, then our financial performance may be harmed.
Our business is dependent upon access to desirable inventory. Obstacles to acquiring attractive inventory, whether because of supply, competition, or other factors may have a material adverse effect on our business, sales and results of operations.
We primarily acquire homes directly from consumers and there can be no assurance of an adequate supply of such homes on terms that are attractive to us. There can be no assurance that the supply of desirable homes will be sufficient to meet our needs. A reduction in the availability of or access to inventory could have a material adverse effect on our business, sales and results of operations. Additionally, we evaluate thousands of potential homes daily using our proprietary pricing model. If we fail to adjust our pricing to stay in line with broader market trends, or fail to recognize those trends, it could adversely affect our ability to acquire inventory. We remain dependent on customers to sell us homes.
Our ongoing ability to acquire homes is critical to our business model. A lack of available homes that meet our purchase criteria may affect our ability to scale. Reductions in our acquisitions of homes may have adverse effects on our ability to reach our desired inventory levels, our desired portfolio diversification, and our results of operations. In response to the COVID-19 pandemic and the consequent health risks, we ceased purchasing additional homes in March 2020 to safeguard the health and safety of our customers and employees. We continued to sell down inventory at a healthy pace, leading to inventory of $152 million as of September 30, 2020 compared to inventory of $1,312 million as of December 31, 2019. As our revenues are dependent on inventory levels available for sale, we expect our near-term revenues to be impacted due to limited inventory. We resumed operations across all of our markets by the end of August 2020, but there are no assurances that we will be able to return to pre-COVID-19 inventory levels in the short term.
Increases in transaction costs to acquire properties, including costs of evaluating homes and making offers, title insurance and escrow service costs, changes in transfer taxes, and any other new or increased acquisition costs, would have an adverse impact on our home acquisitions and our business.
Reductions in the availability of mortgage financing provided by government agencies, changes in government financing programs, or an increase in mortgage interest rates could decrease our buyers’ ability or desire to obtain financing and adversely affect our business or financial results.
The secondary market for mortgage loans continues to primarily desire securities backed by Fannie Mae, Freddie Mac or Ginnie Mae, and we believe the liquidity these agencies provide to the mortgage industry is important to the housing market. Any significant change regarding the long-term structure and viability of
 
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Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac could result in adjustments to the size of their loan portfolios and to guidelines for their loan products. Additionally, a reduction in the availability of financing provided by these institutions could adversely affect interest rates, mortgage availability and sales of new homes and mortgage loans.
Mortgage interest rates are currently low as compared to most historical periods. However, they could increase in the future, particularly if the Federal Reserve Board raises its benchmark rate. When interest rates increase, the cost of owning a home increases, which will likely reduce the number of potential home buyers who can obtain mortgage financing and could result in a decline in the demand for our homes.
Increases in the rate of cancellations of home sale agreements could have an adverse effect on our business.
In some cases, a home buyer may cancel the agreement of sale and receive a complete or partial refund of the deposit for reasons such as state and local laws, the home buyer’s inability to obtain mortgage financing, their inability to sell their current home or our inability to complete the sale of the home within the specified time. If there is a downturn in the housing market, or if mortgage financing becomes less available than it currently is, more home buyers may cancel their agreements of sale with us, which would have an adverse effect on our business and results of operations.
We rely on third parties to renovate and repair homes before we resell the homes, and the cost or availability of third-party labor could adversely affect our holding period and investment return for homes.
We frequently need to renovate or repair homes prior to listing for resale. We rely on third-party contractors and sub-contractors to undertake these renovations and repairs. These third-party providers may not be able to complete the required renovations or repairs within our expected timeline or proposed budget. Furthermore, if the quality of a third-party provider’s work does not meet our expectations, then we may need to engage another third-party contractor or subcontractor, which may also adversely affect the timeline or budget for completing renovations or repairs.
A longer than expected period for completing renovations or repairs could negatively impact our ability to sell a home within our anticipated timeline. This prolonged timing exposes us to factors that adversely affect the home’s resale value and may result in selling the home for a lower price than anticipated or not being able to sell the home at all. Meanwhile, incurring more than budgeted costs would adversely affect our investment return on purchased homes. Additionally, any undetected issues with a third-party provider’s work may adversely affect our reputation as a home seller.
There are risks related to our ownership of vacant homes and the listing of those homes for resale that are not possible to fully eliminate.
The homes in our inventory generally are not occupied during the time we own them prior to resale. When a home is listed for resale, prospective buyers or their agents typically can access our homes through our proprietary technology without the need for an appointment or one of our representatives being present. In certain circumstances, we also allow sellers to continue to occupy a home after we have purchased the home for a short period of time. Having visitors or short-term occupants in our homes entails risks of damage to the homes, personal injury, unauthorized activities on the properties, theft, rental scams, squatters and trespasser and other situations that may have adverse impacts on us or the homes, including potential adverse reputational impacts. Additionally, all of these circumstances may involve significant costs to resolve that may not be fully covered by insurance, including legal costs associated with removing unauthorized visitors and occupants and additional holding and repair costs. If these increased costs are significant across our homes inventory, both in terms of costs per home and numbers of homes impacted, this could have an adverse impact on our results of operations that is material.
OS National LLC (“OSN”) could be subject to liability for errors in its issuance of title insurance policies on behalf of third parties.
In its position as a licensed title agent, OSN is responsible for ensuring that each title insurance policy it issues is underwritten in accordance with the guidelines prescribed by the title insurance underwriters it acts as agent for. OSN’s relationship with each title insurance underwriter is governed by an agency agreement defining how it issues title insurance policies on their behalf. The agency agreement also sets forth OSN’s
 
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liability to the underwriter for policy losses attributable to OSN’s errors. In the event that OSN’s processes, controls and procedures are not effective at preventing such errors and this results in significant claims under title insurance policies issued by OSN, this could result in material liabilities not covered by insurance, which could adversely affect our business and results of operations.
Our mortgage lending business could fail to achieve expected results and could cause harm to our financial results, operations, and reputation.
We operate our mortgage lending business through our wholly owned subsidiary Opendoor Home Loans LLC (“Opendoor Home Loans”). Opendoor Home Loans funds substantially all of its lending operations using warehouse and repurchase facilities, with the intention to sell all loans and corresponding servicing rights to third-party financial institutions after a holding period. Its borrowings are in turn generally repaid with the proceeds it receives from mortgage loan sales. To grow its mortgage business, Opendoor Home Loans depends, in part, on having sufficient borrowing capacity under its current facilities or obtaining additional borrowing capacity under new facilities. If Opendoor Home Loans is not able to maintain debt financing with sufficient capacity or flexibility and does not have sufficient cash on hand, it would not be able to fund new loans and its business would suffer. If Opendoor Home Loans is unable to form or retain relationships with third-party financial institutions to purchase its loans or to comply with any covenants in its agreements with these institutions, it may be unable to sell its loans on favorable terms or at all. If Opendoor Home Loans is unable to sell its loans or is required to repurchase the loans from third parties, it may be required to hold the loans for investment or sell them at a discount. All of the foregoing could cause harm to our financial results, operations, and reputation.
We may acquire other businesses which could require significant management attention, disrupt our business, dilute stockholder value and adversely affect our operating results.
As part of our business strategy, we may make investments in or acquire complementary companies, products or technologies. We may not realize benefits from any acquisition that we may make in the future. If we fail to integrate successfully such acquisitions, or the businesses and technologies associated with such acquisitions, into our company, the revenue and operating results of our company could be adversely affected. Any integration process will require significant time and resources, and we may not be able to manage the process successfully. We may not successfully evaluate or utilize the acquired business or technology and accurately forecast the financial impact of an acquisition transaction, including accounting charges. We may have to pay cash, incur debt or issue equity securities to pay for any such acquisition, each of which could affect our financial condition or the value of our capital stock. The sale of equity or issuance to finance any such acquisitions could result in dilution to our stockholders. The incurrence of indebtedness in connection with an acquisition would result in increased fixed obligations and could also include covenants or other restrictions that may impede our ability to manage our operations.
The loss of one or more of our key personnel, or our failure to attract and retain other highly qualified personnel in the future, could harm our business.
Our success depends upon the continued service of our senior management team and successful transitions when management team members pursue other opportunities. In addition, our business depends on our ability to continue to attract, motivate and retain a large number of skilled employees across all of our product lines. Furthermore, much of our key technology and processes are custom-made for our business by our personnel. The loss of key personnel, including key members of management, as well as our engineering, product development, home operations, marketing, sales and support, finance and legal personnel could materially and adversely affect our ability to build on the efforts they have undertaken and to execute our business plan, and we may not be able to find adequate replacements. We undertook a workforce restructuring and realignment, resulting in a reduction in force of approximately 35% of our workforce in 2020, which may result in potential employees being concerned to work for us. If we do not succeed in attracting well-qualified employees or retaining and motivating existing employees in a cost-effective manner, our business could be harmed.
 
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A health and safety incident relating to our operations could be costly in terms of potential liability and reputational damage.
Customers will visit homes on a regular basis through our mobile application or with a real estate agent. Due to the number of homes we own, the safety of our homes is critical to the success of our business. A failure to keep our homes safe that results in a major or significant health and safety incident could expose us to liability that could be costly. Such an incident could generate significant negative publicity and have a corresponding impact on our reputation, our relationships with relevant regulatory agencies or governmental authorities, and our ability to attract customers and employees, which in turn could have a material adverse effect on our financial results and liquidity.
Environmentally hazardous conditions may adversely affect us.
Under various federal, state and local environmental laws, a current or previous owner or operator of real property may be liable for the cost of removing or remediating hazardous or toxic substances on such property. Such laws often impose liability whether or not the owner or operator knew of, or was responsible for, the presence of such hazardous or toxic substances. Even if more than one person may have been responsible for the contamination, each person covered by applicable environmental laws may be held responsible for all of the clean-up costs incurred. In addition, third parties may sue the owner or operator of a site for damages based on personal injury, natural resources or property damage or other costs, including investigation and clean-up costs, resulting from the environmental contamination. The presence of hazardous or toxic substances on one of our properties, or the failure to properly remediate a contaminated property, could give rise to a lien in favor of the government for costs it may incur to address the contamination or otherwise adversely affect our ability to sell the property. Environmental laws also may impose restrictions on the manner in which property may be used or businesses may be operated. A property owner who violates environmental laws may be subject to sanctions which may be enforced by governmental agencies or, in certain circumstances, private parties. In connection with the acquisition and ownership of our properties, we may be exposed to such costs. The cost of defending against environmental claims, of compliance with environmental regulatory requirements or of remediating any contaminated property could materially and adversely affect us.
Compliance with new or more stringent environmental laws or regulations or stricter interpretation of existing laws may require material expenditures by us. We may be subject to environmental laws or regulations relating to our properties, such as those concerning lead-based paint, mold, asbestos, radon, pesticides, proximity to power lines or other issues. We cannot assure you that future laws, ordinances or regulations will not impose any material environmental liability or that the current environmental condition of our properties will not be affected by existing conditions of the land, operations in the vicinity of the properties or the activities of unrelated third parties. In addition, we may be required to comply with various local, state and federal fire, health, life-safety and similar regulations. Failure to comply with applicable laws and regulations could result in fines and/or damages, suspension of personnel, civil liability or other sanctions.
Some of our potential losses may not be covered by insurance. We may not be able to obtain or maintain adequate insurance coverage.
We maintain insurance to cover costs and losses from certain risk exposures in the ordinary course of our operations, but our insurance may not cover 100% of the costs and losses from all events. We are responsible for certain retentions and deductibles that vary by policy, and we may suffer losses that exceed our insurance coverage limits by a material amount. We may also incur costs or suffer losses arising from events against which we have no insurance coverage. In addition, large-scale market trends or the occurrence of adverse events in our business may raise our cost of procuring insurance or limit the amount or type of insurance we are able to secure. We may not be able to maintain our current coverage, or obtain new coverage in the future; on commercially reasonable terms or at all. Incurring uninsured or underinsured costs or losses could harm our business.
Risks Related to Our Intellectual Property and Technology
Any significant disruption in service in our computer systems and third-party networks and mobile infrastructure that we depend on could result in a loss of customers and we may be unable to maintain and scale the technology underlying our offerings.
Customers and potential customers access our products primarily through our website and mobile applications. Our ability to attract, retain and serve customers depends on the reliable performance and
 
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availability of our website, mobile application, and technology infrastructure. Furthermore, we depend on the reliable performance of third-party networks and mobile infrastructure to provide our technology offerings to our customers and potential customers. The proper operation of these networks and infrastructure is beyond our control, and service interruptions or website unavailability could impact our ability to service our customers in a timely manner, and may have an adverse effect on existing and potential customer relationships.
Our information systems and technology may not be able to continue to accommodate our growth and may be subject to security risks. The cost of maintaining such systems may increase. Such a failure to accommodate growth, or an increase in costs related to such information systems, could have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations and could result in a loss of customers.
We process, store and use personal information and other data, which subjects us to governmental regulation and other legal obligations related to privacy, and violation of these privacy obligations could result in a claim for damages, regulatory action, loss of business, or unfavorable publicity.
We receive, store and process personal information and other customer information, or personal information. There are numerous federal and state laws, as well as regulations and industry guidelines, regarding privacy and the storing, use, processing, and disclosure and protection of personal information, the scope of which are changing, subject to differing interpretations, and may be inconsistent among countries or conflict with other rules. Additionally, laws, regulations, and standards covering marketing and advertising activities conducted by telephone, email, mobile devices, and the internet, may be applicable to our business, such as the Telephone Consumer Protection Act, or the TCPA, (as implemented by the Telemarketing Sales Rule), the CAN-SPAM Act, and similar state consumer protection laws. We generally seek to comply with industry standards and are subject to the terms of our own privacy policies and privacy-related obligations to third parties. We strive to comply with all applicable laws, policies, legal obligations and industry codes of conduct relating to privacy and data protection to the extent possible. However, it is possible that these obligations may be interpreted and applied in a manner that is inconsistent from one jurisdiction to another and may conflict with other rules or regulations, making enforcement, and thus compliance requirements, ambiguous, uncertain, and potentially inconsistent. Any failure or perceived failure by us to comply with our privacy policies, privacy-related obligations to customers or other third parties, or our privacy-related legal obligations, or any compromise of security that results in the unauthorized access to or unintended release of personally identifiable information or other customer data, may result in governmental enforcement actions, litigation, or public statements against us by consumer advocacy groups or others. Any of these events could cause us to incur significant costs in investigating and defending such claims and, if found liable, pay significant damages. Further, these proceedings and any subsequent adverse outcomes may cause our customers to lose trust in us, which could have an adverse effect on our reputation and business.
Any significant change to applicable laws, regulations or industry practices regarding the use or disclosure of personal information, or regarding the manner in which the express or implied consent of customers for the use and disclosure of personal information is obtained, could require us to modify our products and features, possibly in a material manner and subject to increased compliance costs, which may limit our ability to develop new products and features that make use of the personal information that our customers voluntarily share. For example, the California Consumer Privacy Act (the “CCPA”), which took effect on January 1, 2020, imposes obligations and restrictions on companies regarding their collection, use, and sharing of personal information and provides new and enhanced data privacy rights to California residents. The CCPA imposes a severe statutory damages framework. Several other states are actively considering privacy laws, which may impose substantial penalties for violations, impose significant costs for investigations and compliance, allow private class-action litigation and carry significant potential liability for our business.
Any of the foregoing could materially adversely affect our brand, reputation, business, results of operations, and financial condition.
Failure to protect our trade secrets, know-how, proprietary applications, business processes and other proprietary information, could adversely affect the value of our technology and products.
Our success and ability to compete depends in part on our intellectual property and our other proprietary business information. We seek to control access to our proprietary information by entering into a combination of confidentiality and proprietary rights agreements, invention assignment agreements and nondisclosure
 
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agreements with our employees, consultants and third parties with whom we have relationships. We have filed trademark and patent applications to protect certain aspects of our intellectual property. However, we cannot guarantee that patents will issue on our pending patent applications or that we will be successful in registering our trademarks. We may be unable to secure intellectual property protection for all of our technology and methodologies, or the steps we take to enforce our intellectual property rights may be inadequate. Furthermore, third parties may knowingly or unknowingly infringe our proprietary rights, third parties may challenge proprietary rights held by us, and we may not be able to prevent infringement or misappropriation of our proprietary rights without incurring substantial expense. If our intellectual property rights are used or misappropriated by third parties, the value of our brand and other intangible assets may be diminished and competitors may be able to more effectively mimic our products and methods of operations. Any of these events would have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
In the future we may be party to intellectual property rights claims and other litigation which are expensive to support, and if resolved adversely, could have a significant impact on us.
Our success depends in part on us not infringing upon the intellectual property of others. Our competitors and other third parties may own or claim to own intellectual property relating to the real estate industry. In the future, third parties may claim that we are infringing on their intellectual property rights, and we may be found to be infringing such rights. Any claims or litigation could cause us to incur significant expenses. If such claims are successfully asserted against us, it would require additional damages or ongoing licensing payments, prevent us from offering our services or require us to comply with unfavorable terms. Even if we were to prevail, the time and resources necessary to resolve such disputes could costly, time-consuming, and divert the attention of management and key personnel from our business operations. We have been previously subject to trademark infringement claims. These claims allege, among other things, that aspects of our trademarks infringe upon the plaintiffs’ trademarks. If we are not successful in defending ourselves against these claims, we may be required to pay damages and may be subject to injunctions, each of which could harm our business, results of operations, financial condition and reputation.
Our services utilize third-party open source software components, which may pose particular risks to our proprietary software, technologies, products and services in a manner that could negatively affect our business.
We use open source software in our services and will continue to use open source software in the future. Use and distribution of open source software may entail greater risks than use of third-party commercial software, as open source licensors generally do not provide support, warranties, indemnification or other contractual protections regarding infringement claims or the quality of the code. To the extent that our services depend upon the successful operation of open source software, any undetected errors or defects in this open source software could prevent the deployment or impair the functionality of our platform, delay new solutions introductions, result in a failure of our platform, and injure our reputation.
Some open source licenses contain requirements that we make available source code for modifications or derivative works we create based upon the type of open source software we use, or grant other licenses to our intellectual property. If we combine our proprietary software with open source software in a certain manner, we could, under certain open source licenses, be required to release or license the source code of our proprietary software to the public. From time to time, we may be subject to claims claiming ownership of, or demanding release of, the source code, the open source software and/or derivative works that were developed using such software, requiring us to provide attributions of any open source software incorporated into our distributed software, or otherwise seeking to enforce the terms of the applicable open source license. These claims could also result in litigation, require us to purchase a costly license or require us to devote additional research and development resources to re-engineer our software or change our products or services, any of which would have a negative effect on our business and results of operations.
We rely on licenses to use the intellectual property rights of third parties which are incorporated into our products and services. Failure to renew or expand existing licenses may require us to modify, limit or discontinue certain offerings, which could materially affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We rely on products, technologies and intellectual property that we license from third parties for use in our services. We cannot assure that these third-party licenses, or support for such licensed products and
 
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technologies, will continue to be available to us on commercially reasonable terms, if at all. In the event that we cannot renew and/or expand existing licenses, we may be required to discontinue or limit our use of the products that include or incorporate the licensed intellectual property.
We cannot be certain that our licensors are not infringing the intellectual property rights of others or that our suppliers and licensors have sufficient rights to the technology in all jurisdictions in which we may operate. Some of our license agreements may be terminated by our licensors for convenience. If we are unable to obtain or maintain rights to any of this technology because of intellectual property infringement claims brought by third parties against our suppliers and licensors or against us, or if we are unable to continue to obtain the technology or enter into new agreements on commercially reasonable terms, our ability to develop our services containing that technology could be severely limited and our business could be harmed. Additionally, if we are unable to obtain necessary technology from third parties, we may be forced to acquire or develop alternate technology, which may require significant time and effort and may be of lower quality or performance standards. This would limit and delay our ability to provide new or competitive offerings and increase our costs. If alternate technology cannot be obtained or developed, we may not be able to offer certain functionality as part of our offerings, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our software is highly complex and may contain undetected errors.
The software and code underlying our platform is highly interconnected and complex and may contain undetected errors, malicious code or vulnerabilities, some of which may only be discovered after the code has been released. We release or update software code regularly and this practice may result in the more frequent introduction of errors or vulnerabilities into the software underlying our platform, which can impact the customer experience on our platform. Additionally, due to the interconnected nature of the software underlying our platform, updates to certain parts of our code, including changes to our mobile app or website or third party application programming interfaces on which our mobile app or website rely, could have an unintended impact on other sections of our code, which may result in errors or vulnerabilities to our platform. Any errors or vulnerabilities discovered in our code after release could result in damage to our reputation, loss of our customers, loss of revenue or liability for damages, any of which could adversely affect our growth prospects and our business.
Furthermore, our development and testing processes may not detect errors and vulnerabilities in our technology offerings prior to their implementation. Any inefficiencies, errors, technical problems or vulnerabilities arising in our technology offerings after their release could reduce the quality of our products or interfere with our customers’ access to and use of our technology and offerings.
Risks Related to Regulatory Compliance and Legal Matters
We operate in a highly regulated industry and are subject to a wide range of federal, state and local laws, rules and regulations. Failure to comply with these laws, rules and regulations or to obtain and maintain required licenses, could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We operate in highly regulated businesses through a number of different channels across the United States. As a result, we are currently subject to a variety of, and may in the future become subject to additional, federal, state and local statutes and regulations in various jurisdictions (as well as judicial and administrative decisions and state common law), which are subject to change at any time, including laws regarding the real estate and mortgage industries, settlement services, insurance, mobile and internet based businesses and other businesses that rely on advertising, as well as data privacy and consumer protection laws, and employment laws. These laws are complex and sometimes ambiguous, and can be costly to comply with, require significant management time and effort, require a substantial investment in technology, and subject us to claims, government enforcement actions, civil and criminal liability or other remedies, including suspension of business operations.
We also originate mortgage loans, buy and sell homes, provide real estate brokerage services, title insurance and settlement services, and provide other product offerings, which results in us receiving or facilitating transmission of personally identifiable information. This information is increasingly subject to legislation and regulation in the United States. These laws and regulations are generally intended to protect
 
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the privacy and security of personal information, including borrower Social Security Numbers and credit card information that is collected, processed and transmitted. These laws also can restrict our use of this personal information for other commercial purposes. We could be adversely affected if government regulations require us to significantly change our business practices with respect to this type of information, if penetration of network security or misuse of personal information occurs, or if the third parties that we engage with to provide processing and screening services violate applicable laws and regulations, misuse information, or experience network security breaches.
In order to provide the broad range of products and services that we offer customers, certain of our subsidiaries maintain real estate brokerage services, title insurance and escrow, property and casualty insurance, and mortgage licenses in certain states in which we operate. These entities are subject to stringent state and federal laws and regulations and to the scrutiny of state and federal government agencies as licensed businesses.
Mortgage products are regulated at the state level by licensing authorities and administrative agencies, with additional oversight from the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau and other federal agencies. These laws generally regulate the manner in which lending and lending-related activities are marketed or made available to consumers, including, but not limited to, advertising, finding and qualifying applicants, the provision of consumer disclosures, payments for services, and record keeping requirements; these laws include, at the federal level, the Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act, the Fair Credit Reporting Act (as amended by the Fair and Accurate Credit Transactions Act), the Truth in Lending Act (including the Home Ownership and Equity Protection Act of 1994), the Equal Credit Opportunity Act, the Fair Housing Act, the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act, the Electronic Fund Transfer Act, the Servicemembers Civil Relief Act, the Military Lending Act, the Homeowners Protection Act, the Home Mortgage Disclosure Act, the Secure and Fair Enforcement for Mortgage Licensing Act of 2008, the Federal Trade Commission Act, the Dodd Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act of 2010, the Bank Secrecy Act (including the Office of Foreign Assets Control and the Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act), the Telephone Consumer Protection Act, the Mortgage Acts and Practices Advertising Rule (Regulation N), the Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act, all implementing regulations, and various other federal laws. The Consumer Financial Protection Bureau also has broad authority to enforce prohibitions on practices that it deems to be unfair, deceptive or abusive. Additionally, state and local laws may restrict the amount and nature of interest and fees that may be charged by a lender or mortgage broker, impose more stringent privacy requirements and protections for servicemembers, and/or otherwise regulate the manner in which lenders or mortgage brokers operate or advertise.
As a buyer and seller of residential real estate through our business, we hold real estate brokerage licenses in multiple states and may apply for additional real estate brokerage licenses as our business grows. To maintain these licenses, we must comply with the requirements governing the licensing and conduct of real estate brokerage services and brokerage-related businesses in the markets where we operate. We may be subject to additional local, state and federal laws and regulations governing residential real estate transactions, including those administered by the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, and the states and municipalities in which we transact. Further, due to the geographic scope of our operations and the nature of the products and services we provide, certain of our other subsidiaries maintain real estate brokerage, property and casualty, and title insurance and escrow licenses in certain states in which we operate. Each of these licenses subjects our subsidiaries to different federal, state, and local laws and the scrutiny of different licensing authorities, including state insurance departments. Each subsidiary must comply with different licensing statutes and regulations, as well as varied laws that govern the offering of compliant products and services.
For certain licenses, we are required to designate individual licensed brokers of record, qualified individuals and control persons. Certain licensed entities also are subject to routine examination and monitoring by the federal Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (for mortgage) and/or state licensing authorities. We cannot assure you that we, or our licensed personnel, are and will remain at all times, in full compliance with state and federal real estate, title insurance and escrow, property and casualty insurance, and mortgage licensing and consumer protection laws and regulations, and we may be subject to litigation, government investigations and enforcement actions, fines or other penalties in the event of any non-compliance. As a result of findings from examinations, we also may be required to take a number of corrective actions, including modifying business practices and making refunds of fees or money earned. In
 
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addition, adverse findings in one state may be relied on by another state to conduct investigations and impose remedies. If we apply for new licenses, we will become subject to additional licensing requirements, which we may not be in compliance with at all times. If in the future a state agency were to determine that we are required to obtain additional licenses in that state in order to operate our business, or if we lose or do not renew an existing license or are otherwise found to be in violation of a law or regulation, we may be subject to fines or legal penalties, lawsuits, enforcement actions, void contracts, or our business operations in that state may be suspended or prohibited. Our business reputation with consumers and third parties also could be damaged. Compliance with, and monitoring of, these laws and regulations is complicated and costly and may inhibit our ability to innovate or grow.
If we are unable to comply with these laws or regulations in a cost-effective manner, it may require us to modify certain products and services, which could require a substantial investment and result in a loss of revenue, or cease providing the impacted product or service altogether. Furthermore, laws and regulations and their interpretation and application may also change from time to time and those changes could have a material adverse effect on our products and business.
The Company is currently seeking to resolve an FTC investigation through consent order negotiations with the FTC staff, and the terms of a consent order (if any) could have a materially adverse effect on the Company’s business.
In August 2019, the Federal Trade Commission (“FTC”) sent a civil investigative demand (“CID”) to Opendoor seeking documents and information relating primarily to statements in Opendoor’s advertising and website comparing selling homes to Opendoor with selling homes in a traditional manner using an agent and relating to statements that Opendoor’s offers reflect or are based on market prices. Thereafter, Opendoor responded cooperatively to the CID and related follow-up requests from the FTC investigative staff. On December 23, 2020, the FTC staff notified the Company that they intend to recommend to the FTC Bureau of Consumer Protection Management and the FTC Commissioners that the agency pursue an enforcement action against the Company and certain of its officers, if FTC staff are unable to reach a negotiated settlement acceptable to all parties. The FTC staff have indicated that they believe certain of Opendoor’s advertising claims relating to the amount of its offers, the repair costs charged to home sellers, and the amount of net proceeds a seller may receive from selling to Opendoor versus selling in the traditional manner were inaccurate and/or inadequately substantiated. The Company intends to proceed with settlement negotiations with the FTC staff. There can be no assurances that the Company will be successful in negotiating a favorable settlement. Any settlement could result in material monetary remedies and/or compliance requirements that impose significant and material cost and resource burdens on the Company and/or limit or eliminate the Company’s ability to make certain claims in its advertising materials or on its website. Any of these remedies or compliance requirements could adversely affect the Company’s ability to operate its business and/or have a materially adverse impact on its financial results.
Failure to hedge effectively against interest rate changes may adversely affect our results of operations.
Borrowings under our senior credit facilities bear interest at variable rates and expose us to interest rate risk. If interest rates were to increase, our debt service obligations on the variable rate indebtedness would increase and our earnings and cash flows will correspondingly decrease. Increased interest costs could also reduce the amount of debt financing that our homes inventory can support. As of September 30, 2020 and December 31, 2019, we had interest rate caps on $100 million notional borrowing amount. Assuming no change in the outstanding borrowings on our credit facilities, we estimate that a one percentage point increase in LIBOR would increase our annual interest expense by approximately $10.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2019 and $3.8 million for the nine months ended September 30, 2020.
In connection with our floating rate debt, we may seek to obtain interest rate protection in the form of swap agreements, interest rate cap contracts or similar derivatives or instruments to hedge against the possible negative effects of interest rate increases. There is no assurance that we will be able to obtain any such interest rate hedging arrangements on attractive terms or at all. Even if we are successful in obtaining interest rate hedges, we cannot assure you that any hedging will adequately relieve the adverse effects of interest rate increases or that counterparties under these agreements will honor their obligations thereunder.
 
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Our risk management efforts may not be effective.
We could incur substantial losses and our business operations could be disrupted if we are unable to effectively identify, manage, monitor, and mitigate financial risks, such as pricing risk, interest rate risk, liquidity risk, and other market-related risks, as well as operational and legal risks related to our business, assets, and liabilities. We also are subject to various laws, regulations and rules that are not industry specific, including employment laws related to employee hiring and termination practices, health and safety laws, environmental laws and other federal, state and local laws, regulations and rules in the jurisdictions in which we operate. Our risk management policies, procedures, and techniques may not be sufficient to identify all of the risks to which we are exposed, mitigate the risks we have identified, or identify additional risks to which we may become subject in the future. Expansion of our business activities may also result in our being exposed to risks to which we have not previously been exposed or may increase our exposure to certain types of risks, and we may not effectively identify, manage, monitor, and mitigate these risks as our business activities change or increase.
Risks Related to Our Financial Reporting
Our management has limited experience in operating a public company.
Our executive officers have limited experience in the management of a publicly traded company. Our management team may not successfully or effectively manage our transition to a public company that will be subject to significant regulatory oversight and reporting obligations under federal securities laws. Their limited experience in dealing with the increasingly complex laws pertaining to public companies could be a significant disadvantage in that it is likely that an increasing amount of their time may be devoted to these activities which will result in less time being devoted to the management and growth of the post-combination company. We may not have adequate personnel with the appropriate level of knowledge, experience and training in the accounting policies, practices or internal control over financial reporting required of public companies in the U.S. Our management will need to continually assess our staffing and training procedures to improve our internal control over financial reporting. Further, the development, implementation, documentation and assessment of appropriate processes, in addition to the need to remediate any potential deficiencies, will require substantial time and attention from management. The development and implementation of the standards and controls necessary for us to achieve the level of accounting standards required of a public company in the U.S. may require costs greater than expected. It is possible that we will be required to expand our employee base and hire additional employees to support our operations as a public company which will increase its operating costs in future periods.
We rely on assumptions, estimates, and business data to calculate our key performance indicators and other business metrics, and real or perceived inaccuracies in these metrics may harm our reputation and negatively affect our business.
Certain of our performance metrics are calculated using third party applications or internal company data that have not been independently verified. While these numbers are based on what we believe to be reasonable calculations for the applicable period of measurement, there are inherent challenges in measuring such information. For example, our measurement of visits and unique users may be affected by applications that automatically contact our servers to access our mobile applications and websites with no user action involved, and this activity can cause our system to count the user associated with such a device as a unique user or as a visit on the day such contact occurs. In addition, our measure of certain metrics may differ from estimates published by third parties or from similarly-titled metrics of our competitors due to differences in methodology and as a result our results may not be comparable to our competitors.
Our results of operations and financial condition are subject to management’s accounting judgments and estimates, as well as changes in accounting policies.
The preparation of our financial statements requires us to make estimates and assumptions affecting the reported amounts of our assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses. If these estimates or assumptions are incorrect, it could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations or financial condition. Generally accepted accounting principles in the United States are subject to interpretation by the Financial Accounting
 
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Standards Board, the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants, the Securities and Exchange Commission, and various bodies formed to promulgate and interpret appropriate accounting principles. A change in these principles or interpretations could have a significant effect on our reported financial results, and could affect the reporting of transactions completed before the announcement of a change.
Our management is required to evaluate the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting. If we are unable to maintain effective internal control over financial reporting, investors may lose confidence in the accuracy of our financial reports.
As a public company, we are required to maintain internal control over financial reporting and to report any material weaknesses in such internal control. Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act requires that we evaluate and determine the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting. Additionally, beginning with our annual report for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021, our auditor will be required to deliver an attestation report on the effectiveness of our disclosure controls and internal control over financial reporting. An adverse report may be issued in the event our auditor is not satisfied with the level at which our controls are documented, designed or operating.
When evaluating our internal control over financial reporting, we may identify material weaknesses that we may not be able to remediate in time to meet the applicable deadline imposed upon us for compliance with the requirements of Section 404. If we identify any material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting or are unable to comply with the requirements of Section 404 in a timely manner or assert that our internal control over financial reporting is ineffective, or if our auditor is unable to express an opinion as to the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting, we could fail to meet our reporting obligations or be required to restate our financial statements for prior periods.
In addition, our internal control over financial reporting will not prevent or detect all errors and fraud. Because of the inherent limitations in all control systems, no evaluation can provide absolute assurance that misstatements due to error or fraud will not occur or that all control issues and instances of fraud will be detected.
If there are material weaknesses or failures in our ability to meet any of the requirements related to the maintenance and reporting of our internal control, investors may lose confidence in the accuracy and completeness of our financial reports and that could cause the price of our common stock to decline. In addition, we could become subject to investigations by the applicable stock exchange, the SEC or other regulatory authorities, which could require additional management attention and which could adversely affect our business.
We will incur increased costs as a result of operating as a public company, and our management will devote substantial time to new compliance initiatives. As a public company, we are subject to the reporting requirements of the Exchange Act, the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, as well as rules adopted, and to be adopted, by the SEC and the applicable stock exchange. Our management and other personnel will need to devote a substantial amount of time to these compliance initiatives and may not effectively or efficiently manage our transition into a public company. Moreover, we expect these rules and regulations to substantially increase our legal and financial compliance costs and to make some activities more time-consuming and costly. The increased costs will increase our net loss. For example, we expect these rules and regulations to make it more difficult and more expensive for us to obtain director and officer liability insurance and we may be forced to accept reduced policy limits or incur substantially higher costs to maintain the same or similar coverage. We cannot predict or estimate the amount or timing of additional costs we may incur to respond to these requirements. The impact of these requirements could also make it more difficult for us to attract and retain qualified persons to serve on our board of directors, its board committees or as executive officers.
We could be subject to additional tax liabilities and our ability to use net operating loss carryforwards and other tax attributes may be limited in connection with the Business Combination or other ownership changes.
We are subject to federal and state income and non-income taxes in the United States. Tax laws, regulations, and administrative practices in various jurisdictions may be subject to significant change, with or without notice, due to economic, political, and other conditions, and significant judgment is required in
 
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evaluating and estimating these taxes. Our effective tax rates could be affected by numerous factors, such as entry into new businesses and geographies, changes to our existing business and operations, acquisitions and investments and how they are financed, changes in our stock price, changes in our deferred tax assets and liabilities and their valuation, and changes in the relevant tax, accounting, and other laws, regulations, administrative practices, principles and interpretations. We are required to take positions regarding the interpretation of complex statutory and regulatory tax rules and on valuation matters that are subject to uncertainty, and IRS or other tax authorities may challenge the positions that we take.
We have incurred losses during our history and do not expect to become profitable in the near future, and may never achieve profitability. To the extent that we continue to generate taxable losses, unused losses will carry forward to offset future taxable income, if any, until such unused losses expire, if at all. As of December 31, 2019, the Company had federal and state net operating loss (“NOL”) carryforwards of $630.4 million and $421.0 million, respectively. Under the Tax Act, as modified by the Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act (the “CARES Act”), U.S. federal net operating loss carryforwards generated in taxable periods beginning after December 31, 2017, may be carried forward indefinitely, but the deductibility of such net operating loss carryforwards in taxable years beginning after December 31, 2020, is limited to 80% of taxable income. It is uncertain if and to what extent various states will conform to the Tax Act or the CARES Act.
In addition, our net operating loss carryforwards are subject to review and possible adjustment by the IRS, and state tax authorities. Under Sections 382 and 383 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”), our federal net operating loss carryforwards and other tax attributes may become subject to an annual limitation in the event of certain cumulative changes in our ownership. An “ownership change” pursuant to Section 382 of the Code generally occurs if one or more stockholders or groups of stockholders who own at least 5% of a company’s stock increase their ownership by more than 50 percentage points over their lowest ownership percentage within a rolling three-year period. Our ability to utilize our net operating loss carryforwards and other tax attributes to offset future taxable income or tax liabilities may be limited as a result of ownership changes, including potential changes in connection with the Business Combination or other transactions. Similar rules may apply under state tax laws.
We have not yet determined the amount of the cumulative change in our ownership resulting from the Business Combination or other transactions, or any resulting limitations on our ability to utilize our net operating loss carryforwards and other tax attributes. If we earn taxable income, such limitations could result in increased future income tax liability to us and our future cash flows could be adversely affected. We have recorded a full valuation allowance related to its net operating loss carryforwards and other deferred tax assets due to the uncertainty of the ultimate realization of the future benefits of those assets.
Risks Related to Our Liquidity and Capital Resources
We may need additional capital to pursue our business objectives and respond to business opportunities, challenges or unforeseen circumstances, and we cannot be sure that additional financing will be available.
We may require additional capital and debt financing to pursue our business objectives and respond to business opportunities, challenges or unforeseen circumstances, including to increase our marketing expenditures to improve our brand awareness, build and maintain our inventory of homes, develop new products or services or further improve existing products and services (including mortgage lending), enhance our operating infrastructure and acquire complementary businesses and technologies. During past economic and housing downturns and more recently at the onset of COVID-19, credit markets constricted and reduced sources of liquidity.
If cash on hand and cash generated from operations is not sufficient to meet our cash and liquidity needs, we may need to seek additional capital and engage in equity or debt financings to secure funds. However, additional funds may not be available when we need them on terms that are acceptable to us, or at all. In addition, any financing that we secure in the future could involve restrictive covenants which may make it more difficult for us to obtain additional capital and to pursue business opportunities.
Our ability to obtain financing will depend, among other things, on our product development efforts, business plans, operating performance and condition of the capital markets and housing markets at the time
 
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we seek financing. Volatility in the credit markets may also have an adverse effect on our ability to obtain debt financing. If we raise additional funds through the issuance of equity, equity-linked or debt securities, those securities may have rights, preferences or privileges senior to the rights of our common stock, or may require us to agree to unfavorable terms, and our existing stockholders may experience significant dilution.
If new financing sources are required, but are insufficient or unavailable, our ability to continue to pursue our business objectives and to respond to business opportunities, challenges or unforeseen circumstances could be significantly limited, and our business, operating results, financial condition and prospects could be adversely affected.
We utilize a significant amount of indebtedness in the operation of our business, and so our cash flows and operating results could be adversely affected by required payments of debt or related interest and other risks of our debt financing.
As of September 30, 2020 we had approximately $277 million aggregate principal amount of indebtedness outstanding, including $264 million of non-recourse asset-backed loans. Our leverage could have meaningful consequences to us, including increasing our vulnerability to economic downturns, limiting our ability to withstand competitive pressures, or reducing our flexibility to respond to changing business and economic conditions. We are also subject to general risks associated with debt financing, including (1) our cash flow may not be sufficient to satisfy required payments of principal and interest; (2) we may not be able to refinance our existing indebtedness or refinancing terms may be less favorable to us than the terms of our existing debt; (3) debt service obligations or facility prepayments could reduce funds available for capital investment and general corporate purposes; (4) any default on our indebtedness could result in acceleration of the indebtedness and foreclosure on the homes collateralizing that indebtedness, with our attendant loss of any prospective income and equity value from such property; and (5) aged real estate may be ineligible for financing on our debt facilities potentially forcing the sale of aged real estate for prices that do not allow us to meet our margin targets or cover our costs to repay those facilities. Any of these risks could place strains on our cash flows, reduce our ability to grow and adversely affect our results of operations.
We rely on agreements with third parties to finance our business.
We have entered into debt agreements with a limited number of counterparties to provide capital for the growth and operation of our businesses, including to finance our purchase and renovation of homes. If we fail to maintain adequate relationships with potential financial sources or we elect to prepay or we are unable to renew, refinance or extend our existing debt arrangements on favorable terms or at all, we may be unable to maintain sufficient inventory, which would adversely affect our business and results of operations. In addition, some of our financing facilities are not fully committed, meaning the applicable lender may not be obligated to advance new loan funds if they choose not to do so. Obtaining new or replacement funding arrangements may be at higher interest rates or other less favorable terms.
Our financing sources are not required to extend the maturities of our financing arrangements and if a financing source is unable or unwilling to extend financing, and other financing sources are unable or unwilling to make or increase their financing commitments, then we will be required to repay the outstanding balance of the financing on the related maturity date. If we are unable to pay the outstanding balance of our debt obligations at maturity, the financing sources generally have the right to foreclose on the homes and other collateral securing that debt and to charge higher “default rates” of interest until the outstanding obligations are paid in full. In addition, each of our mezzanine term debt facilities is associated with and subordinated to one or more of our senior revolving credit facilities. Our mezzanine term debt facilities have initial terms that may be significantly longer than the related senior facilities and often contain terms that make it financially unattractive to prepay borrowings under those term debt facilities, including certain “make-whole” payments and other prepayment penalties. If we are unable to renew or extend the terms of our existing senior facilities, we may not be able to terminate or prepay the related mezzanine term debt facilities without incurring significant financial costs.
If realized, any of these financing risks could negatively impact our results of operations and financial condition.
 
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We intend to rely on proceeds from the sale of financed homes to repay amounts owed under our property financing facilities, but such proceeds may not be available or may be insufficient to repay the amounts when they become due.
For our senior revolving credit facilities, we typically are required to repay amounts owed with respect to a financed home upon the sale of that home. There is no assurance such sale proceeds will fully cover the amounts owed. Our senior revolving credit facilities commonly have initial terms of two years or less. It may be the case that not all homes securing these arrangements will be sold on or before the maturity dates of such financing arrangements, which would mean that sale proceeds would not be available to pay the amounts due at maturity. We may also be required to repay amounts owed with respect to a financed home prior to the sale of that home and prior to maturity of the related financing facility, typically due to the home having been held in our inventory for an extended period of time or, less commonly, if other unforeseen issues with the home arise during our holding period. In these situations, we may use cash on hand to repay the amounts owed or contribute other homes as additional collateral. To the extent we do not have sufficient cash or substitute collateral or are unable to draw on other financing facilities to make the required repayments, which could occur if a significant amount of our debt were to become due suddenly and unexpectedly, we would be in default under the related facility.
Covenants in our debt agreements may restrict our borrowing capacity and/or operating activities and adversely affect our financial condition.
Our existing debt agreements contain, and future debt agreements may contain, various financial and collateral performance covenants. These covenants may limit our operational flexibility or restrict our ability to engage in transactions that we believe would otherwise be in the best interests of our shareholders. If we breach these covenants, our lenders may be entitled to apply any excess cash proceeds from the sale of our homes that would normally be available to us in the absence of the covenant breach to the prepayment of principal and other amounts due. In certain cases, we could be required to repay all of the relevant debt immediately, even in the absence of a payment default. The occurrence of these events would have an adverse impact on our financial condition and results of operations and such impact could be material.
The borrowers under the debt facilities we use to finance the purchase and renovation of homes are special purpose entity (“SPE”) subsidiaries of Opendoor. While our SPEs’ lenders’ recourse in most situations following an event of default is only to the applicable SPE or its assets, we have provided limited guarantees for certain of the SPEs’ obligations in situations involving “bad acts” by an Opendoor entity and certain other limited circumstances that are generally under our control. To the extent a guaranty obligation is triggered, we may become obligated to pay all or a portion of the amounts owed by our SPEs to their lenders.
Our debt facilities contain cross defaults and similar provisions that could cause us to be in default under multiple debt facilities or otherwise lose access to financing for new homes and excess proceeds from sales of homes in the event we default under a single facility.
If an event of default or similar event occurs under one of our senior revolving credit facilities, this may trigger an event of default under any related mezzanine term debt facility and/or result in us losing access to financing through the mezzanine term debt facility or to excess proceeds from sales of homes that would otherwise be available to us. Similarly, an event of default or similar event under a mezzanine term debt facility may trigger an event of default under the related senior facilities and/or result in us losing access to financing through those senior facilities or to excess proceeds from sales of homes that would otherwise be available to us. In addition, all of our senior and mezzanine term debt facilities currently contain cross defaults to indebtedness of Opendoor Labs Inc., if any, subject to varying minimum dollar thresholds. It is possible our debt facilities could include similar cross defaults to indebtedness of Opendoor Technologies in the future. The foregoing considerations, significantly increase the likelihood that a default or similar event under one or more of our debt facilities would result in adverse consequences for our other debt facilities.
We may use derivatives and other instruments to reduce our exposure to interest fluctuations and those derivatives and other instruments may not prove to be effective.
We may use derivatives or other instruments to reduce our exposure to adverse changes in interest rates. Hedging interest rate risk is a complex process, requiring sophisticated models and constant monitoring. Due
 
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to interest rate fluctuations, hedged assets and liabilities will appreciate or depreciate in market value. The effect of this unrealized appreciation or depreciation will generally be offset by income or loss on the derivative instruments that are linked to the hedged assets and liabilities. If we engage in derivative transactions, we will be exposed to credit and market risk. If the counterparty fails to perform, credit risk exists to the extent of the fair value gain in the derivative. Market risk exists to the extent that interest rates change in ways that are significantly different from what we expected when we entered into the derivative transaction. Our hedging activity, if any, may fail to provide adequate coverage for interest rate exposure due to market volatility, hedging instruments that do not directly correlate with the interest rate risk exposure being hedged or counterparty defaults on obligations.
When the London Inter-Bank Offered Rate (“LIBOR”) is discontinued, interest payments under our senior revolving credit facilities and our mortgage repurchase facility may be calculated using another reference rate.
In July 2017, the United Kingdom Financial Conduct Authority (“FCA”), which regulates LIBOR, announced that the FCA intends to phase out the use of LIBOR by the end of 2021. In response, the U.S. Federal Reserve, in conjunction with the Alternative Reference Rates Committee, has proposed replacing U.S. dollar LIBOR with the Secured Overnight Financing Rate (“SOFR”), which is a new index calculated by short-term repurchase agreements and backed by U.S. Treasury securities. The market transition away from LIBOR towards SOFR is expected to be complicated, and there is no guarantee that SOFR will become a widely accepted benchmark in place of LIBOR. LIBOR is used as a benchmark rate for our senior revolving credit facilities and our mortgage repurchase facility. Some of these agreements do not contain fulsome fallback language for circumstances in which LIBOR ceases to be published. The transition process may involve, among other things, increased volatility and illiquidity in markets for instruments that currently rely on LIBOR and may result in increased borrowing costs, uncertainty under our financing facilities, or difficult and costly processes to amend our financing agreements. There remains uncertainty regarding the future utilization of LIBOR and the nature of any replacement rate, and we are uncertain what impact a transition away from LIBOR may have on our business, financial results, and operations.
Failures at financial institutions at which we deposit funds could adversely affect us.
We deposit substantial funds in various financial institutions in excess of insured deposit limits. In the event that one or more of these financial institutions fail, there is no guarantee that we could recover the deposited funds in excess of federal deposit insurance. Under these circumstances, our losses could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations or financial condition.
Additional Risks Related to Ownership of Our Common Stock and This Offering
The price of our common stock may be volatile.
The price of our common stock may fluctuate due to a variety of factors, including:

changes in the industries in which we and our customers operate;

developments involving our competitors;

changes in laws and regulations affecting our business;

variations in our operating performance and the performance of our competitors in general;

actual or anticipated fluctuations in our quarterly or annual operating results;

publication of research reports by securities analysts about us or our competitors or our industry;

the public’s reaction to our press releases, our other public announcements and our filings with the SEC;

actions by stockholders, including the sale by the Third Party PIPE Investors of any of their shares of our common stock;

additions and departures of key personnel;

commencement of, or involvement in, litigation involving our company;
 
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changes in our capital structure, such as future issuances of securities or the incurrence of additional debt;

the volume of shares of our common stock available for public sale; and

general economic and political conditions, such as the effects of the COVID-19 outbreak, recessions, interest rates, local and national elections, fuel prices, international currency fluctuations, corruption, political instability and acts of war or terrorism.
These market and industry factors may materially reduce the market price of our common stock regardless of our operating performance.
We do not intend to pay cash dividends for the foreseeable future.
We currently intend to retain our future earnings, if any, to finance the further development and expansion of our business and do not intend to pay cash dividends in the foreseeable future. Any future determination to pay dividends will be at the discretion of our board of directors and will depend on our financial condition, results of operations, capital requirements, restrictions contained in future agreements and financing instruments, business prospects and such other factors as our board of directors deems relevant.
If you purchase our common stock in this offering, you will incur immediate and substantial dilution in the book value of your shares.
Investors purchasing common stock in this offering will pay a price per share that substantially exceeds the as adjusted net tangible book value per share. As a result, investors purchasing common stock in this offering will incur immediate dilution of $22.92 per share, based on the public offering price of $27.00 per share, and our as adjusted net tangible book value per share as of September 30, 2020 on a pro forma basis after giving effect to the Business Combination. For more information on the dilution you may suffer as a result of investing in this offering, see the section of this prospectus titled “Dilution.”
We may allocate the net proceeds from this offering in ways that you and other stockholders may not approve.
Our management will have broad discretion in the application of the net proceeds from the shares of common stock we sell in this offering, including for any of the purposes described in the section titled “Use of Proceeds.” Because of the number and variability of factors that will determine our use of the net proceeds from this offering, their ultimate use may vary substantially from their currently intended use. Our management might not apply our net proceeds in ways that ultimately increase the value of your investment, and the failure by our management to apply these funds effectively could harm our business. Pending their use, we may invest the net proceeds from this offering in short- and intermediate-term, interest-bearing obligations, investment-grade instruments, certificates of deposit or direct or guaranteed obligations of the U.S. government. These investments may not yield a favorable return to our stockholders. If we do not invest or apply the net proceeds from this offering in ways that enhance stockholder value, we may fail to achieve expected results, which could cause our stock price to decline.
Future resales of common stock may cause the market price of our securities to drop significantly, even if our business is doing well.
Pursuant to the Registration Rights Agreement and the Bylaws, the Sponsor and the Opendoor Stockholders are contractually restricted from selling or transferring any of their shares of common stock (not including the shares of our common stock issued in the PIPE Investment pursuant to the terms of the Subscription Agreements) (the “Lock-up Shares”). Such restrictions end on the earlier of (i) the date that is 180 days after Closing and (ii) for 50% of the Lock-up Shares, the date on which the last reported sale price of our common stock equals or exceeds $15.00 per share for any 20 trading days within any 30-trading day period commencing at least 90 days from Closing.
However, following the expiration of such lockup, the Sponsor and the Opendoor Stockholders will not be restricted from selling shares of our common stock held by them, other than by applicable securities laws. As such, sales of a substantial number of shares of our common stock in the public market could occur at any time. These sales, or the perception in the market that the holders of a large number of shares intend to sell
 
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shares, could reduce the market price of our common stock. Upon the Closing, the Sponsor and the Opendoor Stockholders collectively owned approximately 81.3% of our outstanding common stock which are subject to such lockup (excluding the shares of our common stock reserved in respect of Opendoor Awards).
The shares held by Sponsor and the Opendoor Stockholders may be sold after the expiration of the applicable lock-up period under the Registration Rights Agreement and Bylaws. As restrictions on resale end and registration statements (to provide for the resale of such shares from time to time) are available for use, the sale or possibility of sale of these shares could have the effect of increasing the volatility in our share price or the market price of our common stock could decline if the holders of currently restricted shares sell them or are perceived by the market as intending to sell them.
General Risk Factors
Catastrophic events may disrupt our business.
Natural disasters or other catastrophic events may cause damage or disruption to our operations, real estate commerce, and the global economy, and thus could harm our business. In particular, the COVID-19 pandemic, including the reactions of governments, markets, and the general public to the COVID-19 pandemic, may result in a number of adverse consequences for our business and results of operations, the details of which would be difficult to predict. We have a large employee presence in San Francisco, California, a region that contains active earthquake zones. In addition, properties located in the markets in which we operate in Florida, portions of North Carolina or Texas are more susceptible to certain hazards (such as floods, hurricanes or hail) than properties in other parts of the country.
In the event of a major earthquake, hurricane, windstorm, tornado, flood or catastrophic event such as pandemic, fire, flood, power loss, telecommunications failure, cyber-attack, war, or terrorist attack, we may be unable to continue our operations and may endure reputational harm, delays in developing our platform and solutions, breaches of data security and loss of critical data, all of which could harm our business, results of operations and financial condition. Furthermore, these sorts of catastrophic events may cause disruption on both resale and acquisition side as we may not be able to transact on real estate. For example, homes that we own may be damaged and disruptions to infrastructure may mean our contractors are unable to perform the necessary home repairs in a timely manner. Closures of local recording offices or other governmental offices in charge of real property records, including tax or lien-related records, would adversely affect our ability to conduct operations in the affected geographies. Any of these delays will likely result in extended hold times, increased costs, value impairment. Also, the insurance we maintain would likely not be adequate to cover our losses resulting from disasters or other business interruptions.
As we grow our business, the need for business continuity planning and disaster recovery plans will grow in significance. If we are unable to develop adequate plans to ensure that our business functions continue to operate during and after a disaster, and successfully execute on those plans in the event of a disaster or emergency, our business and reputation would be harmed.
Cybersecurity incidents could disrupt our business or result in the loss of critical and confidential information.
The evolution of technology systems introduces ever more complex security risks that are difficult to predict and defend against. An increasing number of companies, including those with significant online operations, have recently disclosed breaches of their security, some of which involved sophisticated tactics and techniques allegedly attributable to criminal enterprises or nation-state actors. Successful breaches, employee malfeasance, or human or technological error could result in, for example, unauthorized access to, disclosure, modification, misuse, loss, or destruction of company, customer, or other third party data or systems; theft of sensitive, regulated, or confidential data including personal information and intellectual property; the loss of access to critical data or systems through ransomware, destructive attacks or other means; and business delays, service or system disruptions or denials of service. We experience cyber incidents and other security incidents of varying degrees from time to time, though none which individually or in the aggregate has led to costs or consequences which have materially impacted our operations or business. In response, we have implemented controls and taken other preventative actions to further strengthen our systems against future incidents. However, we cannot assure you that such measures will provide absolute security, that we will be able to react in a timely manner, or that our remediation efforts following a cybersecurity incident will be successful.
 
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In addition, we do not know whether our current practices will be deemed sufficient under applicable laws or whether new regulatory requirements might make our current practices insufficient. If there is a breach of our computer systems and we know or suspect that certain personal information has been accessed, or used inappropriately, we may need to inform the affected individual and may be subject to significant fines and penalties. Further, under certain regulatory schemes, we may be liable for statutory damages on a per breached record basis, irrespective of any actual damages or harm to the individual. In the event of a breach we could face government scrutiny or consumer class actions alleging statutory damages amounting to hundreds of millions, and possibly billions of dollars.
The risk of cybersecurity incidents directed at us or our third-party vendors includes uncoordinated individual attempts to gain unauthorized access to information technology systems, as well as to sophisticated and targeted measures known as advanced persistent threats. In addition, we face the risk of confidential data inadvertently leaking through human or technological errors. Cybersecurity incidents are also constantly evolving, increasing the difficulty of detecting and successfully defending against them. In the ordinary course of our business, we and our third-party vendors collect and store personal information, as well as our proprietary business information and intellectual property and that of our customers and employees. Additionally, we rely on third-parties and their security procedures for the secure storage, processing, maintenance, and transmission of information that is critical to our operations. Despite measures designed to prevent, detect, address, and mitigate cybersecurity incidents, such incidents may occur to us or our third-party providers and, depending on their nature and scope, could potentially result in the misappropriation, destruction, corruption or unavailability of critical data and confidential or proprietary information (our own or that of third parties, including personal information of our customers and employees) and the disruption of business operations. Any such compromises to our security, or that of our third-party vendors, could cause customers to lose trust and confidence in us and stop using our website and mobile applications. In addition, we may incur significant costs for remediation that may include liability for stolen assets or information, repair of system damage, and compensation to customers, employees, and business partners. We may also be subject to government enforcement proceedings and legal claims by private parties.
Any actual or alleged security breaches or alleged violations of federal or state laws or regulations relating to privacy and data security could result in mandated user notifications, litigation, government investigations, significant fines, and expenditures; divert management’s attention from operations; deter people from using our platform; damage our brand and reputation; and materially adversely affect our business, results of operations, and financial condition. Defending against claims or litigation based on any security breach or incident, regardless of their merit, will be costly and may cause reputation harm. The successful assertion of one or more large claims against us that exceed available insurance coverage, denial of coverage as to any specific claim, or any change or cessation in our insurance policies and coverages, including premium increases or the imposition of large deductible requirements, could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, and financial condition.
Our fraud detection processes and information security systems may not successfully detect all fraudulent activity by third parties aimed at our employees or customers, which could adversely affect our reputation and business results.
Third-party actors have attempted in the past, and may attempt in the future, to conduct fraudulent activity by engaging with our customers, particularly in our title insurance and escrow business. We make a large number of wire transfers in connection with loan and real estate closings and process sensitive personal data in connection with these transactions. Though we have sophisticated fraud detection processes and have taken other measures to identify fraudulent activity on our mobile applications, websites and internal systems, we may not be able to detect and prevent all such activity. Similarly, the third parties we use to effectuate these transactions may fail to maintain adequate controls or systems to detect and prevent fraudulent activity. Persistent or pervasive fraudulent activity may cause customers and real estate partners to lose trust in us and decrease or terminate their usage of our products, or could result in financial loss, thereby harming our business and results of operations.
We are from time to time involved in, or may in the future be subject to, claims, suits, government investigations, and other proceedings that may result in adverse outcomes.
We are from time to time involved in, or may in the future be subject to, claims, suits, government investigations, and proceedings arising from our business, including actions with respect to intellectual
 
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property, privacy, consumer protection, information security, mortgage lending, real estate, environmental, data protection or law enforcement matters, tax matters, labor and employment, and commercial claims, as well as actions involving content generated by our customers, shareholder derivative actions, purported class action lawsuits, and other matters. Such claims, suits, government investigations, and proceedings are inherently uncertain, and their results cannot be predicted with certainty. Regardless of the outcome, any such legal proceedings can have an adverse impact on us because of legal costs, diversion of management and other personnel, negative publicity and other factors. In addition, it is possible that a resolution of one or more such proceedings could result in reputational harm, liability, penalties, or sanctions, as well as judgments, consent decrees, or orders preventing us from offering certain features, functionalities, products, or services, or requiring a change in our business practices, products or technologies, which could in the future materially and adversely affect our business, operating results and financial condition.
If analysts do not publish research about our business or if they publish inaccurate or unfavorable research, our stock price and trading volume could decline.
The trading market for our common stock depends in part on the research and reports that analysts publish about our business. We do not have any control over these analysts. If one or more of the analysts who cover us downgrade our common stock or publish inaccurate or unfavorable research about our business, the price of our common stock would likely decline. If few analysts cover us, demand for our common stock could decrease and our common stock price and trading volume may decline. Similar results may occur if one or more of these analysts stop covering us in the future or fail to publish reports on us regularly.
We may be subject to securities litigation, which is expensive and could divert management attention.
The market price of our common stock may be volatile and, in the past, companies that have experienced volatility in the market price of their stock have been subject to securities class action litigation. We may be the target of this type of litigation in the future. Securities litigation against us could result in substantial costs and divert management’s attention from other business concerns, which could seriously harm our business.
 
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USE OF PROCEEDS
We estimate that the net proceeds from the sale of shares of our common stock in this offering will be approximately $746.3 million (or approximately $861.9 million if the underwriters’ option to purchase additional shares is exercised in full), based on the public offering price of $27.00 per share, and after deducting underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us.
The principal purposes of this offering are to increase our capitalization and financial flexibility. As of the date of this prospectus, we cannot specify with certainty all of the particular uses for the net proceeds to us of this offering.
We currently intend to use the net proceeds from this offering to invest in increasing existing market penetration, to expand into new markets, and for working capital and general corporate purposes.
Pending their use, we intend to invest the net proceeds of this offering in short- and intermediate-term, interest-bearing obligations, investment-grade instruments, certificates of deposit or direct or guaranteed obligations of the U.S. government, subject to applicable regulatory restrictions.
 
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CAPITALIZATION
The following table sets forth the cash and cash equivalents and capitalization as of September 30, 2020 of:

Opendoor Labs Inc. and its subsidiaries on an actual basis;

Opendoor Technologies and its subsidiaries on a pro forma basis after giving effect to the Business Combination; and

Opendoor Technologies and its subsidiaries on a pro forma as adjusted basis after giving effect to the sale by us of 28,536,888 shares of common stock in this offering, based on the public offering price of $27.00 per share, and after deducting the underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us.
This table should be read in conjunction with our audited and unaudited consolidated financial statements, including the notes thereto, each included elsewhere in this prospectus, and with “Unaudited Condensed Combined Pro Forma Financial Information” and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.”
As of September 30, 2020
(in thousands, except share amounts)
Opendoor
Labs Inc.
(Actual)
Opendoor
Technologies
(Pro Forma)
Opendoor
Technologies
(Pro Forma
As Adjusted)
Cash and cash equivalents
$ 469,365 $ 1,440,444 $ 2,186,774
Debt:
Revolving credit facilities
108,611 108,611 108,611
Term debt facilities
155,000 155,000 155,000
Total debt outstanding, including current portion
263,611 263,611 263,611
Shareholders' equity (deficit):
Preferred stock, $0.0001 par value; no shares authorized, no shares issued and outstanding, actual; 100,000,000 shares authorized, no shares issued and outstanding, pro forma and pro forma as adjusted
Common stock, $0.0001 par value; 3,000,000,000 shares authorized, 85,482,852 shares issued and outstanding, actual; no shares authorized, no shares issued and outstanding, pro forma and pro forma as adjusted
Total shareholders’ equity (deficit)
$ (708,650) $ 1,650,616 $ 2,396,946
Total capitalization
$ (445,039) $ 1,914,227 $ 2,660,557
The number of shares of our common stock issued and outstanding, pro forma and pro forma as adjusted, in the table above is based on 544,410,529 shares of our common stock outstanding as of September 30, 2020 on a pro forma basis after giving effect to the Business Combination, and excludes:

28,805,374 shares of common stock reserved for issuance upon the exercise of options to purchase common stock outstanding as of September 30, 2020 on a pro forma basis after giving effect to the Business Combination, having a weighted-average exercise price of $1.82;

31,802,968 shares of common stock reserved for issuance upon settlement of the restricted stock units outstanding as of September 30, 2020 on a pro forma basis after giving effect to the Business Combination; and

19,933,333 shares of common stock issuable upon exercise of outstanding warrants outstanding as of September 30, 2020 on a pro forma basis after giving effect to the Business Combination at an exercise price of $11.50 per share;

43,508,048 shares of common stock reserved for future grant or issuance under our 2020 Plan; and
 
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6,723,761 shares of common stock due to: (i) the award of RSUs to Eric Wu, Carrie Wheeler and Daniel Morillo in December 2020; (ii) the application of the treasury stock method for options; and (iii) the exercise of options and terminations of employees resulting in the forfeiture of such employee’s options since September 30, 2020.
 
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DILUTION
If you invest in our common stock in this offering, your interest will be diluted to the extent of the difference between the public offering price per share and the as adjusted net tangible book value per share of our common stock after this offering.
As of September 30, 2020 on a pro forma basis after giving effect to the Business Combination, we had a net tangible book value of $1,588.6 million, corresponding to a net tangible book value of $2.92 per share. Net tangible book value per share represents the amount of our total assets less our total liabilities, excluding goodwill and other intangible assets, divided by 544,410,529, the total number of our common stock issued and outstanding as of September 30, 2020.
After giving effect to this offering, and subject to the assumptions and exclusions set forth in the penultimate paragraph of this section, after deducting the underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us, our as adjusted net tangible book value estimated as of September 30, 2020 would have been approximately $2,335.0 million, representing $4.08 per share of common stock. This represents an immediate increase in net tangible book value of $1.16 per share to existing shareholders and an immediate dilution in net tangible book value of $22.92 per share to new investors purchasing shares of common stock in this offering. Dilution for this purpose represents the difference between the price per share of common stock paid by these purchasers and as adjusted net tangible book value per share immediately after the completion of the offering.
The following table illustrates this dilution to new investors purchasing common stock in the offering at September 30, 2020 (after giving effect to the sale of common stock hereby, and subject to the assumptions and exclusions set forth in the final paragraph of this section).
Public offering price per share
$ 27.00
Historical net tangible book value per share as of September 30, 2020
$ 2.92
Increase in net tangible book value per share attributable to new investors participating
in this offering
1.16
As adjusted net tangible book value per share as of September 30, 2020 after this offering
4.08
Dilution per share to new investors participating in this offering
$ 22.92
If the underwriters exercise their option to purchase additional shares of common stock in full, the as adjusted net tangible book value after the offering would be $4.24 per share, the increase in as adjusted net tangible book value per share to existing stockholders would be $1.32 per share and the dilution in as adjusted net tangible book value to new investors would be $22.76 per share, after deducting the underwriting discount and the estimated offering expenses payable by us.
The foregoing tables and calculations (other than the historical net tangible book value calculation) are based on our common stock that will be outstanding after this offering based on 544,410,529 shares of our common stock outstanding as of September 30, 2020 on a pro forma basis after giving effect to the Business Combination, and excludes:

28,805,374 shares of common stock reserved for issuance upon the exercise of options to purchase common stock outstanding as of September 30, 2020 on a pro forma basis after giving effect to the Business Combination, having a weighted-average exercise price of $1.82;

31,802,968 shares of common stock reserved for issuance upon settlement of the restricted stock units outstanding as of September 30, 2020 on a pro forma basis after giving effect to the Business Combination;

19,933,333 shares of common stock issuable upon exercise of outstanding warrants outstanding as of September 30, 2020 on a pro forma basis after giving effect to the Business Combination at an exercise price of $11.50 per share;

43,508,048 shares of common stock reserved for future grant or issuance under our 2020 Plan; and

6,723,761 shares of common stock due to: (i) the award of RSUs to Eric Wu, Carrie Wheeler and Daniel Morillo in December 2020; (ii) the application of the treasury stock method for options; and
 
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(iii) the exercise of options and terminations of employees resulting in the forfeiture of such employee’s options since September 30, 2020.
To the extent that any outstanding options or warrants are exercised, outstanding RSUs settle, new options or RSUs are issued under our stock-based compensation plans, or we issue additional shares of common stock in the future, there will be further dilution to investors participating in this offering. If we raise additional capital through the sale of equity or convertible debt securities, the issuance of these securities could result in further dilution to our stockholders.
 
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DIVIDEND POLICY
We have not paid any cash dividends on our common stock to date. The payment of cash dividends in the future will be dependent upon our revenues and earnings, if any, capital requirements and general financial condition. The payment of any cash dividends will be within the discretion of our board of directors. Our ability to declare dividends is limited by the terms of financing or other agreements that we or our subsidiaries have entered into or that we or our subsidiaries may enter into from time to time.
 
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UNAUDITED PRO FORMA CONDENSED COMBINED FINANCIAL INFORMATION
Defined terms included below have the same meaning as terms defined and included elsewhere in this prospectus. Unless the context otherwise requires, the “Company” refers to Opendoor Technologies, Inc. and its subsidiaries after the Closing, and Social Capital Hedosophia Holdings Corp. prior to the Closing.
Introduction
We are providing the following unaudited pro forma condensed combined financial information to aid you in your analysis of the financial aspects of the recently completed Business Combination. The following unaudited pro forma condensed combined financial information has been prepared in accordance with Article 11 of Regulation S-X.
The unaudited pro forma condensed combined balance sheet as of September 30, 2020 combines the historical balance sheet of SCH and the historical balance sheet of Opendoor on a pro forma basis as if the Business Combination and related transactions, summarized below, had been consummated on September 30, 2020. The unaudited pro forma condensed combined statements of operations for the nine months ended September 30, 2020 and the year ended December 31, 2019 combine the historical statements of operations of SCH and Opendoor for such periods on a pro forma basis as if the Business Combination and related transactions, summarized below, had been consummated on January 1, 2019, the beginning of the earliest period presented:

the merger of Merger Sub with and into Opendoor, with Opendoor surviving the merger as a wholly-owned subsidiary of SCH;

the issuance and sale of 60,005,000 shares of our common stock at $10.00 per share in the PIPE Investment; and

the conversion of all outstanding Opendoor shares, warrants, RSUs, Restricted Stock Awards and convertible debt, into Our common stock as well as shares underlying Opendoor Options that will roll over into the post-combination company totaling 500.0 million shares.
The pro forma condensed combined financial information may not be useful in predicting the future financial condition and results of operations of the post-combination company. The actual financial position and results of operations may differ significantly from the pro forma amounts reflected herein due to a variety of factors.
The historical financial information of SCH was derived from the unaudited and audited financial statements of SCH as of and for the nine months ended September 30, 2020, and for the period from October 18, 2019 to December 31, 2019, respectively, which are incorporated by reference. The historical financial information of Opendoor was derived from the unaudited and audited consolidated financial statements of Opendoor as of and for the nine months ended September 30, 2020, and for the year ended December 31, 2019, respectively, which are incorporated by reference. This information should be read together with SCH’s and Opendoor’s unaudited and audited financial statements and related notes, the sections titled “SCH’s Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” and “Opendoor’s Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and other financial information incorporated by reference.
The Business Combination was accounted for as a reverse recapitalization, in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“GAAP”). Under the guidance in ASC 805, SCH was treated as the “acquired” company for financial reporting purposes. Accordingly, the Business Combination was treated as the equivalent of Opendoor issuing stock for the net assets of SCH, accompanied by a recapitalization whereby no goodwill or other intangible assets are recorded. Operations prior to the Business Combination are those of Opendoor.
Opendoor was determined to be the accounting acquirer based on evaluation of the following facts and circumstances:

Opendoor stockholders have the largest voting interest in the post-combination company;
 
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The board of directors of the post-combination company has seven members, and Opendoor has the ability to nominate the majority of the members of the board of directors;

Opendoor management holds executive management roles (including Chief Executive Officer, Chief Financial Officer, and Chief Technology Officer, among others) for the post-combination company and is responsible for the day-to-day operations;

The Company assumed the Opendoor name after the Business Combination; and

The intended strategy of the Company will continue Opendoor’s current strategy of being a leader in the real estate industry.
Description of the Business Combination
The aggregate consideration for the Business Combination was $5.0 billion based on the pre-money enterprise value of Opendoor, paid in the form of shares of Opendoor Technologies common stock.
The following summarizes the consideration:
(in thousands, except for share and per share amounts)
Shares transferred at Closing(1)
500,000,000
Value per share(2)
$ 10.00
Total Share Consideration
$ 5,000,000
(1)
Excludes 3,980,000 shares subscribed for by the Opendoor PIPE Investors.
(2)
Share Consideration is calculated using a $10.00 reference price. The closing share price on the date of the day prior to the consummation of the Business Combination was $29.44. As the Merger Transaction was accounted for as a reverse recapitalization, the value per share is disclosed for informational purposes only in order to indicate the fair value of shares transferred.
Holders of Opendoor common stock received shares of Opendoor Technologies common stock in an amount determined by application of the Exchange Ratio of 1.618, which was based on Opendoor’s implied price per share prior to the Business Combination.
The following assumes (i) (a) the vesting of all shares of Opendoor Technologies common stock received in respect of the Opendoor Technologies Restricted Shares, (b) the vesting and exercise of all Opendoor Technologies Options for shares of Opendoor Technologies common stock, (c) the vesting of all Opendoor Technologies RSU Awards and the issuance of shares of Opendoor Technologies common stock in respect thereof and (d) that Opendoor Technologies issues shares of Opendoor Technologies common stock as the Aggregate Merger Consideration pursuant to the Merger Agreement, which in the aggregate equals 500,000,000 shares of Opendoor Technologies common stock (assuming that all Opendoor Technologies Options are net-settled), and (ii) Opendoor Technologies issues 60,005,000 shares of Opendoor Technologies common stock to the PIPE Investors pursuant to the PIPE Investment.
# of New Entity Shares
%
Opendoor stockholders(1)
503,980,000 82.4%
SCH’s public shareholders
41,387,632 6.8%
Sponsor & related parties(2)
26,375,000 4.3%
Third Party PIPE Investors
40,000,000 6.5%
Pro Forma Common Stock at Closing
611,742,632 100.0%
(1)
Includes 409,534,718 shares issued to existing Opendoor common and preferred shareholders, 3,980,000 shares subscribed for by the Opendoor PIPE Investors, 21,460,400 shares issued to existing Opendoor Convertible Debt holders and 1,672,779 shares issued to Opendoor warrant holders. Also includes 67,332,103 shares of Opendoor common stock underlying options that are included as part of
 
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consideration. The shares underlying these options will not represent legally issued and outstanding shares of the Opendoor common stock and were not exercised and issued immediately upon the Closing. As such, the shares underlying these options will be excluded in the calculation of pro forma basic loss per share.
(2)
Includes 16,025,000 shares subscribed for by the Sponsor Related PIPE Investors and 200,000 shares held by the independent directors of SCH.
 
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The unaudited pro forma adjustments are based on information currently available, and assumptions and estimates underlying the unaudited pro forma adjustments are described in the accompanying notes. Actual results may differ materially from the assumptions used to present the accompanying unaudited pro forma condensed combined financial information.
Unaudited Pro Forma Condensed Combined Balance Sheet
As of September 30, 2020
(in thousands, except per share amounts)
As of
September 30,
2020
As of
September 30,
2020
(in thousands)
Opendoor
(Historical)
Social
Capital
(Historical)
Reclassification
Adjustments
(Note 2)
Conversion
of Warrants
Pro Forma
Adjustments
Pro Forma
Combined
ASSETS
Current assets:
Cash and cash equivalents
$ 469,365 $ $ 250 $ 414,042
B
$ 1,440,444
600,050
C
(14,490)
D
(28,539)
E
(110)
F
(124)
K
Cash
250 (250)
Restricted cash
174,194 174,194
Prepaid expenses
384 (384)
Marketable securities
82,131 82,131
Mortgage loans held for sale pledged under agreements to repurchase
13,984 13,984
Escrow receivable
2,641 2,641
Real estate inventory, net
151,512 151,512
Other current assets
29,632 384 (8,022)
E
21,994
Total current assets
923,459 634 962,807 1,886,900
Cash and Marketable securities held in Trust Account
414,042 (414,042)
B
Property and equipment—Net
29,434 29,434
Right of use assets
51,842 51,842
Goodwill
30,945 30,945
Intangibles—Net
9,266 9,266
Other assets
4,221 4,221
TOTAL ASSETS
1,049,167 414,676 548,765 2,012,608
LIABILITIES, TEMPORARY EQUITY AND STOCKHOLDERS’ DEFICIT
Accounts payable and other accrued liabilities
37,998 4,361 (6,440)
A
(12,134)
E
23,675
(110)
F
Accrued expenses
4,361 (4,361)
Current portion of credit facilities and other secured borrowings
121,909 121,909
Interest payable
1,846 1,846
Lease liabilities, current portion
17,248 17,248
Promissory note—related party
1,138 (1,138)
E
Total current liabilities
179,001 5,499 (6,440) (13,382) 164,678
Deferred underwriting fee payable
14,490 (14,490)
D
Credit facilities—net of current portion
149,035 149,035
Lease liabilities—net of current portion
48,182 48,182
Other liabilities
97 97
Total liabilities
376,315 19,989 (6,440) (27,872) 361,992
 
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As of
September 30,
2020
As of
September 30,
2020
(in thousands)
Opendoor
(Historical)
Social
Capital
(Historical)
Reclassification
Adjustments
(Note 2)
Conversion
of Warrants
Pro Forma
Adjustments
Pro Forma
Combined
TEMPORARY EQUITY:
Class A ordinary shares subject to possible redemption
389,686 (389,686)
G
Series A convertible preferred stock
9,763 (9,763)
H
Series B convertible preferred stock
20,049 (20,049)
H
Series C convertible preferred stock
80,519 (80,519)
H
Series D convertible preferred stock
257,951 (257,951)
H
Series E convertible preferred stock
1,013,220 (1,013,220)
H
Total temporary equity
1,381,502 389,686 (1,771,188)
Stockholders’ Equity (Deficit)
Preferred shares
Class A ordinary shares
Class B ordinary shares
1 (1)
I
Common Stock
6
C
61
4
G
1
I
50
H
K
Additional paid-in capital
280,657 11,342 6,440
A
600,044
C
2,639,862
389,682
G
(493)
J
1,381,452
H
(29,138)
E
(124)
K
Accumulated other comprehensive income (loss)
144 144
Accumulated deficit
(989,451) (6,342) 5,849
E
(989,451)
493
J
Total stockholders’ equity (deficit)
(708,650) 5,001 6,440 2,347,825 1,650,616
TOTAL LIABILITIES, TEMPORARY EQUITY AND STOCKHOLDERS’ DEFICIT
1,049,167 414,676 548,765 2,012,608
 
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Unaudited Pro Forma Condensed Combined Statement of Operations
For the Nine Months Ended September 30, 2020
(in thousands, except per share amounts)
For the Nine Months Ended
September 30, 2020
For the Nine
Months Ended
September 30,
2020
(in thousands, except per share data)
Opendoor
(Historical)
Social Capital
(Historical)
Pro Forma
Adjustments
Pro Forma
Combined
Revenue
2,334,235 2,334,235
Cost of revenue
2,152,803 2,152,803
Gross profit
181,432 181,432
Operating costs and expenses:
Formation and operating costs
(6,363) 5,849
AA
(514)
Sales, marketing and operations
(156,290) (156,290)
General and administrative
(99,074) (99,074)
Technology and development
(45,809) (45,809)
Total operating costs and expenses
(301,173) (6,363) 5,849 (301,687)
Net operating loss
(119,741) (6,363) 5,849 (120,255)
Derivative and warrant fair value adjustment
(25,219) 1,902
BB
23,317
CC
Interest expense
(57,393) 7,837
DD
(49,556)
Interest income
42 (42)
EE
Other income, net
3,619 3,619
Loss before income taxes
(198,734) (6,321) 38,863 (166,192)
Income tax expense
(234)
FF
(234)
Net loss
(198,968) (6,321) 38,863 (166,426)
Less net income attributable noncontrolling interest
Net loss
(198,968) (6,321) 38,863 (166,426)
Weighted-average shares outstanding of common stock—basic
53,110 10,112 544,411
Weighted-average shares outstanding of common stock—diluted
53,110 10,112 544,411
Basic net income (loss) per share
$ (3.75) $ (0.63) $ (0.31)
Diluted net income (loss) per share
$ (3.75) $ (0.63) $ (0.31)
 
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Unaudited Pro Forma Condensed Combined Statement of Operations
For the Year Ended December 31, 2019
(in thousands, except per share amounts)
For the Year ended
December 31, 2019
For the Year
ended
December 31,
2019
(in thousands, except per share data)
Opendoor
(Historical)
Social
Capital
(Historical)
Pro Forma
Adjustments
Pro Forma
Combined
Revenue
4,740,583 4,740,583
Cost of revenue