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The information in this preliminary prospectus supplement is not complete and may be changed. This preliminary prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus are not an offer to sell these securities and they are not soliciting an offer to buy these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted.
 Filed Pursuant to Rule 424(b)(3)
 Registration No. 333-251529
Subject to Completion, Dated September 13, 2021
PRELIMINARY PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT
(To Prospectus dated March 12, 2021)
[MISSING IMAGE: lg_opendoornew1-4c.jpg]
28,000,000 Shares
Opendoor Technologies Inc.
Common Stock
The selling shareholder named in this prospectus supplement is offering 28,000,000 shares of our common stock. We are not selling any shares under this prospectus supplement and we will not receive any proceeds from the sale of shares by the selling shareholder.
The selling shareholder has granted the underwriter an option to purchase up to additional 4,200,000 shares of common stock.
This prospectus supplement updates, amends and supplements the prospectus dated March 12, 2021, which forms a part of our Registration Statement on Form S-1 (Registration No. 333-251529), as supplemented by the prospectus supplements filed by us on March 18, 2021, April 2, 2021, July 30, 2021, August 11, 2021, August 16, 2021, August 18, 2021 and August 24, 2021 (collectively, the “prospectus”). This prospectus supplement is not complete without the prospectus. This prospectus supplement should be read in conjunction with the prospectus, which is to be delivered with this prospectus supplement, and is qualified by reference thereto, except to the extent that the information in this prospectus supplement updates or supersedes the information contained in the prospectus. Please keep this prospectus supplement with your prospectus for future reference.
Our common stock is listed on The Nasdaq Global Select Market (“Nasdaq”) under the symbol “OPEN.” On September 10, 2021, the last reported sale price of our common stock on Nasdaq was $18.75 per share.
Investing in our common stock involves risks. See “Risk Factors” beginning on page S-3 of this prospectus supplement, page 6 of the accompanying prospectus, page 54 of our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarterly period ended June 30, 2021 and in any subsequent prospectus supplement.
Neither the United States Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or determined if this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.
The underwriter has agreed to purchase the shares of common stock from the selling shareholder at a price of $       per share. The underwriter may offer the shares of common stock in transactions on Nasdaq, in the over-the-counter market or through negotiated transactions at market prices or at negotiated prices. See “Underwriting.”
The underwriter expects to deliver the shares to purchasers on or about September   , 2021, through the book-entry facilities of The Depository Trust Company.
Citigroup
The date of this prospectus supplement is September   , 2021

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PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT
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S-3
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PROSPECTUS
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PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENTS (TO PROSPECTUS DATED MARCH 12, 2021)
PS-1
PS-5
PS-10
PS-78
PS-82
PS-86
 
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ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT
This prospectus supplement updates, amends and supplements the prospectus dated March 12, 2021, which forms a part of our Registration Statement on Form S-1 (Registration No. 333-251529), as previously supplemented by the prospectus supplements filed by us on March 18, 2021, April 2, 2021, July 30, 2021, August 11, 2021, August 16, 2021, August 18, 2021 and August 24, 2021 (collectively, the “prospectus”). Neither we, the selling shareholder nor the underwriter has authorized anyone to provide you with any information or to make any representations other than those contained in this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus, or any subsequent prospectus supplement prepared by or on behalf of us or to which we have referred you. Neither we, the selling shareholder nor the underwriter takes any responsibility for, or provides any assurance as to the reliability of, any other information that others may give you. Neither we, the selling shareholder nor the underwriter will make an offer to sell these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted.
This prospectus supplement is not complete without the accompanying prospectus. This prospectus supplement should be read in conjunction with the prospectus, which is to be delivered with this prospectus supplement, and is qualified by reference thereto, except to the extent that the information in this prospectus supplement updates or supersedes the information contained in the prospectus. Please keep this prospectus supplement with your prospectus for future reference. The prospectus includes other information about our business, financial condition and risk factors you should consider before making any investment in our securities.
The information contained in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus is accurate only as of the date of this prospectus supplement or the date of the accompanying prospectus, as applicable, regardless of the time of delivery of this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus or of any sale of our common stock. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed since those dates.
As used in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, unless otherwise indicated or the context otherwise requires, the terms “Opendoor,” “we,” “our,” “us” and the “Company” mean Opendoor Technologies Inc. and its consolidated subsidiaries following the Business Combination (as defined herein) and to Opendoor Labs Inc. prior to the Business Combination. When we refer to “you,” we mean the potential holders of the shares of our common stock.
 
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PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT SUMMARY
The following summary highlights information contained elsewhere in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus. It does not contain all of the information that may be important to you. You should read this entire prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus carefully, including the sections titled “Risk Factors” and our historical consolidated financial statements and related notes included in the accompanying prospectus.
About Opendoor
We are a leading digital platform for residential real estate. In 2014, we founded Opendoor to make it possible to buy, sell and move at the tap of a button. Since then, we have built scalable pricing capabilities, technology-enabled centralized operations, and a suite of digital-first consumer products, to help us become the clear digital one-stop-shop for home buyers and sellers nationwide.
Our goal is to transform residential real estate, the largest asset class in the United States. In 2020 alone, more than 5.6 million existing homes were sold, representing nearly $1.9 trillion in transactions. Additionally, with 66% of Americans living in a home they own, housing is the single largest consumer expenditure in the United States, ahead of transportation, food, insurance, and healthcare.
Yet, in a world with purchases increasingly migrating online, the real estate transaction has largely remained unchanged. The typical process of buying or selling a home is complex, uncertain, time consuming and primarily offline. A traditional home sale requires countless decisions, often brings unexpected costs, and takes approximately three months from start to finish. Ultimately, the consumer is left dissatisfied with a broken, disjointed experience.
We streamline the process of buying and selling a home into a seamless digital experience, eliminating uncertainty for sellers. Sellers can go to Opendoor.com, receive an offer, sign and close on the date of their choice. Buyers can download the Opendoor app, tour and visit homes in a few taps with self-tours, shop for financing at competitive rates, make an offer backed by Opendoor’s cash and close with title and escrow services, all with just a mobile device. We have built a simple, on-demand way to buy and sell a home.
Over the past seven years, customers have shown their desire for our digital, on-demand real estate solution. Since launch, we have bought and sold over 100,000 homes, and expanded our footprint to 39 markets across the country as of June 30, 2021. Most importantly, we have scaled rapidly while delighting our customers with an experience that continues to drive high Net Promoter Score from our sellers.
Corporate Information
Social Capital Hedosophia Holdings Corp. II (“SCH”) was initially formed on October 18, 2019, as a Cayman Islands exempted company and formed for the purpose of effecting a merger, share exchange, asset acquisition, share purchase, reorganization or similar business combination with one or more businesses.
We entered into a merger agreement (the “Merger Agreement”) with SCH on September 15, 2020. Pursuant to the Merger Agreement, Hestia Merger Sub Inc., a newly formed subsidiary of SCH (“Merger Sub”), merged with and into Opendoor Labs Inc. Upon the completion of the transactions contemplated by the terms of the Merger Agreement (the “Closing”) on December 18, 2020, the separate corporate existence of Merger Sub ceased and Opendoor Labs Inc. survived the merger and became a wholly owned subsidiary of SCH. On December 18, 2020, SCH also filed a notice of deregistration with the Cayman Islands Registrar of Companies, together with the necessary accompanying documents, and filed a certificate of incorporation and a certificate of corporate domestication with the Secretary of State of the State of Delaware, under which SCH was domesticated as a Delaware corporation, changing its name from “Social Capital Hedosophia Holdings Corp. II” to “Opendoor Technologies Inc.” We refer to these transactions collectively as the “Business Combination.”
Our principal executive office is located at 410 N. Scottsdale Road, Suite 1600, Tempe, AZ 85281. Our telephone number is 415-896-6737. Our website address is www.opendoor.com. Information contained on our website is not a part of this prospectus supplement, and the inclusion of our website address in this prospectus supplement is an inactive textual reference only.
 
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THE OFFERING
Selling shareholder
SVF Excalibur (Cayman) Limited
Common stock offered by the selling shareholder
28,000,000 shares
Option to purchase additional shares of common stock
The underwriter has the option to purchase up to an additional 4,200,000 shares of common stock from the selling shareholder. The underwriter can exercise this option at any time within 30 days from the date of this prospectus supplement.
Use of proceeds
We will not receive any of the proceeds from any sales of common stock by SVF Excalibur (Cayman) Limited in this offering, including from any exercise by the underwriter of its option to purchase additional shares of common stock.
Nasdaq Global Select Market symbol
“OPEN”.
Risk Factors
Investing in our common stock involves a high degree of risk. See “Risk Factors” beginning on page S-3 of this prospectus supplement, on page 6 of the accompanying prospectus, on page 54 of our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarterly period ended June 30, 2021 (which is part of the accompanying prospectus) (our “Form 10-Q”) and in any subsequent prospectus supplement for a discussion of factors you should carefully consider before investing in our common stock.
Except as otherwise indicated, all information in this prospectus regarding the number of shares of common stock that will be outstanding after this offering is based on 593,838,919 shares of common stock outstanding as of June 30, 2021 and excludes:

19,738,426 shares of common stock issuable upon the exercise of options to purchase shares of our common stock outstanding as of June 30, 2021 with a weighted average exercise price of $1.84 per share;

55,546,349 shares of common stock reserved for issuance upon settlement of the restricted stock units outstanding as of June 30, 2021;

19,431,551 shares of common stock reserved for issuance upon the exercise of warrants outstanding as of June 30, 2021;

42,430,502 shares of common stock available for future issuance under our 2020 Plan (as defined in the accompanying prospectus);

5,438,506 shares of common stock reserved for future issuance under the 2020 Employee Stock Purchase Plan (as defined in the accompanying prospectus); and

shares of common stock issuable upon the conversion of an aggregate of $977.5 million of 0.25% Convertible Senior Notes due 2026 (the “notes”).
 
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RISK FACTORS
Our operations and financial results are subject to various risks and uncertainties including those described below, in the accompanying prospectus and in any subsequent prospectus supplement. You should consider carefully the risks and uncertainties described on page 6 of the accompanying prospectus, page 54 of our Form 10-Q (which is a part of the accompanying prospectus) and in any subsequent prospectus supplement, in addition to the other information contained in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus and in any subsequent prospectus supplement, including our consolidated financial statements and related notes in the accompanying prospectus and in any subsequent prospectus supplement. The risks and uncertainties described below, in the accompanying prospectus and in any subsequent prospectus supplement are not the only ones we face. Additional risks and uncertainties that we are unaware of, or that we currently believe are not material, may also become important factors that adversely affect our business. If any of the risks described below, in the accompanying prospectus and in any subsequent prospectus supplement or others not specified therein materialize, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected. In that case, the trading price of our common stock could decline.
The consolidated financial statements of SCH as of December 31, 2019 and for the period from October 18, 2019 through December 31, 2019, and as of and for the three- and nine-month periods ended September 30, 2020, which are included in the accompanying prospectus, included uncorrected misstatements that may be material. Accordingly, you should not place undue reliance on such financial statements.
On April 12, 2021, subsequent to the filing of our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2020, the Acting Director of the Division of Corporation Finance and the Acting Chief Accountant of the SEC issued a Staff Statement (the “Staff Statement”) on Accounting and Reporting Considerations for Warrants Issued by Special Purpose Acquisition Companies (“SPACs”). We took into consideration the guidance in the Staff Statement and Accounting Standards Codification 815-40, Derivatives and Hedging-Contracts in Entity’s Own Equity (“ASC 815-40”) and evaluated the Public and Sponsor Warrants (each as defined on pages 11 and 12 of our Form 10-Q and collectively the “Warrants”). The Warrants were issued in a private placement simultaneously with the closing of the initial public offering of SCH and were classified in shareholders’ equity.
While we concluded the Public Warrants met the criteria to continue to be classified in shareholders’ equity, we concluded the Sponsor Warrants did not meet the scope exception from derivative accounting prescribed by ASC 815-40 and should therefore be recorded as a liability on our consolidated balance sheet at fair value as of the closing of the Business Combination (as defined on page 12 of our Form 10-Q), with subsequent changes in their fair value recognized in our condensed consolidated statement of operations at each reporting date. We determined, based on consideration of quantitative and qualitative factors, that the error had an immaterial impact, individually and in aggregate, on financial statements of Opendoor. As such, we corrected Opendoor’s accounting for Sponsor Warrants in our Form 10-Q, which forms a part of the accompanying prospectus. For more information, see “Part I—Item 1. Financial Statements—Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements—Note 1. Description of Business and Accounting Policies” and “Part II—Item 5. Other Information” of our Form 10-Q.
However, SCH’s financial statements as of and for the year ended December 31, 2019, and SCH’s financial statements as of and for the three- and nine-month periods ended September 30, 2020, which are included in the prospectus dated March 12, 2021 and which forms a part of our Registration Statement on Form S-1 and a part of the accompanying prospectus, were not corrected. As a result, you should not place undue reliance on SCH’s financial statements relating to these periods, as they do not accurately represent SCH’s financial positions or results of operations for such periods.
Our indebtedness and liabilities could limit the cash flow available for our operations, expose us to risks that could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations and impair our ability to satisfy our obligations under the notes.
In August 2021 we issued the notes, which are not guaranteed by our subsidiaries. Separately, our subsidiaries had total outstanding balances under asset-backed credit facilities and other secured borrowings
 
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of $2,289.9 million as of June 30, 2021. In addition, our subsidiaries had undrawn borrowing capacity of $2,038.5 million under asset-backed credit facilities, of which $437.5 million is fully committed. We may also incur additional indebtedness to meet future financing needs. Our indebtedness could have significant negative consequences for our security holders and our business, results of operations and financial condition by, among other things:

increasing our vulnerability to adverse economic and industry conditions;

limiting our ability to obtain additional financing;

requiring the dedication of a substantial portion of our cash flow from operations to service our indebtedness, which will reduce the amount of cash available for other purposes;

limiting our flexibility to plan for, or react to, changes in our business;

diluting the interests of our existing stockholders as a result of issuing shares of our common stock upon conversion of the notes; and

placing us at a possible competitive disadvantage with competitors that are less leveraged than us or have better access to capital.
Our business may not generate sufficient funds, and we may otherwise be unable to maintain sufficient cash reserves, to pay amounts due under our indebtedness, including the notes, and our cash needs may increase in the future. In addition, future indebtedness that we may incur may contain financial and other restrictive covenants that limit our ability to operate our business, raise capital or make payments under our other indebtedness. If we fail to comply with these covenants or to make payments under our indebtedness when due, then we would be in default under that indebtedness, which could, in turn, result in that and our other indebtedness becoming immediately payable in full. Although our subsidiaries had undrawn capacity of $2,038.5 million under our asset-backed credit facilities as of June 30, 2021, only $437.5 million was fully committed, and any borrowings above the committed amount are subject to the applicable lender’s discretion.
We may be unable to raise the funds necessary to repurchase the notes for cash following a fundamental change, or to pay the cash amounts due upon conversion, and our subsidiaries’ indebtedness may limit our ability to repurchase the notes or pay cash upon their conversion.
Holders of the notes may, subject to a limited exception, require us to repurchase their notes following a fundamental change at a cash repurchase price generally equal to the principal amount of the notes to be repurchased, plus accrued and unpaid interest, if any. In addition, all conversions of notes will be settled partially or entirely in cash. We may not have enough available cash or be able to obtain financing at the time we are required to repurchase the notes or pay the cash amounts due upon conversion. In addition, applicable law, regulatory authorities and the agreements governing our other indebtedness, including the terms of our subsidiaries’ credit facilities and other secured borrowings, may restrict our ability to repurchase the notes or pay the cash amounts due upon conversion. Our failure to repurchase notes or pay the cash amounts due upon conversion when required will constitute a default under the indenture governing the notes. A default under the indenture governing the notes or the fundamental change itself could also lead to a default under agreements governing our other indebtedness, which may result in that other indebtedness becoming immediately payable in full. We may not have sufficient funds to satisfy all amounts due under the other indebtedness and the notes.
We may incur substantially more debt or take other actions which would intensify the risks discussed above.
We and our subsidiaries may be able to incur substantial additional debt in the future, subject to the restrictions contained in our debt instruments, some of which are secured debt. We are not restricted under the terms of the indenture governing the notes from incurring additional debt, securing existing or future debt, recapitalizing our debt or taking a number of other actions that are not limited by the terms of the indenture governing the notes that could have the effect of diminishing our ability to make payments on the notes when due.
 
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Provisions in the indenture governing the notes could delay or prevent an otherwise beneficial takeover of us.
Certain provisions in the notes and the indenture governing the notes could make a third party attempt to acquire us more difficult or expensive. For example, if a takeover constitutes a fundamental change, then noteholders will have the right to require us to repurchase their notes for cash. In addition, if a takeover constitutes a make-whole fundamental change, then we may be required to temporarily increase the conversion rate. In either case, and in other cases, our obligations under the notes and the indenture governing the notes could increase the cost of acquiring us or otherwise discourage a third party from acquiring us or removing incumbent management, including in a transaction that holders of our common stock may view as favorable.
The accounting method for reflecting the notes on our balance sheet, accruing interest expense for the notes and reflecting the underlying shares of our common stock in our reported diluted earnings per share may adversely affect our reported earnings and financial condition.
In August 2020, the Financial Accounting Standards Board published an Accounting Standards Update, which we refer to as ASU 2020-06, which simplifies certain of the accounting standards that apply to convertible notes. ASU 2020-06 will be effective for SEC-reporting entities for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2021, including interim periods within those fiscal years. However, early adoption is permitted in certain circumstances for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2020, including interim periods within those fiscal years. In connection with the issuance of the notes, we intend to early adopt ASU 2020-06.
In accordance with ASU 2020-06, we expect that the notes will be reflected as a liability on our balance sheets, with the initial carrying amount equal to the principal amount of the notes, net of issuance costs. The issuance costs will be treated as a debt discount for accounting purposes, which will be amortized into interest expense over the term of the notes. As a result of this amortization, the interest expense that we expect to recognize for the notes for accounting purposes will be greater than the cash interest payments we will pay on the notes, which will result in lower reported income.
In addition, we expect that the shares underlying the notes will be reflected in our diluted earnings per share using the “if converted” method, in accordance with ASU 2020-06. Under that method, if the conversion value of the notes exceeds their principal amount for a reporting period, then we will calculate our diluted earnings per share assuming that all of the notes were converted at the beginning of the reporting period and that we issued shares of our common stock to settle the excess. However, if reflecting the notes in diluted earnings per share in this manner is anti-dilutive, or if the conversion value of the notes does not exceed their principal amount for a reporting period, then the shares underlying the notes will not be reflected in our diluted earnings per share. The application of the if-converted method may reduce our reported diluted earnings per share, and accounting standards may change in the future in a manner that may adversely affect our diluted earnings per share.
Furthermore, if any of the conditions to the convertibility of the notes is satisfied, then we may be required under applicable accounting standards to reclassify the liability carrying value of the notes as a current, rather than a long-term, liability. This reclassification could be required even if no noteholders convert their notes and could materially reduce our reported working capital.
We have not reached a final determination regarding the accounting treatment for the notes, and the description above is preliminary. Accordingly, we may account for the notes in manner that is significantly different than described above.
The conditional conversion feature of the notes, if triggered, may adversely affect our financial condition.
In the event the conditional conversion feature of the notes is triggered, holders of notes will be entitled to convert the notes at any time during specified periods at their option. If one or more holders elect to convert their notes, we would be required to settle any converted principal through the payment of cash, which could adversely affect our liquidity.
 
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The capped call transactions may affect the value of the notes and our common stock.
In connection with the issuance of the notes, we entered into privately negotiated capped call transactions with option counterparties. The capped call transactions are expected generally to reduce the potential dilution to our common stock upon any conversion of the notes and/or offset any potential cash payments we are required to make in excess of the principal amount of converted notes, as the case may be, with such reduction and/or offset subject to a cap. In connection with establishing their initial hedges of the capped call transactions, the option counterparties or their respective affiliates entered into various derivative transactions with respect to our common stock and/or purchased shares of our common stock concurrently with or shortly after the pricing of the notes.
In addition, the option counterparties and/or their respective affiliates may modify their hedge positions by entering into or unwinding various derivatives with respect to our common stock and/or purchasing or selling our common stock or other securities of ours in secondary market transactions following the pricing of the notes and prior to the maturity of the notes (and are likely to do so following any conversion of the notes, any repurchase of the notes by us on any fundamental change repurchase date, any redemption date or any other date on which the notes are retired by us, in each case, if we exercise our option to terminate the relevant portion of the capped call transactions). This activity could also cause or avoid an increase or a decrease in the market price of our common stock or the notes. The potential effect, if any, of these transactions and activities on the market price of our common stock or the notes will depend in part on market conditions and cannot be ascertained at this time. Any of these activities could adversely affect the value of our common stock.
We are subject to counterparty risk with respect to the capped call transactions, and the capped call transactions may not operate as planned.
The option counterparties are financial institutions or affiliates of financial institutions, and we will be subject to the risk that any or all of them might default under the capped call transactions. Our exposure to the credit risk of the option counterparties will not be secured by any collateral. Global economic conditions have from time to time resulted in the actual or perceived failure or financial difficulties of many financial institutions, including the bankruptcy filing by Lehman Brothers Holdings Inc. and its various affiliates. If an option counterparty becomes subject to insolvency proceedings, we will become an unsecured creditor in those proceedings with a claim equal to our exposure at that time under our transactions with that option counterparty. Our exposure will depend on many factors, but, generally, an increase in our exposure will be correlated with increases in the market price or the volatility of our common stock. In addition, upon a default by an option counterparty, we may suffer more dilution than we currently anticipate with respect to our common stock. We can provide no assurances as to the financial stability or viability of any option counterparty.
In addition, the capped call transactions are complex, and they may not operate as planned. For example, the terms of the capped call transactions may be subject to adjustment, modification or, in some cases, renegotiation if certain corporate or other transactions occur. Accordingly, these transactions may not operate as we intend if we are required to adjust their terms as a result of transactions in the future or upon unanticipated developments that may adversely affect the functioning of the capped call transactions.
 
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USE OF PROCEEDS
All of the common stock offered by this prospectus supplement is being sold by the selling shareholder. We will not receive any of the proceeds from the sale of shares by the selling shareholder in this offering, including from any exercise by the underwriter of its option to purchase additional shares of common stock. For more information about the selling shareholder, see “Selling Shareholder.”
 
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SELLING SHAREHOLDER
The following table sets forth (i) the selling shareholder, (ii) the number of shares of common stock that the selling shareholder beneficially owned as of June 30, 2021 and the number of shares proposed to be sold in this offering by the selling shareholder, and (iii) the number of shares of our common stock that will be beneficially owned by the selling shareholder following this offering.
The amounts and percentage of common stock beneficially owned are reported on the basis of regulations of the SEC governing the determination of beneficial ownership of securities. Under the rules of the SEC, a person is deemed to be a “beneficial owner” of a security if that person has or shares “voting power,” which includes the power to vote or to direct the voting of such security, or “investment power,” which includes the power to dispose of or to direct the disposition of such security. A person is also deemed to be a beneficial owner of any securities of which that person has a right to acquire beneficial ownership within 60 days. Under these rules, more than one person may be deemed a beneficial owner of the same securities and a person may be deemed a beneficial owner of securities as to which he or she has no economic interest.
Except as indicated by footnote, the person named in the table below has sole voting and investment power with respect to all shares of common stock shown as beneficially owned by it.
Before the Offering
After the Offering
Name of
Selling
Shareholder
Number of
Shares of
Common Stock
Beneficially Owned
Percentage of
Outstanding
Shares of
Common Stock
Number of
Shares of
Common Stock
Being Offered
Number of
Shares of
Common Stock
Beneficially Owned
Percentage of
Outstanding
Shares of
Common Stock
SVF Excalibur (Cayman)
Limited(1)
73,620,282 12.4% 28,000,000 45,620,282 7.7%
(1)
The address of SVF Excalibur (Cayman) Limited is Walkers Corporate Limited, 190 Elgin Avenue, George Town, Grand Cayman KY1-9008, Cayman Islands
 
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MATERIAL U.S. FEDERAL INCOME TAX CONSEQUENCES TO NON-U.S. HOLDERS
The following discussion is a summary of the material U.S. federal income tax consequences to Non-U.S. Holders (as defined below) of the purchase, ownership and disposition of our common stock issued pursuant to this offering, but does not purport to be a complete analysis of all potential tax effects. The effects of other U.S. federal tax laws, such as estate and gift tax laws, and any applicable state, local or non-U.S. tax laws are not discussed. This discussion is based on the U.S. Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”), Treasury Regulations promulgated thereunder, judicial decisions, and published rulings and administrative pronouncements of the U.S. Internal Revenue Service (the “IRS”), in each case in effect as of the date hereof. These authorities may change or be subject to differing interpretations. Any such change or differing interpretation may be applied retroactively in a manner that could adversely affect a Non-U.S. Holder. We have not sought and will not seek any rulings from the IRS regarding the matters discussed below. There can be no assurance the IRS or a court will not take a contrary position to that discussed below regarding the tax consequences of the purchase, ownership and disposition of our common stock.
This discussion is limited to Non-U.S. Holders that hold our common stock as a “capital asset” within the meaning of Section 1221 of the Code (generally, property held for investment). This discussion does not address all U.S. federal income tax consequences relevant to a Non-U.S. Holder’s particular circumstances, including the impact of the Medicare contribution tax on net investment income and the alternative minimum tax. In addition, it does not address consequences relevant to Non-U.S. Holders subject to special rules, including, without limitation:

U.S. expatriates and former citizens or long-term residents of the United States;

persons holding our common stock as part of a hedge, straddle or other risk reduction strategy or as part of a conversion transaction or other integrated investment;

banks, insurance companies, and other financial institutions;

brokers, dealers or traders in securities;

“controlled foreign corporations,” “passive foreign investment companies,” and corporations that accumulate earnings to avoid U.S. federal income tax;

partnerships or other entities or arrangements treated as partnerships for U.S. federal income tax purposes (and investors therein);

tax-exempt organizations or governmental organizations;

persons deemed to sell our common stock under the constructive sale provisions of the Code;

persons who hold or receive our common stock pursuant to the exercise of any employee stock option or otherwise as compensation;

tax-qualified retirement plans; and

“qualified foreign pension funds” as defined in Section 897(l)(2) of the Code and entities all of the interests of which are held by qualified foreign pension funds.
If an entity or arrangement treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes holds our common stock, the tax treatment of a partner in the partnership will depend on the status of the partner, the activities of the partnership and certain determinations made at the partner level. Accordingly, partnerships holding our common stock and the partners in such partnerships should consult their tax advisors regarding the U.S. federal income tax consequences to them.
THIS DISCUSSION IS FOR INFORMATIONAL PURPOSES ONLY AND IS NOT TAX ADVICE. INVESTORS SHOULD CONSULT THEIR TAX ADVISORS WITH RESPECT TO THE APPLICATION OF THE U.S. FEDERAL INCOME TAX LAWS TO THEIR PARTICULAR SITUATIONS AS WELL AS ANY TAX CONSEQUENCES OF THE PURCHASE, OWNERSHIP AND DISPOSITION OF OUR COMMON STOCK ARISING UNDER THE U.S. FEDERAL ESTATE OR GIFT TAX LAWS OR UNDER THE LAWS OF ANY STATE, LOCAL OR NON-U.S. TAXING JURISDICTION OR UNDER ANY APPLICABLE INCOME TAX TREATY.
 
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Definition of a Non-U.S. Holder
For purposes of this discussion, a “Non-U.S. Holder” is any beneficial owner of our common stock that is neither a “U.S. person” nor an entity or arrangement treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes. A U.S. person is any person that, for U.S. federal income tax purposes, is or is treated as any of the following:

an individual who is a citizen or resident of the United States;

a corporation created or organized under the laws of the United States, any state thereof, or the District of Columbia;

an estate, the income of which is subject to U.S. federal income tax regardless of its source; or

a trust that (1) is subject to the primary supervision of a U.S. court and the control of one or more “United States persons” ​(within the meaning of Section 7701(a)(30) of the Code), or (2) has a valid election in effect to be treated as a United States person for U.S. federal income tax purposes.
Distributions
We do not anticipate declaring or paying dividends to holders of our common stock in the foreseeable future. However, if we do make distributions of cash or property on our common stock, such distributions will constitute dividends for U.S. federal income tax purposes to the extent paid from our current or accumulated earnings and profits, as determined under U.S. federal income tax principles. Amounts not treated as dividends for U.S. federal income tax purposes will constitute a return of capital and first be applied against and reduce a Non-U.S. Holder’s adjusted tax basis in its common stock, but not below zero. Any excess will be treated as capital gain and will be treated as described below under “—Sale or Other Taxable Disposition.”
Subject to the discussion below on effectively connected income, dividends paid to a Non-U.S. Holder will be subject to U.S. federal withholding tax at a rate of 30% of the gross amount of the dividends (or such lower rate specified by an applicable income tax treaty, provided the Non-U.S. Holder furnishes a valid IRS Form W-8BEN or W-8BEN-E (or other applicable documentation) certifying qualification for the lower treaty rate). A Non-U.S. Holder that does not timely furnish the required documentation, but that qualifies for a reduced treaty rate, may obtain a refund of any excess amounts withheld by timely filing an appropriate claim for refund with the IRS. Non-U.S. Holders should consult their tax advisors regarding their entitlement to benefits under any applicable income tax treaty.
If dividends paid to a Non-U.S. Holder are effectively connected with the Non-U.S. Holder’s conduct of a trade or business within the United States (and, if required by an applicable income tax treaty, the Non-U.S. Holder maintains a permanent establishment in the United States to which such dividends are attributable), the Non-U.S. Holder will be exempt from the U.S. federal withholding tax described above. To claim the exemption, the Non-U.S. Holder must furnish to the applicable withholding agent a valid IRS Form W-8ECI, certifying that the dividends are effectively connected with the Non-U.S. Holder’s conduct of a trade or business within the United States.
Any such effectively connected dividends will be subject to U.S. federal income tax on a net income basis at the regular rates. A Non-U.S. Holder that is a corporation also may be subject to a branch profits tax at a rate of 30% (or such lower rate specified by an applicable income tax treaty) on such effectively connected dividends, as adjusted for certain items. Non-U.S. Holders should consult their tax advisors regarding any applicable tax treaties that may provide for different rules.
Sale or Other Taxable Disposition
A Non-U.S. Holder will not be subject to U.S. federal income tax on any gain realized upon the sale or other taxable disposition of our common stock unless:

the gain is effectively connected with the Non-U.S. Holder’s conduct of a trade or business within the United States (and, if required by an applicable income tax treaty, the Non-U.S. Holder maintains a permanent establishment in the United States to which such gain is attributable);
 
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the Non-U.S. Holder is a nonresident alien individual present in the United States for 183 days or more during the taxable year of the disposition and certain other requirements are met; or

our common stock constitutes a U.S. real property interest (“USRPI”) by reason of our status as a U.S. real property holding corporation (“USRPHC”) for U.S. federal income tax purposes.
Gain described in the first bullet point above generally will be subject to U.S. federal income tax on a net income basis at the regular rates. A Non-U.S. Holder that is a corporation also may be subject to a branch profits tax at a rate of 30% (or such lower rate specified by an applicable income tax treaty) on such effectively connected gain, as adjusted for certain items.
A Non-U.S. Holder described in the second bullet point above will be subject to U.S. federal income tax at a rate of 30% (or such lower rate specified by an applicable income tax treaty) on gain realized upon the sale or other taxable disposition of our common stock, which may be offset by U.S. source capital losses of the Non-U.S. Holder (even though the individual is not considered a resident of the United States), provided the Non-U.S. Holder has timely filed U.S. federal income tax returns with respect to such losses.
With respect to the third bullet point above, we believe we currently are not, and do not anticipate becoming, a USRPHC. Because the determination of whether we are a USRPHC depends, however, on the fair market value of our USRPIs relative to the fair market value of our non-U.S. real property interests and our other business assets, there can be no assurance we currently are not a USRPHC or will not become one in the future. Even if we are or were to become a USRPHC, gain arising from the sale or other taxable disposition of our common stock by a Non-U.S. Holder will not be subject to U.S. federal income tax if our common stock is “regularly traded,” as defined by applicable Treasury Regulations, on an established securities market, and such Non-U.S. Holder owned, actually and constructively, 5% or less of our common stock throughout the shorter of the five-year period ending on the date of the sale or other taxable disposition or the Non-U.S. Holder’s holding period.
Non-U.S. Holders should consult their tax advisors regarding potentially applicable income tax treaties that may provide for different rules.
Information Reporting and Backup Withholding
Payments of dividends on our common stock will not be subject to backup withholding, provided the applicable withholding agent does not have actual knowledge or reason to know the holder is a United States person and the holder either certifies its non-U.S. status, such as by furnishing a valid IRS Form W-8BEN, W-8BEN-E or W-8ECI, or otherwise establishes an exemption. However, information returns are required to be filed with the IRS in connection with any distributions on our common stock paid to the Non-U.S. Holder, regardless of whether such distributions constitute dividends or whether any tax was actually withheld. In addition, proceeds of the sale or other taxable disposition of our common stock within the United States or conducted through certain U.S.-related brokers generally will not be subject to backup withholding or information reporting, if the applicable withholding agent receives the certification described above and does not have actual knowledge or reason to know that such holder is a United States person, or the holder otherwise establishes an exemption. Proceeds of a disposition of our common stock conducted through a non-U.S. office of a non-U.S. broker generally will not be subject to backup withholding or information reporting.
Copies of information returns that are filed with the IRS may also be made available under the provisions of an applicable treaty or agreement to the tax authorities of the country in which the Non-U.S. Holder resides or is established.
Backup withholding is not an additional tax. Any amounts withheld under the backup withholding rules may be allowed as a refund or a credit against a Non-U.S. Holder’s U.S. federal income tax liability, provided the required information is timely furnished to the IRS.
Additional Withholding Tax on Payments Made to Foreign Accounts
Withholding taxes may be imposed under Sections 1471 to 1474 of the Code (such Sections commonly referred to as the Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act, or “FATCA”) on certain types of payments made
 
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to non-U.S. financial institutions and certain other non-U.S. entities. Specifically, a 30% withholding tax may be imposed on dividends on, or (subject to the proposed Treasury Regulations discussed below) gross proceeds from the sale or other disposition of, our common stock paid to a “foreign financial institution” or a “non-financial foreign entity” ​(each as defined in the Code), unless (1) the foreign financial institution undertakes certain diligence and reporting obligations, (2) the non-financial foreign entity either certifies it does not have any “substantial United States owners” ​(as defined in the Code) or furnishes identifying information regarding each substantial United States owner, or (3) the foreign financial institution or non-financial foreign entity otherwise qualifies for an exemption from these rules. If the payee is a foreign financial institution and is subject to the diligence and reporting requirements in (1) above, it must enter into an agreement with the U.S. Department of the Treasury requiring, among other things, that it undertake to identify accounts held by certain “specified United States persons” or “United States owned foreign entities” ​(each as defined in the Code), annually report certain information about such accounts, and withhold 30% on certain payments to non-compliant foreign financial institutions and certain other account holders. Foreign financial institutions located in jurisdictions that have an intergovernmental agreement with the United States governing FATCA may be subject to different rules.
Under the applicable Treasury Regulations and administrative guidance, withholding under FATCA generally applies to payments of dividends on our common stock. While withholding under FATCA would have applied also to payments of gross proceeds from the sale or other disposition of stock, proposed Treasury Regulations eliminate FATCA withholding on payments of gross proceeds entirely. Taxpayers generally may rely on these proposed Treasury Regulations until final Treasury Regulations are issued.
Prospective investors should consult their tax advisors regarding the potential application of withholding under FATCA to their investment in our common stock.
 
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UNDERWRITING
Subject to the terms and conditions stated in the underwriting agreement, the underwriter has agreed to purchase the number of shares indicated in the following table.
Underwriter
Number of Shares
Citigroup Global Markets Inc.
28,000,000
Total
28,000,000
We have agreed to indemnify the underwriter against certain liabilities, including liabilities under the United States Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), or to contribute to payments the underwriter may be required to make because of any of those liabilities.
The underwriting agreement provides that the obligations of the underwriter to purchase the shares included in this offering are subject to approval of legal matters by counsel and to other conditions. The underwriter is obligated to purchase all the shares (other than those covered by the option to purchase additional shares described below) if it purchases any of the shares.
Commissions and Discounts
The underwriter has agreed to purchase the shares of common stock from the selling shareholder at a price of $      per share. We will not receive any proceeds from the sale of shares of common stock by the selling shareholder. The underwriter may offer the shares of common stock in transactions on Nasdaq, in the over-the-counter market or through negotiated transactions at market prices or at negotiated prices. The difference between the price at which the underwriter purchases shares of our common stock and the price at which the underwriter resells such shares of our common stock may be deemed underwriting compensation. If the underwriter effects such transactions by selling shares of common stock to or through dealers, such dealers may receive compensation in the form of discounts, concessions or commissions from the underwriter and/or purchasers of shares of common stock for whom they may act as agents or to whom they may sell as principal.
We estimate that our portion of the total expenses in connection with this offering, not including the underwriting compensation referred to above, will be approximately $      million. We have also agreed to reimburse the underwriter for certain of its counsel’s fees and expenses in an amount of up to $40,000, which reimbursed fee is deemed underwriting compensation for this offering by FINRA.
Option to Purchase Additional Shares
The selling shareholder has granted to the underwriter an option, exercisable for 30 days from the date of this prospectus supplement, to purchase up to 4,200,000 additional shares at the same price per share as the other shares purchased by the underwriter in this offering. Any shares issued or sold under the option will be issued and sold on the same terms and conditions as the other shares that are the subject of this offering.
Nasdaq Global Select Market Listing
The shares are listed on Nasdaq under the symbol “OPEN.”
Price Stabilization
In connection with the offering, the underwriter may purchase and sell shares in the open market. Purchases and sales in the open market may include short sales, purchases to cover short positions, which may include purchases pursuant to the option to purchase additional shares, and stabilizing purchases.

Short sales involve secondary market sales by the underwriter of a greater number of shares than they are required to purchase in the offering.

“Covered” short sales are sales of shares in an amount up to the number of shares represented by the underwriter’s option to purchase additional shares.

“Naked” short sales are sales of shares in an amount in excess of the number of shares represented by the underwriter’s option to purchase additional shares.
 
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Covering transactions involve purchases of shares either pursuant to the option to purchase additional shares or in the open market after the distribution has been completed in order to cover short positions.

To close a naked short position, the underwriter must purchase shares in the open market after the distribution has been completed. A naked short position is more likely to be created if the underwriter is concerned that there may be downward pressure on the price of the shares in the open market after pricing that could adversely affect investors who purchase in the offering.

To close a covered short position, the underwriter must purchase shares in the open market after the distribution has been completed or must exercise their option to purchase additional shares. In determining the source of shares to close the covered short position, the underwriter will consider, among other things, the price of shares available for purchase in the open market as compared to the price at which they may purchase shares through their option.

Stabilizing transactions involve bids to purchase shares so long as the stabilizing bids do not exceed a specified maximum.
Purchases to cover short positions and stabilizing purchases, as well as other purchases by the underwriter for their own account, may have the effect of preventing or retarding a decline in the market price of the shares.
They may also cause the price of the shares to be higher than the price that would otherwise exist in the open market in the absence of these transactions. The underwriter may conduct these transactions on Nasdaq, in the over-the-counter market or otherwise. If the underwriter commences any of these transactions, it may discontinue them at any time.
Electronic Distribution
In connection with the offering, the underwriter or certain of the securities dealers may distribute prospectuses by electronic means, such as e-mail.
Other Relationships
The underwriter has performed commercial banking, investment banking and advisory services for us from time to time for which they have received customary fees and reimbursement of expenses. The underwriter may, from time to time, engage in transactions with and perform services for us in the ordinary course of its business for which they may receive customary fees and reimbursement of expenses.
In addition, in the ordinary course of their business activities, the underwriter and its affiliates may make or hold a broad array of investments and actively trade debt and equity securities (or related derivative securities) and financial instruments (including bank loans) for their own account and for the accounts of their customers. Such investments and securities activities may involve securities and/or instruments of ours or our affiliates. The underwriter and its affiliates may also make investment recommendations and/or publish or express independent research views in respect of such securities or financial instruments and may hold, or recommend to clients that they acquire, long and/or short positions in such securities and instruments.
Notice to Prospective Investors in the European Economic Area
In relation to each Member State of the European Economic Area (each a “Relevant State”), no shares have been offered or will be offered pursuant to this offering to the public in that Relevant State prior to the publication of a prospectus in relation to the shares which has been approved by the competent authority in that Relevant State or, where appropriate, approved in another Relevant State and notified to the competent authority in that Relevant State, all in accordance with the Prospectus Regulation, except that offers of shares may be made to the public in that Relevant State at any time under the following exemptions under the Prospectus Regulation:
 
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(a)
to any legal entity which is a qualified investor as defined under the Prospectus Regulation;
(b)
to fewer than 150 natural or legal persons (other than qualified investors as defined under the Prospectus Regulation), subject to obtaining the prior consent of the underwriter; or
(c)
in any other circumstances falling within Article 1(4) of the Prospectus Regulation, provided that no such offer of shares shall require us or any underwriter to publish a prospectus pursuant to Article 3 of the Prospectus Regulation or supplement a prospectus pursuant to Article 23 of the Prospectus Regulation and each person who initially acquires any shares or to whom any offer is made will be deemed to have represented, acknowledged and agreed to and with each of the underwriter and the Company that it is a “qualified investor” within the meaning of Article 2(e) of the Prospectus Regulation. In the case of any shares being offered to a financial intermediary as that term is used in the Prospectus Regulation, each such financial intermediary will be deemed to have represented, acknowledged and agreed that the shares acquired by it in the offer have not been acquired on a non-discretionary basis on behalf of, nor have they been acquired with a view to their offer or resale to, persons in circumstances which may give rise to an offer of any shares to the public other than their offer or resale in a Relevant State to qualified investors as so defined or in circumstances in which the prior consent of the underwriter has been obtained to each such proposed offer or resale.
For the purposes of this provision, the expression an “offer to the public” in relation to shares in any Relevant State means the communication in any form and by any means of sufficient information on the terms of the offer and any shares to be offered so as to enable an investor to decide to purchase or subscribe for any shares, and the expression “Prospectus Regulation” means Regulation (EU) 2017/1129.
Notice to Prospective Investors in the United Kingdom
In relation to the United Kingdom, no shares of common stock have been offered or will be offered pursuant to this offering to the public in the United Kingdom prior to the publication of a prospectus in relation to the shares that either (i) has been approved by the Financial Conduct Authority, or (ii) is to be treated as if it had been approved by the Financial Conduct Authority in accordance with the transitional provision in Regulation 74 of the Prospectus (Amendment etc.) (EU Exit) Regulations 2019, except that offers of shares may be made to the public in the United Kingdom at any time under the following exemptions under the UK Prospectus Regulation:

to any legal entity which is a qualified investor as defined in Article 2 of the UK Prospectus Regulation;

to fewer than 150 natural or legal persons (other than qualified investors as defined in Article 2 of the UK Prospectus Regulation); or

in any other circumstances falling within section 86 of the Financial Services and Markets Act 2000 (“FSMA”),
provided that no such offer of shares shall require the Issuer or any representative to publish a prospectus pursuant to section 85 of the FSMA or supplement a prospectus pursuant to Article 23 of the UK Prospectus Regulation.
For the purposes of this provision, the expression an “offer to the public” in relation to any shares in any relevant state means the communication in any form and by any means of sufficient information on the terms of the offer and any shares to be offered so as to enable an investor to decide to purchase or subscribe for any shares, and the expression “UK Prospectus Regulation” means Regulation (EU) 2017/1129 as it forms part of domestic law by virtue of the European Union (Withdrawal) Act 2018.
In addition, in the United Kingdom, this document is being distributed only to, and is directed only at, and any offer subsequently made may only be directed at persons who are “qualified investors” ​(as defined in the Prospectus Regulation) (i) who have professional experience in matters relating to investments falling within Article 19(5) of the Financial Services and Markets Act 2000 (Financial Promotion) Order 2005, as amended (the “Order”) and/or (ii) who are high net worth companies (or persons to whom it may otherwise be lawfully communicated) falling within Article 49(2)(a) to (d) of the Order (all such persons together
 
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being referred to as “relevant persons”) or otherwise in circumstances which have not resulted and will not result in an offer to the public of the shares in the United Kingdom within the meaning of the Financial Services and Markets Act 2000.
Any person in the United Kingdom that is not a relevant person should not act or rely on the information included in this document or use it as basis for taking any action. In the United Kingdom, any investment or investment activity that this document relates to may be made or taken exclusively by relevant persons.
Notice to Prospective Investors in France
Neither this prospectus supplement nor any other offering material relating to the shares described in this prospectus supplement has been submitted to the clearance procedures of the Autorité des Marchés Financiers or of the competent authority of another member state of the European Economic Area and notified to the Autorité des Marchés Financiers. The shares have not been offered or sold and will not be offered or sold, directly or indirectly, to the public in France. Neither this prospectus supplement nor any other offering material relating to the shares has been or will be:

released, issued, distributed or caused to be released, issued or distributed to the public in France; or

used in connection with any offer for subscription or sale of the shares to the public in France.
Such offers, sales and distributions will be made in France only:

to qualified investors (investisseurs qualifiés) and/or to a restricted circle of investors (cercle restreint d’investisseurs), in each case investing for their own account, all as defined in, and in accordance with articles L.411-2, D.411-1, D.411-2, D.734-1, D.744-1, D.754-1 and D.764-1 of the French Code monétaire et financier;

to investment services providers authorized to engage in portfolio management on behalf of third parties; or

in a transaction that, in accordance with article L.411-2-II-1° -or-2° -or 3° of the French Code monétaire et financier and article 211-2 of the General Regulations (Règlement Général) of the Autorité des Marchés Financiers, does not constitute a public offer (appel public à l’épargne).
The shares may be resold directly or indirectly, only in compliance with articles L.411-1, L.411-2, L.412-1 and L.621-8 through L.621-8-3 of the French Code monétaire et financier.
Notice to Prospective Investors in Hong Kong
The shares have not been offered or sold and will not be offered or sold in Hong Kong, by means of any document, other than (a) to “professional investors” as defined in the Securities and Futures Ordinance (Cap. 571 of the Laws of Hong Kong) (the “SFO”) of Hong Kong and any rules made thereunder; or (b) in other circumstances which do not result in the document being a “prospectus” as defined in the Companies (Winding Up and Miscellaneous Provisions) Ordinance (Cap. 32) of Hong Kong) (the “CO”) or which do not constitute an offer to the public within the meaning of the CO. No advertisement, invitation or document relating to the shares has been or may be issued or has been or may be in the possession of any person for the purposes of issue, whether in Hong Kong or elsewhere, which is directed at, or the contents of which are likely to be accessed or read by, the public of Hong Kong (except if permitted to do so under the securities laws of Hong Kong) other than with respect to shares which are or are intended to be disposed of only to persons outside Hong Kong or only to “professional investors” as defined in the SFO and any rules made thereunder.
Notice to Prospective Investors in Japan
The shares have not been and will not be registered pursuant to Article 4, Paragraph 1 of the Financial Instruments and Exchange Act. Accordingly, none of the shares nor any interest therein may be offered or sold, directly or indirectly, in Japan or to, or for the benefit of, any “resident” of Japan (which term as used herein means any person resident in Japan, including any corporation or other entity organized under the
 
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laws of Japan), or to others for re-offering or resale, directly or indirectly, in Japan or to or for the benefit of a resident of Japan, except pursuant to an exemption from the registration requirements of, and otherwise in compliance.
Notice to Prospective Investors in Singapore
The Underwriter has represented and agreed that it has not offered or sold any shares or caused the shares to be made the subject of an invitation for subscription or purchase and will not offer or sell any shares or cause the shares to be made the subject of an invitation for subscription or purchase, and has not circulated or distributed, nor will it circulate or distribute, this prospectus or any other document or material in connection with the offer or sale, or invitation for subscription or purchase, of the shares, whether directly or indirectly, to any person in Singapore other than:
(a)
to an institutional investor (as defined in Section 4A of the Securities and Futures Act (Chapter 289) of Singapore, as modified or amended from time to time (the “SFA”)) pursuant to Section 274 of the SFA;
(b)
to a relevant person (as defined in Section 275(2) of the SFA) pursuant to Section 275(1) of the SFA, or any person pursuant to Section 275(1A) of the SFA, and in accordance with the conditions specified in Section 275 of the SFA; or
(c)
otherwise pursuant to, and in accordance with the conditions of, any other applicable provision of the SFA.
Where the shares are subscribed or purchased under Section 275 of the SFA by a relevant person which is:
(a)
a corporation (which is not an accredited investor (as defined in Section 4A of the SFA)) the sole business of which is to hold investments and the entire share capital of which is owned by one or more individuals, each of whom is an accredited investor; or
(b)
a trust (where the trustee is not an accredited investor) whose sole purpose is to hold investments and each beneficiary of the trust is an individual who is an accredited investor,
securities or securities-based derivatives contracts (each term as defined in Section 2(1) of the SFA) of that corporation or the beneficiaries’ rights and interest (howsoever described) in that trust shall not be transferred within six months after that corporation or that trust has acquired the shares pursuant to an offer made under Section 275 of the SFA except:
(i)
to an institutional investor or to a relevant person, or to any person arising from an offer referred to in Section 275(1A) or Section 276(4)(i)(B) of the SFA;
(ii)
where no consideration is or will be given for the transfer;
(iii)
where the transfer is by operation of law;
(iv)
as specified in Section 276(7) of the SFA; or
(v)
as specified in Regulation 37A of the Securities and Futures (Offers of Investments) (Securities and Securities-based Derivatives Contracts) Regulations 2018
 
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LEGAL MATTERS
The validity of the shares of common stock offered hereby will be passed upon for us by Latham & Watkins LLP. Citigroup Global Markets Inc. is being represented in connection with this offering by Davis Polk & Wardwell LLP.
WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION
We have filed with the SEC a registration statement on Form S-1 (Registration No. 333-251529) under the Securities Act with respect to the shares of common stock offered by this prospectus supplement and accompanying prospectus. This prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus do not contain all of the information included in the registration statement. For further information pertaining to us and our common stock we are offering under this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, you should refer to the registration statement and its exhibits. Statements contained in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus concerning any of our contracts, agreements or other documents are not necessarily complete. If a contract or document has been filed as an exhibit to the registration statement, we refer you to the copy of the contract or document that has been filed. Each statement in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus relating to a contract or document filed as an exhibit is qualified in all respects by the filed exhibit.
We are subject to the informational requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended and file annual, quarterly and current reports and other information with the SEC. Our filings with the SEC are available to the public on the SEC’s website at http://www.sec.gov. Those filings are also available to the public on, or accessible through, our website under the heading “Investor Information” at www.opendoor.com. The information on our web site, however, is not, and should not be deemed to be, a part of this prospectus supplement and accompanying prospectus.
 
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PROSPECTUS FOR
381,533,178 SHARES OF COMMON STOCK
6,133,333 WARRANTS TO PURCHASE SHARES OF COMMON STOCK
AND
19,933,333 SHARES OF COMMON STOCK UNDERLYING WARRANTS
OF
OPENDOOR TECHNOLOGIES INC.
This prospectus relates to (i) the resale of 249,728,372 shares of common stock, par value $0.0001 per share (the “common stock”) issued in connection with the Merger (as defined below) by certain of the selling shareholders named in this prospectus (each a “Selling Shareholder” and, collectively, the “Selling Shareholders”), (ii) the resale of 60,005,000 shares of common stock issued in the PIPE Investment (as defined below) by certain of the Selling Shareholders, (iii) the issuance by us and resale of 22,675,669 shares of common stock reserved for issuance upon the exercise of options to purchase common stock, (iv) the issuance by us and resale of 49,124,137 shares of common stock reserved for issuance upon the settlement of restricted stock units and (v) the resale of 6,133,333 warrants by SCH Sponsor II LLC, a Cayman Islands limited liability company, originally issued in a private placement in connection with the initial public offering of Social Capital Hedosophia Holdings Corp. II, a Cayman Islands exempted company (“SCH”). This prospectus also relates to the issuance by us of up to 19,933,333 shares of common stock upon the exercise of outstanding warrants.
On December 18, 2020, we consummated the transactions contemplated by that certain Agreement and Plan of Merger, dated as of September 15, 2020 (the “Merger Agreement”), by and among SCH, Hestia Merger Sub Inc., a Delaware corporation and a direct wholly owned subsidiary of SCH (“Merger Sub”), and Opendoor Labs Inc., a Delaware corporation (“Opendoor”). As contemplated by the Merger Agreement, SCH was domesticated as a Delaware corporation and changed its name to “Opendoor Technologies Inc.” ​(the “Domestication”). Following the Domestication, Merger Sub merged with and into Opendoor, the separate corporate existence of Merger Sub ceased and Opendoor survived as a wholly owned subsidiary of Opendoor Technologies (the “Merger” and, together with the Domestication, the “Business Combination”).
We are registering the resale of shares of common stock and warrants as required by (i) an amended and restated registration rights agreement, dated as of December 18, 2020 (the “Registration Rights Agreement”), entered into by and among Opendoor Technologies, SCH Sponsor II LLC, certain former stockholders of Opendoor, Cipora Herman, David Spillane, ChaChaCha SPAC B, LLC, Hedosophia Group Limited and 010118 Management, L.P. and (ii) the subscription agreements entered into by and between SCH and certain qualified institutional buyers and accredited investors relating to the purchase of shares of common stock in private placements consummated in connection with the Business Combination.
We are also registering the (i) resale of other shares of common stock held by certain of our shareholders and (ii) the issuance and resale of shares of common stock reserved for issuance upon the exercise of options to purchase shares of common stock and the settlement of restricted stock units, in each case, held by certain of our current and former employees.
We will receive the proceeds from any exercise of the warrants for cash, but not from the resale of the shares of common stock or warrants by the Selling Shareholders.
We will bear all costs, expenses and fees in connection with the registration of the shares of common stock and warrants. The Selling Shareholders will bear all commissions and discounts, if any, attributable to their respective sales of the shares of common stock and warrants.
Trading of our common stock and warrants began on The Nasdaq Global Select Market (the “Nasdaq”) on December 21, 2020, under the ticker symbol “OPEN” for the common stock and “OPENW” for the warrants. Prior to the Domestication and transfer to the Nasdaq, SCH’s Class A ordinary shares, par value $0.0001 per share (the “SCH Class A ordinary shares”) and warrants to purchase SCH Class A ordinary shares (the “SCH warrants”) traded under the ticker symbols “IPOB” and “IPOB.WS”, respectively, on the New York Stock Exchange (the “NYSE”). On March 5, 2021, the closing sale price of our common stock was $21.99 per share and the closing price of the warrants was $10.59 per warrant.
Investing in shares of our common stock or warrants involves risks that are described in the “Risk Factors” section beginning on page 6 of this prospectus.
Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of the securities to be issued under this prospectus or determined if this prospectus is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.
The date of this prospectus is March 12, 2021.

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You should rely only on the information contained in this prospectus. No one has been authorized to provide you with information that is different from that contained in this prospectus. This prospectus is dated as of the date set forth on the cover hereof. You should not assume that the information contained in this prospectus is accurate as of any date other than that date.
 
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TRADEMARKS
This document contains references to trademarks and service marks belonging to other entities. Solely for convenience, trademarks and trade names referred to in this prospectus may appear without the ® or TM symbols, but such references are not intended to indicate, in any way, that the applicable licensor will not assert, to the fullest extent under applicable law, its rights to these trademarks and trade names. We do not intend our use or display of other companies’ trade names, trademarks or service marks to imply a relationship with, or endorsement or sponsorship of it by, any other companies.
 
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SELECTED DEFINITIONS
Unless otherwise stated in this prospectus or the context otherwise requires, references to:

“Business Combination” are to the Domestication together with the Merger;

“Bylaws” are to our bylaws dated as of December 18, 2020;

“Certificate of Incorporation” are our certificate of incorporation dated December 18, 2020;

“Closing” are to the closing of the Business Combination on December 18, 2020;

“common stock” are to shares of our common stock, par value $0.0001 per share;

“DGCL” are to the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware;

“Domestication” are to the domestication of Social Capital Hedosophia Holdings Corp. II as a corporation incorporated in the State of Delaware;

“Exchange Act” are to the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended;

“Exchange Ratio” are to the quotient obtained by dividing (i) 500,000,000 by (ii) the aggregate fully — diluted number of shares of Opendoor common stock issued and outstanding immediately prior to the Merger;

“founder shares” are to the SCH Class B ordinary shares purchased by the Sponsor in a private placement prior to the initial public offering, and the SCH Class A ordinary shares that will be issued upon the conversion thereof;

“GAAP” are to accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America;

“iBuyer” are to a company that uses technology to make cash offers on residential real estate;

“IRS” are to the U.S. Internal Revenue Service;

“JOBS Act” are to the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012;

“Merger” are to the merger of Merger Sub with and into Opendoor, with Opendoor surviving the merger as our wholly owned subsidiary;

“MLS” are to multiple-listing services providers;

“NAR” are to National Association of Realtors;

“Nasdaq” are to the Nasdaq Global Select Market;

“NPS” are to the Net Promoter Score;

“Opendoor Awards” are to Opendoor Options, Opendoor Restricted Stock Awards and Opendoor RSUs;

“Opendoor common stock” are to shares of Opendoor common stock, par value $0.0001 per share;

“Opendoor Options” are to options to purchase shares of Opendoor common stock;

“Opendoor PIPE Investor” are to a PIPE Investor that is a holder of shares of Opendoor capital stock or securities exercisable for or convertible into Opendoor capital stock as of the date of the Merger Agreement and not a Sponsor Related PIPE Investor;

“Opendoor Restricted Stock Awards” are to restricted shares of Opendoor common stock;

“Opendoor RSUs” are to restricted stock units based on shares of Opendoor common stock;

“Opendoor Stockholders” are to the stockholders of Opendoor and holders of Opendoor Awards prior to the Business Combination;

“Opendoor Technologies” are to SCH after the Domestication and its name change from Social Capital Hedosophia Corp. II;

“Opendoor Technologies Awards” are to Opendoor Technologies Options, Opendoor Technologies Restricted Stock and Opendoor Technologies RSUs;
 
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“Opendoor Technologies Options” are to options to purchase shares of our common stock;

“Opendoor Technologies Restricted Stock” are to restricted shares of our common stock;

“Opendoor Technologies RSUs” are to restricted stock units based on shares of our common stock;

“ordinary shares” are to the SCH Class A ordinary shares and the SCH Class B ordinary shares, collectively;

“Organizational Documents” are to the Certificate of Incorporation and the Bylaws;

“OSN” are to OS National LLC;

“Person” are to any individual, firm, corporation, partnership, limited liability company, incorporated or unincorporated association, joint venture, joint stock company, governmental authority or instrumentality or other entity of any kind;

“PIPE Investment” are to the purchase of shares of our common stock pursuant to the Subscription Agreements;

“PIPE Investment Amount” are to the aggregate gross purchase price received by SCH prior to or substantially concurrently with Closing for the shares in the PIPE Investment;

“PIPE Investors” are to those certain investors participating in the PIPE Investment pursuant to the Subscription Agreements;

“pro forma” are to giving pro forma effect to the Business Combination;

“public shareholders” are to holders of public shares, whether acquired in SCH’s initial public offering or acquired in the secondary market;

“public shares” are to the SCH Class A ordinary shares (including those that underlie the units) that were offered and sold by SCH in its initial public offering and registered pursuant to the IPO registration statement or the shares of our common stock issued as a matter of law upon the conversion thereof at the time of the Domestication, as context requires;

“public warrants” are to the redeemable warrants (including those that underlie the units) that were offered and sold by SCH in its initial public offering and registered pursuant to the IPO registration statement or the redeemable warrants of Opendoor Technologies issued as a matter of law upon the conversion thereof at the time of the Domestication, as context requires;

“real sellers” are to those that accept Opendoor’s offer or go on to list their home for sale on the MLS within 60 days of requesting an offer from Opendoor;

“redemption” are to each redemption of public shares for cash pursuant to the Cayman Constitutional Documents and the Organizational Documents;

“Registration Rights Agreement” are to the Registration Rights Agreement to be entered into at Closing, by and among Opendoor Technologies, the Sponsor, certain former stockholders of Opendoor, Cipora Herman, David Spillane, ChaChaCha SPAC B, LLC, Hedosophia Group Limited and 010118 Management, L.P.;

“Sarbanes Oxley Act” are to the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002;

“SCH” are to Social Capital Hedosophia Holdings Corp. II prior to its domestication as a corporation in the State of Delaware;

“SCH Class A ordinary shares” are to SCH’s Class A ordinary shares, par value $0.0001 per share;

“SCH Class B ordinary shares” are to SCH’s Class B ordinary shares, par value $0.0001 per share;

“SCH units” and “units” are to the units of SCH, each unit representing one SCH Class A ordinary share and one-third of one redeemable warrant to acquire one SCH Class A ordinary share, that were offered and sold by SCH in its initial public offering and registered pursuant to the IPO registration statement (less the number of units that have been separated into the underlying public shares and underlying warrants upon the request of the holder thereof);
 
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“SEC” are to the United States Securities and Exchange Commission;

“Securities Act” are to the Securities Act of 1933, as amended;

“Sponsor” are to SCH Sponsor II LLC, a Cayman Islands limited liability company;

“Sponsor Related PIPE Investors” are to a PIPE Investor that is an affiliate of the Sponsor (together with their permitted transferees);

“Sponsor Support Agreement” are to that certain Support Agreement, dated September 15, 2020, by and among the Sponsor, SCH, each officer and director of SCH and Opendoor, as amended and modified from time to time;

“Subscription Agreements” are to the subscription agreements pursuant to which the PIPE Investment will be consummated;

“Third-Party PIPE Investment” are to any PIPE Investment made by a Third-Party PIPE Investor;

“Third-Party PIPE Investment Amount” are to the aggregate gross purchase price received by SCH prior to or substantially concurrently with Closing for the shares in the Third-Party PIPE Investment;

“Third-Party PIPE Investor” are to any PIPE Investor who is not (i) a Sponsor Related PIPE Investor, (ii) the Sponsor, or (iii) an Opendoor PIPE Investor;

“trust account” are to the trust account established at the consummation of SCH’s initial public offering at JP Morgan Chase Bank, N.A. and maintained by Continental Stock Transfer & Trust Company, acting as trustee; and

“warrants” are to the public warrants.
Additionally, unless the context otherwise requires, references in this prospectus to the “Company,” “we,” “us” or “our” refer to the business of Opendoor, which became the business of Opendoor Technologies and its subsidiaries following the Closing.
 
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CAUTIONARY STATEMENT REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This prospectus contains statements that are forward-looking and as such are not historical facts. All statements other than statements of historical facts including, statements regarding our future results of operations or financial condition; business strategy and plans; expectations regarding the impact of COVID-19; market opportunity and expansion and objectives of management for future operations including our statements regarding the benefits and timing of the roll out of new markets, products, or technology are forward-looking statements. When used in this prospectus, words such as “anticipate,” “believe,” “contemplate,” “continue,” “could,” “estimate,” “expect,” “forecast,”, “future”, “intend,” “may,” “might,” “opportunity,” “plan,” “possible,” “potential,” “predict,” “project,” “should,” “strategy,” “strive,” “ target,” “will,” or “would”, including their antonyms or other similar terms or expressions may identify forward-looking statements. The absence of these words does not mean that a statement is not forward-looking.
Forward-looking statements in this prospectus may include, for example, statements about:

our public securities’ potential liquidity and trading;

our ability to raise financing in the future;

our success in retaining or recruiting, or changes required in, our officers, key employees or directors;

the impact of the regulatory environment and complexities with compliance related to such environment;

our ability to remediate our material weakness;

factors relating to our business, operations and financial performance, including:

the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic;

our ability to maintain an effective system of internal controls over financial reporting;

our ability to grow market share in our existing markets or any new markets we may enter;

our ability to respond to general economic conditions;

the health of the U.S. residential real estate industry;

risks associated with our real estate assets and increased competition in the U.S. residential real estate industry;

our ability to manage our growth effectively;

our ability to achieve and maintain profitability in the future;

our ability to access sources of capital, including debt financing and securitization funding to finance our real estate inventories and other sources of capital to finance operations and growth;

our ability to maintain and enhance our products and brand, and to attract customers;

our ability to manage, develop and refine our technology platform, including our automated pricing and valuation technology;

the success of our strategic relationships with third parties; and

other factors detailed under the section entitled “Risk Factors.”
These forward-looking statements are based on information available as of the date of this prospectus and current expectations, forecasts and assumptions, and involve a number of judgments, risks and uncertainties. Accordingly, forward-looking statements should not be relied upon as representing our views as of any subsequent date, and we do not undertake any obligation to update forward-looking statements to reflect events or circumstances after the date they were made, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, except as may be required under applicable securities laws.
As a result of a number of known and unknown risks and uncertainties, our actual results or performance may be materially different from those expressed or implied by these forward-looking statements. You should not place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements.
 
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SUMMARY OF THE PROSPECTUS
This summary highlights selected information from this prospectus and may not contain all of the information that is important to you in making an investment decision. Before investing in our securities, you should carefully read this entire prospectus, including our financial statements and the related notes included in this prospectus and the information set forth under the headings “Risk Factors” and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.” See also the section entitled “Where You Can Find Additional Information.”
Unless context otherwise requires, references in this prospectus to the “Company,” “we,” “us” or “our” refer to the business of Opendoor, which became the business of Opendoor Technologies following the Closing.
Our Company
We are a leading digital platform for residential real estate. In 2014, we founded Opendoor to reinvent one of life’s most important transactions with a new, radically simple way to buy and sell a home with more convenience, control and cost savings than ever before. By leveraging software, data science, product design and operations, we have rebuilt the entire service model for real estate and have made buying and selling possible on a mobile device. We believe our digital, on-demand experience will be the future of how people buy or sell a home.
Our goal is to redefine residential real estate, the largest undisrupted category in the United States. In 2020 alone, more than 5.6 million existing homes were sold, representing nearly $1.9 trillion in transactions. Additionally, with 66% of Americans living in a home they own, housing is the single largest consumer expenditure in the United States, ahead of transportation, food, insurance, and healthcare. Yet, in a world with purchases increasingly migrating online, the real estate transaction has largely remained unchanged. Online penetration represents less than 1% of home transactions, based on iBuyer volumes in 2019 and 2020.
We streamline the process of buying and selling a home into a seamless digital experience, eliminating uncertainty for sellers. Sellers can go to Opendoor.com, receive an offer, sign and close on the date of their choice. Buyers can download the Opendoor app, tour and visit homes in a few taps with self-tours, shop for financing at competitive rates, and make an offer, all with just a mobile device. We have built a simple, on-demand way to buy and sell a home.
Over the past five years, customers have shown their desire for our digital, on-demand real estate solution. Since launch, we have bought and sold over 80,000 homes, making us one of the largest buyers and sellers of single family homes in the United States. We have historically achieved growth at scale, with revenue growth of over 100% in each of the four fiscal years preceding 2020, when the COVID-19 pandemic impacted our business. In 2019, we sold almost 19,000 homes and generated $4.7 billion in revenue. In that year, more than 560,000 consumers requested an Opendoor offer on their home, averaging approximately one every minute, and our homes were visited over 1.6 million times, averaging over 4,500 visits per day.
More importantly, we have just scratched the surface and believe we are in the early stages of the digital transformation of real estate. Over the coming years, we plan on increasing our market share, launching additional cities across the country, and expanding our products and services to become a digital, one-stop shop for buyers and sellers of residential real estate.
The Problem
The typical process of buying or selling a home is a lengthy and stressful experience for both the seller and buyer. For the nearly 90% of sellers that list their home on the market using an agent, this is their typical experience:

Find a listing agent.   Before the seller can list, they must find a qualified agent. 75% of sellers contact only one real estate agent before listing.

Prepare the home for listing.   The seller often needs to get the home “sale ready” and this preparation requires time and money. Homeowners spend an average of $6,400 to prepare their home for sale just on paint, cleaning and staging and this spend can be significantly higher if upgrades are necessary to the kitchen, flooring or bathrooms.
 
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List the home.   A home needs to be listed for over 30 days on average before it goes into contract.

Host open houses and home visits.   During the process, the seller will host dozens of strangers walking through their home, and deal with the hassle of cleaning up and clearing out, often on short notice and during inconvenient times.

Receive an offer.   Once an offer is received, the seller has to negotiate the offer, negotiate the closing date, and deal with any contingencies the buyer may have.

Negotiate repairs or fix issues identified by buyers.   After the offer is accepted, the buyer conducts an inspection, which often forces the seller to re-negotiate the offer or fix issues, increasing the homeowner’s costs and potentially delaying closing.

Wait for closing.   Once the contract is signed, it still takes an average of 35 days to close. The seller is reliant on the home buyer and a disparate set of counterparties — such as their agent, mortgage broker and escrow officer — to coordinate and complete the closing process.

Fall-through risk.   Finally, there is an approximately 20% chance the contract falls through between signing and closing (based on average MLS contract fall through rates in our markets in 2020), forcing the home seller to start the entire process all over again.
Additionally, we estimate approximately two-thirds home sellers are also home buyers. These customers face an additional set of challenges to line up their home purchase with their sale:

Contingencies.   Many Americans cannot purchase their next home until they sell their existing home. Few Americans can qualify for two mortgages and few have enough money for two down payments. These buyers often have to submit offers contingent on selling their current home, putting them at a disadvantage versus other buyers.

The “double move”.   Alternatively, homeowners can sell their current home, move into a rental, and then buy a new home, forcing them to move twice and bear those costs.
Our Solution
Opendoor is an end-to-end real estate platform enabling consumers to buy and sell a home online. Today, our product and service offerings include:

A modern way to sell.   By selling to Opendoor, homeowners can avoid the stress of open houses, home repairs, overlapping mortgages and the uncertainty that can come with listing a home on the open market. Using our mobile app and website, sellers can receive a competitive cash offer online. Post offer, we conduct a virtual interior home assessment and a contact-free exterior assessment to verify the home data information. Sellers can then select their preferred closing date and close electronically (where permitted). We also recently launched “List with Opendoor” in select markets. This broadens our product suite for potential home sellers and gives them the choice between two superior sales options.
Customers have responded positively to this modern way of selling. As a result, we achieved a real seller conversion rate of over 30% in 2019 and 2020 (excluding March through August 2020 when we were not fully operational across all markets). We define real sellers as homeowners who are intent on selling their home and either enter into a contract to sell their home to Opendoor or list their home on the MLS within 60 days after receiving an offer from us. At a 6% service charge, we found that over 40% of real sellers chose to sell their home to Opendoor. Even with a higher service charge of 10%, approximately 20% of real sellers still chose to sell to Opendoor. More importantly, due to our focus on delighting the customer, we have a best-in-class Net Promoter Score of 70 from our sellers.

A modern way to buy.   Opendoor has built an on-demand, seamless and digital home buying experience. Unlike the traditional process that is intermediated by agents, Opendoor home buyers can use our app or website to self-tour or virtually tour homes at their convenience, shop for financing, submit an offer and close on their timeline. In 2019, we also launched “Buy with Opendoor” in select markets, which is a seamless buying experience that taps into Opendoor’s capabilities such as cash offers, home operations, and digital, automated fulfillment for all homes listed on the market.
 
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A modern way to move.   For customers who are both selling and buying, we have built a trade-in product that enables customers to buy and sell in a coordinated transaction, eliminating resale contingencies, double moves and double mortgages.

A digital one-stop shop.   A large number of services revolve around and are dependent on the home transaction. After we have earned our customers’ trust, we are able to introduce a range of services adjacent to the core real estate transaction in a highly convenient and integrated way, including title insurance and escrow services and Opendoor Home Loans, a tech-enabled mortgage platform for customers looking to buy or refinance a home.
Proprietary Data and Pricing Accuracy in Home Valuation
Since Opendoor’s founding, we have built world-class data science capabilities and systematized tooling to gather, aggregate and synthesize an expanding catalog of proprietary, hyperlocal data in order to improve and automate pricing decisions. We have conducted over 180,000 home assessments during which we collect over 100 data points on each home and its surroundings. Utilizing this base of unique offline data our algorithms use machine learning to drive pricing decisions through demand forecasting, outlier detection, risk pricing, and inventory management. Over time, we have improved pricing accuracy and our number of fully automated home valuations.
Low Cost Transaction Platform
Each component of our real estate business and our customer experience has been custom built from the ground up, focused on creating a scalable and vertically-integrated transaction platform that will delight customers. We have built world-class capabilities in pricing, home operations, fulfillment, capital markets and customer service. Instead of relying on the traditional, inefficient processes in place, we have intentionally developed our systems around technology, automation and centralization. We have demonstrated transaction velocity of over 100 homes per day during our busiest quarters, and our systems have the capacity to support substantially higher volumes. This platform is the foundation of our lower cost structure which allows us to drive down our costs per unit as we scale and, ultimately deliver a lower cost service for customers.
We have established a network of hundreds of local service providers that use our proprietary technology to identify and complete home repairs and maintenance, which optimizes our system to reduce delays, eliminate waste and improve quality, while also capturing additional data. Due to our scale, we have also driven down the cost of materials employed in our home repair processes through volume discounts. In addition, we have designed our home inventory management processes and home access technology to ensure our homes are regularly cleaned, well-maintained and safe to enable our on-demand, self-tour experience.
Strategic Growth Priorities
Our growth strategy is to innovate and execute on the following key strategic priorities:

Increase penetration in existing markets.   Approximately 1.3 million homes were sold in our existing markets in 2020, and our resales represented approximately 0.8% of all transactions in those markets, driving $2.6 billion in revenue. In 2019, approximately 1.1 million homes were sold in our existing markets, and our resales represented approximately 1.7% of all transactions in those markets, driving $4.7 billion in revenue. In 2019, our last full year of operations before the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, we estimate that only 6% of sellers in our markets received an offer from Opendoor and either sold their home to us or subsequently listed their home on the MLS within 60 days. We are focused on driving penetration and growing market share in our existing markets as we increase awareness and more home sellers and buyers look to transact online.

Expand to new markets. At 21 markets as of December 2020, we are just scratching the surface today. We believe we have a massive opportunity to expand our reach to the top 100 markets in the United States. Nearly 90% of existing homes in these markets fall into the price range of $100,000 to $750,000, which represents housing inventory that we are confident is in the addressable market for our products and services. In addition, we plan to double the markets we serve in 2021.
 
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Expand product and service offerings. In line with our focus on delivering a seamless experience, we are building a digital one-stop shop to move. In many of our markets, we already offer tech-enabled title insurance, escrow and mortgage services. We plan to add additional services over time to further simplify the transaction and delight customers, such as home insurance, home warranty, moving and storage, and home repair and maintenance.
Risk Factors
Our business is subject to numerous risks and uncertainties, including those highlighted in the section entitled “Risk Factors” immediately following this prospectus summary, that represent challenges that we face in connection with the successful implementation of our strategy and the growth of our business. In particular, the following considerations, among others, may offset our competitive strengths or have a negative effect on our business strategy, which could cause a decline in the price of shares of our common stock or warrants and result in a loss of all or a portion of your investment:

COVID-19 has adversely affected our business and may continue to adversely affect our business.

Our business and operating results may be significantly impacted by general economic conditions, the health of the U.S. residential real estate industry and risks associated with our real estate assets.

We have a history of losses, and we may not achieve or maintain profitability in the future.

We operate in a competitive and fragmented industry, which could impair our ability to attract users of our products, which could harm our business, results of operations and financial condition.

We have identified a material weakness in our internal control over financial reporting and may identify additional material weaknesses in the future or fail to maintain an effective system of internal control over financial reporting, which may result in material misstatements of our consolidated financial statements or cause us to fail to meet our periodic reporting obligations.

Our business is dependent upon access to desirable inventory. Obstacles to acquiring attractive inventory, whether because of supply, competition, or other factors may have a material adverse effect on our business, sales and results of operations.

We operate in a highly regulated industry and are subject to a wide range of federal, state and local laws, rules and regulations. Failure to comply with these laws, rules and regulations or to obtain and maintain required licenses, could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Our growth depends in part on the success of our strategic relationships with third parties.

We process, store and use personal information and other data, which subjects us to governmental regulation and other legal obligations related to privacy, and violation of these privacy obligations could result in a claim for damages, regulatory action, loss of business, or unfavorable publicity.

We utilize a significant amount of indebtedness in the operation of our business, and so our cash flows and operating results could be adversely affected by required payments of debt or related interest and other risks of our debt financing.
Accounting Treatment
The Business Combination was accounted for as a reverse recapitalization, in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“GAAP”). Under the guidance in ASC 805, Opendoor Technologies was treated as the “acquired” company for financial reporting purposes. Accordingly, the Business Combination will be treated as the equivalent of Opendoor issuing stock for the net assets of Opendoor Technologies, accompanied by a recapitalization whereby no goodwill or other intangible assets are recorded. Operations prior to the Business Combination will be those of Opendoor.
Corporate Information
We were incorporated under the name “Social Capital Hedosophia Holdings Corp. II” on October 18, 2019 as a Cayman Islands exempted company for purposes of effecting a merger, share exchange, asset
 
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acquisition, share purchase. reorganization or similar business combination with one or more businesses. On December 18, 2020, we domesticated into a Delaware corporation and changed our name to “Opendoor Technologies Inc.” in connection with the Domestication.
Our principal executive office is located at 410 N. Scottsdale Road, Suite 1600 Tempe, AZ 85281. Our telephone number is 415-896-6737. Our website address is www.opendoor.com. Information contained on our website is not a part of this prospectus, and the inclusion of our website address in this prospectus is an inactive textual reference only.
 
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RISK FACTORS
An investment in our securities involves a high degree of risk. You should carefully consider the risks described below before making an investment decision. Our business, prospects, financial condition, or operating results could be harmed by any of these risks, as well as other risks not currently known to us or that we currently consider immaterial. The trading price of our securities could decline due to any of these risks, and, as a result, you may lose all or part of your investment.
In the course of conducting our business operations, we are exposed to a variety of risks. These risks are generally inherent to the U.S. residential real estate industry or otherwise generally impact iBuyers like us. Any of the risk factors we describe below have affected or could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. The market price of shares of our common stock could decline, possibly significantly or permanently, if one or more of these risks and uncertainties occurs. Certain statements in “Risk Factors” are forward-looking statements. See “Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements.”
Risks Related to Our Business and Industry
The COVID-19 pandemic adversely affected our business in 2020. The extent to which COVID-19 will impact our future operations is highly uncertain and cannot be predicted at this time.
Our success depends on a high volume of residential real estate transactions throughout the markets in which we operate. This transaction volume affects all of the ways that we generate revenue, including our ability to acquire new homes and generate associated service fees, our ability to sell homes that we own, the generation of commissions from our brokerage business, the number of loans our mortgage business originates and resells, and the number of transactions our title and settlement business closes. The COVID-19 pandemic significantly and adversely affected our business beginning in March 2020 when governmental authorities put in place limitations on in-person activities related to the sale of residential real estate. As a result of these restrictions and safety concerns for our customers and employees, we paused acquisitions of homes beginning in March 2020 and sold down the home inventory on our platform during the second and third quarters of 2020. We resumed making acquisitions of homes across all of our markets in August 2020. The extent to which COVID-19 will impact our operations will depend on future developments, which are highly uncertain and cannot be predicted at this time.
We believe that COVID-19’s impact on our transaction volume depends in part on the impact of ongoing and potential future limitations imposed by governmental authorities on processes and procedures attendant to residential real estate transactions, such as in-home inspections and appraisals and in-person showings and county recordings, as well as COVID-19’s overall impacts on the U.S. economy. We believe that consumer spending on real estate transactions may be adversely affected by a number of macroeconomic factors related to COVID-19, including but not limited to:

increased unemployment rates and stagnant or declining wages;

decreased consumer confidence in the economy and recessionary conditions;

volatility and declines in the stock market and lower yields on individuals’ investment portfolios; and

more stringent mortgage financing conditions, including increased down payment requirements.
Our business and operating results may be significantly impacted by general economic conditions, the health of the U.S. residential real estate industry and risks associated with our real estate assets.
Our success depends, directly and indirectly, on general economic conditions, the health of the U.S. residential real estate industry, particularly the single family home resale market, and risks generally incident to the ownership of residential real estate, many of which are beyond our control. A number of factors could have a negative impact and harm our business, including the following:

downturns in the U.S. residential real estate market — both seasonal and cyclical — which may be due to one or more factors, whether included in this list or not;

the continuing and future impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on buying and selling trends in the residential real estate market;
 
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potential governmental or regulatory changes or requirements in response to the COVID-19 pandemic that may affect our business;

changes in national, regional, or local economic, demographic or real estate market conditions;

slow economic growth or recessionary or inflationary conditions;

increased levels of unemployment or declining wages;

declines in the value of residential real estate and/or the pace of home appreciation, or the lack thereof;

illiquidity in residential real estate;

overall conditions in the housing market, including macroeconomic shifts in demand, and increases in costs for homeowners such as property taxes, homeowners’ association fees and insurance costs;

low levels of consumer confidence in the economy and/or the U.S. residential real estate industry;

low home inventory levels or lack of affordably priced homes;

increased mortgage interest rates or down payment requirements and/or restrictions on mortgage financing availability;

changes in household debt levels;

volatility and general declines in the stock market;

federal, state, or local legislative or regulatory changes that would negatively impact owners or potential purchasers of single family homes or the residential real estate industry in general, such as the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017, which limited deductions of certain mortgage interest expenses and property taxes; or

natural disasters, such as hurricanes, windstorms, tornadoes, earthquakes, wildfires, floods, hailstorms and other events that disrupt local, regional, or national real estate markets.
We have a history of losses, and we may not achieve or maintain profitability in the future.
We have incurred net losses on an annual basis since we were founded. We incurred net losses of $ 287 million, $339 million, and $240 million for the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018, respectively   . We had an accumulated loss of $1,077 million and $790 million as of December 31, 2020 and 2019 , respectively. We expect to continue to make future investments in developing and expanding our business, including technology, recruitment and training, marketing and pursuing strategic opportunities. These investments may not result in increased revenue or growth in our business. Additionally, we may incur significant losses in the future for a number of reasons, including:

our inability to grow market share in our existing markets or any new markets we may enter;

our expansion into new markets, for which we typically incur more significant losses immediately following entry;

increased competition in the U.S. residential real estate industry;

changes in our fee structure or rates;

our failure to accurately price homes we acquire;

our failure to realize anticipated efficiencies through our technology and business model;

costs associated with enhancements of our products;

failure to execute our growth strategies;

declines in U.S. residential real estate transaction volumes;

increased marketing costs;

lack of access to housing market data that is used in our pricing models at reasonable cost;
 
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hiring additional personnel to support our overall growth;

loss in value of real estate or potential impairments in the value of our assets due to changes in market conditions in the area in which real estate or assets are located;

increases in costs associated with holding our real estate inventories, including financing costs;

the availability of debt financing and securitization funding to finance our real estate inventories; and

unforeseen expenses, difficulties, complications and delays, and other unknown factors.
Accordingly, we may not be able to achieve or maintain profitability and we may continue to incur significant losses in the future. Moreover, as we continue to invest in our business, we expect expenses to continue to increase in the near term. These investments may not result in increased revenue or growth in our business. If we fail to manage our losses or to grow our revenue sufficiently to keep pace with our investments and other expenses, our business will be harmed. In addition, as a public company, we will also incur significant legal, accounting and other expenses that we did not incur as a private company.
Because we incur substantial costs and expenses from our growth efforts before we receive any incremental revenues with respect thereto, we may find that these efforts are more expensive than we currently anticipate or that these efforts may not result in an increase in revenues to offset these expenses, which would further increase our losses.
Our limited operating history makes it difficult to evaluate our current business and future prospects.
Our business model and technology is still nascent compared to the business models of the incumbents in the U.S. residential real estate industry. We launched our first market in 2014 and do not have a long operating history. Our operating results are not predictable and our historical results may not be indicative of our future results. Few peer companies exist and none have yet established long-term track records that might assist us in predicting whether our business model and strategy can be implemented and sustained over an extended period of time. It may be difficult for you to evaluate our potential future performance without the benefit of established long-term track records from companies implementing a similar business model. We may encounter unanticipated problems as we continue to refine our business model and may be forced to make significant changes to our anticipated sales and revenue models to compete with our competitors’ offerings, which may adversely affect our results of operations and profitability.
We operate in a competitive and fragmented industry, which could impair our ability to attract users of our products, which could harm our business, results of operations and financial condition.
We operate in a competitive and fragmented industry, and we expect competition to continue to increase. We believe that our ability to compete depends upon many factors both within and beyond our control, including the following:

the financial competitiveness of our products for consumers;

the volume of our customers;

the timing and market acceptance of our products, including new products offered by us or our competitors;

our selling and marketing efforts;

our customer service and support efforts;

our continued ability to develop and improve our technology to support our business model;

customer adoption of our platform as an alternative to traditional methods of buying and selling residential real estate; and

our brand strength relative to our competitors.
Our business model depends on our ability to continue to attract customers to our digital platform and the products we offer and enhance their engagement with our products in a cost-effective manner. New
 
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entrants continue to join our market categories at a rapid pace. Our existing and potential competitors include companies that operate, or could develop, national and/or local real estate businesses offering services, including real estate brokerage services, mortgage, and title insurance and escrow services, to home buyers or sellers.
Many of our competitors have well-established national reputations and may market similar products and services. Several of these companies are larger than us and have significant competitive advantages, including better name recognition, greater resources, lower cost of funds and additional access to capital, and more types of offerings than we currently do. These companies may also have higher risk tolerances or different risk assessments than we do. In addition, these competitors could devote greater financial, technical and other resources than we have available to develop, grow or improve their businesses. If we are not able to continue to attract customers to our platform and products, our business, results of operations and financial condition will be harmed.
We have experienced rapid growth since inception which may not be indicative of our future growth and, if we continue to grow rapidly, we may not be able to manage our growth effectively.
We have experienced rapid growth and demand for our products since inception. We expect that, in the future, even if our revenue increases, our rate of growth may decline. In any event, we will not be able to grow as fast or at all if we do not, among other things:

increase the number of customers using our platform;

acquire sufficient inventory at an attractive cost and quality to meet the increasing demand for our homes;

increase customer conversion;

increase our market share within existing markets and expand into new markets;

increase our brand awareness;

retain adequate availability of financing sources; and

obtain necessary capital to meet our business objectives.
Furthermore, in order to preserve our market position, we may expand into new markets or launch new products or services in existing or new markets more quickly than we would if we did not operate in such a highly competitive industry. Expanding into new markets may prove to be challenging as some markets may have very different characteristics than the markets we currently operate in, some of which may be unanticipated or unknown to us. These differences may result in greater pricing inaccuracies, as well as higher capital requirements, hold times, repair costs and transaction costs that may result in those markets being less profitable for us than those that we currently operate in.
Prospective sellers and buyers of homes may choose not to transact online, which would prevent us from growing our business.
Our success depends, in part, on our ability to attract customers who have historically purchased homes through more traditional channels. The online market for homes is significantly less developed than the online market for other goods and services such as books, music, travel and other consumer products. If this market does not gain widespread acceptance, our business may suffer. Furthermore, we may have to incur significantly higher and more sustained advertising and promotional expenditures or offer more incentives than we currently anticipate in order to attract consumers to our platform and convert them into sellers or buyers. If the online market for residential real estate does not continue to develop and grow, our business will not grow and our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected.
Our business is dependent upon our ability to accurately price and portfolio manage inventory and an ineffective pricing or portfolio management strategy may have a material adverse effect on our business, sales and results of operations.
We appraise and price the homes we buy and sell using data science and proprietary algorithms based on a number of factors, including our knowledge of the real estate markets in which we operate. This
 
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assessment includes estimates on time of possession, market conditions, renovation costs and holding costs, and anticipated resale proceeds. Conversion rates and customer satisfaction may be negatively impacted if valuations are too low and/or fees are too high. Additionally, following our acquisition of a home, we may need to decrease our anticipated resale price for that home if we discover defects or other conditions requiring remediation or impacting the value of the home that were unknown to us at the time of acquisition. We may be unable to acquire or sell inventory at attractive prices or to finance and manage inventory effectively, and accordingly our revenue, gross margins and results of operations would be affected, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Property values may decline during the time between when we make an offer to purchase a home and when the closing of the purchase actually occurs and may adversely affect our business.
The time between when we make an offer to purchase a property and when we close the purchase can vary from weeks to several months, depending on the needs of our customers. In the interim period, there can be adverse impacts on the value or liquidity profile of the home. We may not be able to or wish to renegotiate or cancel a contract because doing so would negatively impact customer satisfaction and our brand, and potentially subject us to loss of our earnest money deposit or litigation. In the event the value of such homes declines significantly, we could experience losses, which in the aggregate could be detrimental to our business and results of operations.
Our business is dependent upon our ability to expeditiously sell inventory. Failure to expeditiously sell our inventory could have an adverse effect on our business, sales and results of operations. Holding homes in inventory exposes us to risks, such as increased holding costs.
Our purchases of homes are based in large part on our estimates of projected demand. If actual sales are materially less than our forecasts, we would experience an over-supply of inventory. An over-supply of home inventory will generally cause downward pressure on our sales prices and margins and increase our average days to sale. Our inventory of homes purchased has typically represented a significant portion of total assets. Having such a large portion of our total assets in the form of non-income producing homes inventory for an extended period of time subjects us to significant holding costs, including financing expenses, maintenance and upkeep expenses, insurance expenses, property tax expenses, homeowners’ association fees, other expenses that accompany the ownership of residential real property and increased risk of depreciation of value. If we have excess inventory or our average days to sale increases, the results of our operations may be adversely effected because we may be unable to liquidate such inventory at prices that allow us to meet margin targets or to recover our costs.
We have identified a material weakness in our internal control over financial reporting and may identify additional material weaknesses in the future or fail to maintain an effective system of internal control over financial reporting, which may result in material misstatements of our consolidated financial statements or cause us to fail to meet our periodic reporting obligations.
We have identified a material weakness in our internal control over financial reporting. A material weakness is a deficiency, or a combination of deficiencies, in internal control over financial reporting such that there is a reasonable possibility that a material misstatement of our annual or interim financial statements will not be prevented or detected on a timely basis. The material weakness relates to our general information technology controls, including the design and implementation of access and change management controls. Additionally, key components of the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (“COSO”) framework have not been fully implemented, including control and monitoring activities relating to: (1) electing and developing general control activities over technology to support the achievement of objectives; and (2) electing, developing, and performing ongoing and/or separate evaluations to ascertain whether the components of internal control are present and functioning.
We have engaged a third party consultant and are in the process of designing and implementing measures to improve our internal control over financial reporting to remediate this material weakness. While we are designing and implementing measures to remediate the material weakness, we cannot predict the success of such measures or the outcome of our assessment of these measures at this time. We can give no assurance that these measures will remediate the deficiencies in internal control or that additional material
 
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weaknesses or significant deficiencies in our internal control over financial reporting will not be identified in the future. Our failure to implement and maintain effective internal control over financial reporting could result in errors in our financial statements that may lead to a restatement of our financial statements or cause us to fail to meet our reporting obligations.
As a public company, beginning with our second annual report on Form 10-K we will be required, pursuant to Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, to furnish a report by management on, among other things, the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting for future annual reports on Form 10-K to be filed with the SEC. This assessment will need to include disclosure of any material weaknesses identified by our management in our internal control over financial reporting. Our independent registered public accounting firm will also be required to attest to the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting in future annual reports report on Form 10-K to be filed with the SEC. We will be required to disclose changes made in our internal controls and procedures on a quarterly basis. Failure to comply with the Sarbanes-Oxley Act could potentially subject us to sanctions or investigations by the SEC, the applicable stock exchange or other regulatory authorities, which would require additional financial and management resources. We have begun the process of compiling the system and processing documentation necessary to perform the evaluation needed to comply with Section 404 in the future, but we may not be able to complete our evaluation, testing and any required remediation in a timely fashion.
We experience seasonality and our operating results are likely to fluctuate on a quarterly and annual basis, and, as a result, our historical performance may not be a meaningful indicator of future performance.
We expect our revenue and results of operations to vary significantly from period to period in the future, based in part on, among other things, consumers’ home buying patterns. The residential real estate market is seasonal, with greater demand from home buyers in the spring and summer, and typically weaker demand in late fall and winter, resulting in fluctuations in the quantity, speed and price of transactions on our platform. We expect our financial results and working capital requirements to reflect seasonal variations over time, although our growth and market expansion have obscured the impact of seasonality in our historical financials to date and may continue to do so.
In addition, our operating results are tied to certain key business metrics that have fluctuated in the past and are likely to fluctuate in the future. As a result of such variability, our historical performance, including from recent quarters or years, may not be a meaningful indicator of future performance and period-to-period comparisons also may not be meaningful.
If we do not innovate or provide customers with an efficient and seamless transaction experience, our business could be harmed.
The industry for residential real estate transaction services, technology, information marketplaces and advertising is dynamic, and the expectations and behaviors of customers and professionals shift constantly and rapidly. Our success depends on our continued innovation to provide new, and improve upon existing, products that make real estate transactions faster, easier and less stressful for our customers. As a result, we must continually invest significant resources in research and development to improve the attractiveness and comprehensiveness of our products, enable smoother and more efficient real estate transactions, adapt to changes in technology and support new devices and operating systems. Changes or additions to our products may not attract or engage our customers, and may reduce confidence in our products, negatively impact the quality of our brands, upset other industry participants, expose us to increased market or legal risks, subject us to new laws and regulations or otherwise harm our business. Furthermore, if we are unable to successfully anticipate or keep pace with industry changes and provide products that our customers want to use, on the devices they prefer, then those customers may become dissatisfied and use competitors instead. If we are unable to continue offering high-quality, innovative products, we may be unable to attract additional customers and real estate partners or retain our current customers and real estate partners, which could harm our business, results of operations and financial condition.
Our business model and growth strategy depend on our marketing efforts and ability to attract buyers and sellers to our platform in a cost-effective manner.
Our long-term success depends in part on our ability to continue to attract more buyers and sellers to our platform in each of our markets. We believe that an important component of our growth will be the
 
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growth of potential customers to our website. Our marketing efforts may not succeed for a variety of reasons, including changes to search engine algorithms, ineffective campaigns across marketing channels, and limited experience in certain marketing channels like television. External factors beyond our control may also affect the success of our marketing initiatives, such as filtering of our targeted communications by email servers, buyers and sellers failing to respond to our marketing initiatives, and competition from third parties. Any of these factors could reduce the number of customers coming to our platform.
Our business model relies on our ability to scale rapidly and to decrease incremental customer acquisition costs as we grow. If we are unable to recover our marketing costs through increases in customer traffic and in the number of transactions by users of our platform, or if our broad marketing campaigns are not successful or are terminated, it could have a material adverse effect on our growth, results of operations and financial condition.
Our business depends on a strong brand, and if we are not able to maintain and enhance our brand, our ability to expand our customer base will be impaired.
We believe that the brand identity that we have developed has significantly contributed to the success of our business and maintaining and enhancing the “Opendoor” brand is critical to expanding our customer base and current and future partners. If we fail to promote and maintain the “Opendoor” brand, or if we incur excessive expenses in this effort, our business, operating results and financial condition could be adversely affected.
Our decision to expand existing product and service offerings into new markets or to launch new product or service offerings may consume significant financial and other resources and may not achieve the desired results.
We regularly evaluate expanding our products into new markets or launching new product offerings in existing or new markets. Any expansion or new offering requires significant expenses and the time of our key personnel, particularly at the outset of the process. We typically experience increased losses in new markets as we adjust to competitive environments with which we are unfamiliar and invest to build our brand presence within those markets. Our plans to expand and deepen our market share in our existing markets and possibly expand into additional markets is subject to a variety of risks and challenges. These risks and challenges include the varying economic and demographic conditions of each market, competition from local and regional residential brokerage firms, variations in transaction dynamics, and pricing pressures. We cannot assure you that we will be able to increase revenues and create business model efficiencies in new markets in the manner we have in our more mature existing markets.
Housing markets and housing stock in different areas can vary widely and certain markets may be more adaptable to our current business model than others. As we continue to expand, we may launch our product in markets that prove to be more challenging for our business model. As we expand from markets with a relatively new and homogeneous housing stock to markets with older and more diverse housing stock, we will have to adapt our business and operations to local conditions. The valuation technologies and systems that we currently use may not be as effective at accurately valuing homes in markets with older and more diverse housing stock. In addition, homes that we purchase in markets with relatively older housing stock may require more capital expenditures on improvements and repairs. We may also expand into markets with higher average home prices and fewer available homes within our target price range. If we are unable to adapt to these new markets and scale effectively, our business and results of operations may be adversely affected.
New markets and new product offerings may also subject us to new regulatory environments, which could increase our costs as we evaluate compliance with the new regulatory regime. Notwithstanding the expenses and time devoted to expanding an existing product offering into a new market or launching a new product offering, we may fail to achieve the financial and market share goals associated with the expansion.
If we cannot manage our expansion efforts efficiently, our market share gains could take longer than planned and our related costs could exceed our expectations. In addition, we could incur significant costs to seek to expand our market share, and still not succeed in attracting sufficient customers to offset such costs.
 
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A significant portion of our costs and expenses are fixed, and we may not be able to adapt our cost structure to offset declines in our revenue.
A significant portion of our expenses are fixed and do not vary proportionately with fluctuations in revenues. We need to maintain and continue to increase our transaction volumes to benefit from operating efficiencies. When we operate at less than expected capacity, fixed costs are inflated and represent a larger percentage of overall cost basis and percentage of revenue. Certain services we use, subscriptions and fees have fixed costs and are necessary for operation of the business. The other portion of fixed costs are necessary in order to invest in future growth. Given the early stage of our business, we cannot assure you that we will be able to rationalize our fixed costs.
Our growth depends in part on the success of our strategic relationships with third parties.
In order to grow our business, we anticipate that we will continue to depend on relationships with third parties, such as settlement service providers, lenders, real estate agents, valuation companies, vendors we use to service and repair our homes, third party partners we rely on for referrals, such as homebuilders and online real estate websites, and institutional buyers of our inventory, such as single family rental REITs. Identifying partners, and negotiating and documenting agreements with them, and establishing and maintaining good relationships requires significant time and resources.
In addition, we rely on our relationships with multiple-listing services providers (MLS) in all our markets both as key data sources for our pricing and for listing our inventory for resale. Many of our competitors and other real estate websites have similar access to MLSs and listing data and may be able to source real estate information faster or more efficiently than we can. If we lose existing relationships with MLSs and other listing providers, whether due to termination of agreements or otherwise, changes to our rights to use or timely access listing data, an inability to continue to add new listing providers or changes to the way real estate information is shared, our ability to price or list our inventory for resale could be impaired and our operating results may suffer.
If we are unsuccessful in establishing or maintaining successful relationships with third parties, our ability to compete in the marketplace or to grow our revenues could be impaired and our operating results may suffer. Even if we are successful, we cannot assure you that these relationships will result in increased customer usage of our product or increased revenues.
We rely on information supplied by prospective sellers in pricing homes and use technology to conduct physical inspections remotely.
We make offers based on our review of offer requests completed by the prospective seller. While we may seek to confirm or build on information provided in such an offer request through our own due diligence, we rely on the information supplied to us by prospective sellers to make offer decisions, and we cannot be certain that this information is accurate. If owner-supplied information is inaccurate, we may make poor or imperfect pricing decisions and our portfolio may contain more risk than we believe. We are also experimenting with conducting our pre-closing visual inspections of homes remotely through videos submitted to us by the sellers and this shift has been accelerated by health concerns associated with COVID-19, and this change may become permanent. It is possible that these video inspections may not be effective in identifying undisclosed issues, conditions or defects that an in-person inspection might otherwise reveal, which could result in us incurring unforeseen costs during the resale process.
Declining real estate valuations and impairment charges could result in recording impairment charges and may also adversely affect our financial condition and operating results.
There are risks inherent in owning properties and inventory risks are substantial for our business. Home prices can be volatile and the values of our inventory may fluctuate significantly and we may incur impairment charges due to changes in market conditions and/or economic sentiment. We periodically review the value of our properties to determine whether their value, based on market factors and generally accepted accounting principles, has permanently decreased such that it is necessary or appropriate to take an impairment loss in the relevant accounting period. Such a loss would cause an immediate reduction of net income in the applicable accounting period and would be reflected in a decrease in our balance sheet
 
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assets. Even if we do not determine that it is necessary or appropriate to record an impairment loss, a reduction in the intrinsic value of a property would become manifest over time through reduced income from the property and would therefore affect our earnings and financial condition.
Our business is concentrated in certain geographic markets. Exposure to local economies, regional downturns or severe weather or catastrophic occurrences or other disruptions or events may materially adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.
As of December 31, 2020, we were in 21 markets across the United States. For the year ended December 31, 2020, a majority of our revenue was generated from our top five markets by revenue. As a result, local and regional conditions in these markets, including those arising from COVID-19’s impacts, may differ significantly from prevailing conditions in the United States or other parts of the country. Any unforeseen events or circumstances that negatively affect these areas could materially adversely affect our revenues and profitability. These risks include, without limitation: possible declines in the value of real estate; risks related to general and local economic conditions; demographic and population shifts and migration; possible lack of availability of mortgage funds; overbuilding; extended vacancies of properties; increases in competition, property taxes and operating expenses; changes in zoning laws; increased labor costs; unemployment; costs resulting from the clean-up of, and liability to third parties for damages resulting from, environmental problems; casualty or condemnation losses; and uninsured damages from floods, hurricanes, earthquakes or other natural disasters.
In addition, our top markets are primarily larger metropolitan areas, where home prices and transaction volumes are generally higher than other markets in the United States. To the extent people migrate outside of these markets due to lower home prices or other factors, and this migration continues to take place over the long-term, then the relative percentage of residential housing transactions may shift away from our historical top markets where we have generated most of our revenue. If we are unable to effectively adapt to any shift, including failing to increase revenue from other markets, then our financial performance may be harmed.
Our business is dependent upon access to desirable inventory. Obstacles to acquiring attractive inventory, whether because of supply, competition, or other factors may have a material adverse effect on our business, sales and results of operations.
We primarily acquire homes directly from consumers and there can be no assurance of an adequate supply of such homes on terms that are attractive to us. There can be no assurance that the supply of desirable homes will be sufficient to meet our needs. A reduction in the availability of or access to inventory could have a material adverse effect on our business, sales and results of operations. Additionally, we evaluate thousands of potential homes daily using our proprietary pricing model. If we fail to adjust our pricing to stay in line with broader market trends, or fail to recognize those trends, it could adversely affect our ability to acquire inventory. We remain dependent on customers to sell us homes.
Our ongoing ability to acquire homes is critical to our business model. A lack of available homes that meet our purchase criteria may affect our ability to scale. Reductions in our acquisitions of homes may have adverse effects on our ability to reach our desired inventory levels, our desired portfolio diversification, and our results of operations. In response to the COVID-19 pandemic and the consequent health risks, we temporarily ceased purchasing additional homes in March 2020 to safeguard the health and safety of our customers and employees. As our revenues are dependent on inventory levels available for sale, we expect our near-term revenues to be impacted due to limited inventory. We resumed operations across all of our markets by the end of August 2020, but there are no assurances as to when we will be able to return to pre-COVID-19 inventory levels in the short term.
Increases in transaction costs to acquire properties, including costs of evaluating homes and making offers, title insurance and escrow service costs, changes in transfer taxes, and any other new or increased acquisition costs, would have an adverse impact on our home acquisitions and our business.
Reductions in the availability of mortgage financing provided by government agencies, changes in government financing programs, or an increase in mortgage interest rates could decrease our buyers’ ability or desire to obtain financing and adversely affect our business or financial results.
The secondary market for mortgage loans continues to primarily desire securities backed by Fannie Mae, Freddie Mac or Ginnie Mae, and we believe the liquidity these agencies provide to the mortgage
 
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industry is important to the housing market. Any significant change regarding the long-term structure and viability of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac could result in adjustments to the size of their loan portfolios and to guidelines for their loan products. Additionally, a reduction in the availability of financing provided by these institutions could adversely affect interest rates, mortgage availability and sales of new homes and mortgage loans.
Mortgage interest rates are currently low as compared to most historical periods. However, they could increase in the future, particularly if the Federal Reserve Board raises its benchmark rate. When interest rates increase, the cost of owning a home increases, which will likely reduce the number of potential home buyers who can obtain mortgage financing and could result in a decline in the demand for our homes.
Increases in the rate of cancellations of home sale agreements could have an adverse effect on our business.
In some cases, a home buyer may cancel the agreement of sale and receive a complete or partial refund of the deposit for reasons such as state and local laws, the home buyer’s inability to obtain mortgage financing, their inability to sell their current home or our inability to complete the sale of the home within the specified time. If there is a downturn in the housing market, or if mortgage financing becomes less available than it currently is, more home buyers may cancel their agreements of sale with us, which would have an adverse effect on our business and results of operations.
We rely on third parties to renovate and repair homes before we resell the homes, and the cost or availability of third-party labor could adversely affect our holding period and investment return for homes.
We frequently need to renovate or repair homes prior to listing for resale. We rely on third-party contractors and sub-contractors to undertake these renovations and repairs. These third-party providers may not be able to complete the required renovations or repairs within our expected timeline or proposed budget. Furthermore, if the quality of a third-party provider’s work does not meet our expectations, then we may need to engage another third-party contractor or subcontractor, which may also adversely affect the timeline or budget for completing renovations or repairs.
A longer than expected period for completing renovations or repairs could negatively impact our ability to sell a home within our anticipated timeline. This prolonged timing exposes us to factors that adversely affect the home’s resale value and may result in selling the home for a lower price than anticipated or not being able to sell the home at all. Meanwhile, incurring more than budgeted costs would adversely affect our investment return on purchased homes. Additionally, any undetected issues with a third-party provider’s work may adversely affect our reputation as a home seller.
There are risks related to our ownership of vacant homes and the listing of those homes for resale that are not possible to fully eliminate.
The homes in our inventory generally are not occupied during the time we own them prior to resale. When a home is listed for resale, prospective buyers or their agents typically can access our homes through our proprietary technology without the need for an appointment or one of our representatives being present. In certain circumstances, we also allow sellers to continue to occupy a home after we have purchased the home for a short period of time. Having visitors or short-term occupants in our homes entails risks of damage to the homes, personal injury, unauthorized activities on the properties, theft, rental scams, squatters and trespasser and other situations that may have adverse impacts on us or the homes, including potential adverse reputational impacts. Additionally, all of these circumstances may involve significant costs to resolve that may not be fully covered by insurance, including legal costs associated with removing unauthorized visitors and occupants and additional holding and repair costs. If these increased costs are significant across our homes inventory, both in terms of costs per home and numbers of homes impacted, this could have an adverse impact on our results of operations that is material.
OS National LLC (“OSN”) could be subject to liability for errors in its issuance of title insurance policies on behalf of third parties.
In its position as a licensed title agent, OSN is responsible for ensuring that each title insurance policy it issues is underwritten in accordance with the guidelines prescribed by the title insurance underwriters it
 
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acts as agent for. OSN’s relationship with each title insurance underwriter is governed by an agency agreement defining how it issues title insurance policies on their behalf. The agency agreement also sets forth OSN’s liability to the underwriter for policy losses attributable to OSN’s errors. In the event that OSN’s processes, controls and procedures are not effective at preventing such errors and this results in significant claims under title insurance policies issued by OSN, this could result in material liabilities not covered by insurance, which could adversely affect our business and results of operations.
Our mortgage lending business could fail to achieve expected results and could cause harm to our financial results, operations, and reputation.
We operate our mortgage lending business through our wholly owned subsidiary Opendoor Home Loans LLC (“Opendoor Home Loans”). Opendoor Home Loans funds substantially all of its lending operations using warehouse and repurchase facilities, with the intention to sell all loans and corresponding servicing rights to third-party financial institutions after a holding period. Its borrowings are in turn generally repaid with the proceeds it receives from mortgage loan sales. To grow its mortgage business, Opendoor Home Loans depends, in part, on having sufficient borrowing capacity under its current facilities or obtaining additional borrowing capacity under new facilities. If Opendoor Home Loans is not able to maintain debt financing with sufficient capacity or flexibility and does not have sufficient cash on hand, it would not be able to fund new loans and its business would suffer. If Opendoor Home Loans is unable to form or retain relationships with third-party financial institutions to purchase its loans or to comply with any covenants in its agreements with these institutions, it may be unable to sell its loans on favorable terms or at all. If Opendoor Home Loans is unable to sell its loans or is required to repurchase the loans from third parties, it may be required to hold the loans for investment or sell them at a discount. All of the foregoing could cause harm to our financial results, operations, and reputation.
We may acquire other businesses which could require significant management attention, disrupt our business, dilute stockholder value and adversely affect our operating results.
As part of our business strategy, we may make investments in or acquire complementary companies, products or technologies. We may not realize benefits from any acquisition that we may make in the future. If we fail to integrate successfully such acquisitions, or the businesses and technologies associated with such acquisitions, into our company, the revenue and operating results of our company could be adversely affected. Any integration process will require significant time and resources, and we may not be able to manage the process successfully. We may not successfully evaluate or utilize the acquired business or technology and accurately forecast the financial impact of an acquisition transaction, including accounting charges. We may have to pay cash, incur debt or issue equity securities to pay for any such acquisition, each of which could affect our financial condition or the value of our capital stock. The sale of equity or issuance to finance any such acquisitions could result in dilution to our stockholders. The incurrence of indebtedness in connection with an acquisition would result in increased fixed obligations and could also include covenants or other restrictions that may impede our ability to manage our operations.
The loss of one or more of our key personnel, or our failure to attract and retain other highly qualified personnel in the future, could harm our business.
Our success depends upon the continued service of our senior management team and successful transitions when management team members pursue other opportunities. In addition, our business depends on our ability to continue to attract, motivate and retain a large number of skilled employees across all of our product lines. Furthermore, much of our key technology and processes are custom-made for our business by our personnel. The loss of key personnel, including key members of management, could materially and adversely affect our ability to build on the efforts they have undertaken and to execute our business plan, and we may not be able to find adequate replacements. We undertook a workforce restructuring and realignment, resulting in a reduction in force of approximately 35% of our workforce in 2020, which may result in potential employees being concerned to work for us. If we do not succeed in attracting well-qualified employees or retaining and motivating existing employees in a cost-effective manner, our business could be harmed.
 
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A health and safety incident relating to our operations could be costly in terms of potential liability and reputational damage.
Customers will visit homes on a regular basis through our mobile application or with a real estate agent. Due to the number of homes we own, the safety of our homes is critical to the success of our business. A failure to keep our homes safe that results in a major or significant health and safety incident could expose us to liability that could be costly. Such an incident could generate significant negative publicity and have a corresponding impact on our reputation, our relationships with relevant regulatory agencies or governmental authorities, and our ability to attract customers and employees, which in turn could have a material adverse effect on our financial results and liquidity.
Environmentally hazardous conditions may adversely affect us.
Under various federal, state and local environmental laws, a current or previous owner or operator of real property may be liable for the cost of removing or remediating hazardous or toxic substances on such property. Such laws often impose liability whether or not the owner or operator knew of, or was responsible for, the presence of such hazardous or toxic substances. Even if more than one person may have been responsible for the contamination, each person covered by applicable environmental laws may be held responsible for all of the clean-up costs incurred. In addition, third parties may sue the owner or operator of a site for damages based on personal injury, natural resources or property damage or other costs, including investigation and clean-up costs, resulting from the environmental contamination. The presence of hazardous or toxic substances on one of our properties, or the failure to properly remediate a contaminated property, could give rise to a lien in favor of the government for costs it may incur to address the contamination or otherwise adversely affect our ability to sell the property. Environmental laws also may impose restrictions on the manner in which property may be used or businesses may be operated. A property owner who violates environmental laws may be subject to sanctions which may be enforced by governmental agencies or, in certain circumstances, private parties. In connection with the acquisition and ownership of our properties, we may be exposed to such costs. The cost of defending against environmental claims, of compliance with environmental regulatory requirements or of remediating any contaminated property could materially and adversely affect us.
Compliance with new or more stringent environmental laws or regulations or stricter interpretation of existing laws may require material expenditures by us. We may be subject to environmental laws or regulations relating to our properties, such as those concerning lead-based paint, mold, asbestos, radon, pesticides, proximity to power lines or other issues. We cannot assure you that future laws, ordinances or regulations will not impose any material environmental liability or that the current environmental condition of our properties will not be affected by existing conditions of the land, operations in the vicinity of the properties or the activities of unrelated third parties. In addition, we may be required to comply with various local, state and federal fire, health, life-safety and similar regulations. Failure to comply with applicable laws and regulations could result in fines and/or damages, suspension of personnel, civil liability or other sanctions.
Some of our potential losses may not be covered by insurance. We may not be able to obtain or maintain adequate insurance coverage.
We maintain insurance to cover costs and losses from certain risk exposures in the ordinary course of our operations, but our insurance may not cover 100% of the costs and losses from all events. We are responsible for certain retentions and deductibles that vary by policy, and we may suffer losses that exceed our insurance coverage limits by a material amount. We may also incur costs or suffer losses arising from events against which we have no insurance coverage. In addition, large-scale market trends or the occurrence of adverse events in our business may raise our cost of procuring insurance or limit the amount or type of insurance we are able to secure. We may not be able to maintain our current coverage, or obtain new coverage in the future; on commercially reasonable terms or at all. Incurring uninsured or underinsured costs or losses could harm our business.
 
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Risks Related to Our Intellectual Property and Technology
Any significant disruption in service in our computer systems and third-party networks and mobile infrastructure that we depend on could result in a loss of customers and we may be unable to maintain and scale the technology underlying our offerings.
Customers and potential customers access our products primarily through our website and mobile applications. Our ability to attract, retain and serve customers depends on the reliable performance and availability of our website, mobile application, and technology infrastructure. Furthermore, we depend on the reliable performance of third-party networks and mobile infrastructure to provide our technology offerings to our customers and potential customers. The proper operation of these networks and infrastructure is beyond our control, and service interruptions or website unavailability could impact our ability to service our customers in a timely manner, and may have an adverse effect on existing and potential customer relationships.
Our information systems and technology may not be able to continue to accommodate our growth and may be subject to security risks. The cost of maintaining such systems may increase. Such a failure to accommodate growth, or an increase in costs related to such information systems, could have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations and could result in a loss of customers.
We process, store and use personal information and other data, which subjects us to governmental regulation and other legal obligations related to privacy, and violation of these privacy obligations could result in a claim for damages, regulatory action, loss of business, or unfavorable publicity.
We receive, store and process personal information and other customer information, or personal information. There are numerous federal and state laws, as well as regulations and industry guidelines, regarding privacy and the storing, use, processing, and disclosure and protection of personal information, the scope of which are changing, subject to differing interpretations, and may be inconsistent among countries or conflict with other rules. Additionally, laws, regulations, and standards covering marketing and advertising activities conducted by telephone, email, mobile devices, and the internet, may be applicable to our business, such as the Telephone Consumer Protection Act, or the TCPA, (as implemented by the Telemarketing Sales Rule), the CAN-SPAM Act, and similar state consumer protection laws. We generally seek to comply with industry standards and are subject to the terms of our own privacy policies and privacy-related obligations to third parties. We strive to comply with all applicable laws, policies, legal obligations and industry codes of conduct relating to privacy and data protection to the extent possible. However, it is possible that these obligations may be interpreted and applied in a manner that is inconsistent from one jurisdiction to another and may conflict with other rules or regulations, making enforcement, and thus compliance requirements, ambiguous, uncertain, and potentially inconsistent. Any failure or perceived failure by us to comply with our privacy policies, privacy-related obligations to customers or other third parties, or our privacy-related legal obligations, or any compromise of security that results in the unauthorized access to or unintended release of personally identifiable information or other customer data, may result in governmental enforcement actions, litigation, or public statements against us by consumer advocacy groups or others. Any of these events could cause us to incur significant costs in investigating and defending such claims and, if found liable, pay significant damages. Further, these proceedings and any subsequent adverse outcomes may cause our customers to lose trust in us, which could have an adverse effect on our reputation and business.
Any significant change to applicable laws, regulations or industry practices regarding the use or disclosure of personal information, or regarding the manner in which the express or implied consent of customers for the use and disclosure of personal information is obtained, could require us to modify our products and features, possibly in a material manner and subject to increased compliance costs, which may limit our ability to develop new products and features that make use of the personal information that our customers voluntarily share. For example, the California Consumer Privacy Act (the “CCPA”), which took effect on January 1, 2020, imposes obligations and restrictions on companies regarding their collection, use, and sharing of personal information and provides new and enhanced data privacy rights to California residents. The CCPA imposes a severe statutory damages framework. Several other states are actively
 
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considering privacy laws, which may impose substantial penalties for violations, impose significant costs for investigations and compliance, allow private class-action litigation and carry significant potential liability for our business.
Any of the foregoing could materially adversely affect our brand, reputation, business, results of operations, and financial condition.
Failure to protect our trade secrets, know-how, proprietary applications, business processes and other proprietary information, could adversely affect the value of our technology and products.
Our success and ability to compete depends in part on our intellectual property and our other proprietary business information. We seek to control access to our proprietary information by entering into a combination of confidentiality and proprietary rights agreements, invention assignment agreements and nondisclosure agreements with our employees, consultants and third parties with whom we have relationships. We have filed trademark and patent applications to protect certain aspects of our intellectual property. However, we cannot guarantee that patents will issue on our pending patent applications or that we will be successful in registering our trademarks. We may be unable to secure intellectual property protection for all of our technology and methodologies, or the steps we take to enforce our intellectual property rights may be inadequate. Furthermore, third parties may knowingly or unknowingly infringe our proprietary rights, third parties may challenge proprietary rights held by us, and we may not be able to prevent infringement or misappropriation of our proprietary rights without incurring substantial expense. If our intellectual property rights are used or misappropriated by third parties, the value of our brand and other intangible assets may be diminished and competitors may be able to more effectively mimic our products and methods of operations. Any of these events would have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
In the future we may be party to intellectual property rights claims and other litigation which are expensive to support, and if resolved adversely, could have a significant impact on us.
Our success depends in part on us not infringing upon the intellectual property of others. Our competitors and other third parties may own or claim to own intellectual property relating to the real estate industry. In the future, third parties may claim that we are infringing on their intellectual property rights, and we may be found to be infringing such rights. Any claims or litigation could cause us to incur significant expenses. If such claims are successfully asserted against us, it would require additional damages or ongoing licensing payments, prevent us from offering our services or require us to comply with unfavorable terms. Even if we were to prevail, the time and resources necessary to resolve such disputes could costly, time-consuming, and divert the attention of management and key personnel from our business operations. We have been previously subject to trademark infringement claims. These claims allege, among other things, that aspects of our trademarks infringe upon the plaintiffs’ trademarks. If we are not successful in defending ourselves against these claims, we may be required to pay damages and may be subject to injunctions, each of which could harm our business, results of operations, financial condition and reputation.
Our services utilize third-party open source software components, which may pose particular risks to our proprietary software, technologies, products and services in a manner that could negatively affect our business.
We use open source software in our services and will continue to use open source software in the future. Use and distribution of open source software may entail greater risks than use of third-party commercial software, as open source licensors generally do not provide support, warranties, indemnification or other contractual protections regarding infringement claims or the quality of the code. To the extent that our services depend upon the successful operation of open source software, any undetected errors or defects in this open source software could prevent the deployment or impair the functionality of our platform, delay new solutions introductions, result in a failure of our platform, and injure our reputation.
Some open source licenses contain requirements that we make available source code for modifications or derivative works we create based upon the type of open source software we use, or grant other licenses to our intellectual property. If we combine our proprietary software with open source software in a certain manner, we could, under certain open source licenses, be required to release or license the source code of our proprietary software to the public. From time to time, we may be subject to claims claiming ownership of,
 
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or demanding release of, the source code, the open source software and/or derivative works that were developed using such software, requiring us to provide attributions of any open source software incorporated into our distributed software, or otherwise seeking to enforce the terms of the applicable open source license. These claims could also result in litigation, require us to purchase a costly license or require us to devote additional research and development resources to re-engineer our software or change our products or services, any of which would have a negative effect on our business and results of operations.
We rely on licenses to use the intellectual property rights of third parties which are incorporated into our products and services. Failure to renew or expand existing licenses may require us to modify, limit or discontinue certain offerings, which could materially affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We rely on products, technologies and intellectual property that we license from third parties for use in our services. We cannot assure that these third-party licenses, or support for such licensed products and technologies, will continue to be available to us on commercially reasonable terms, if at all. In the event that we cannot renew and/or expand existing licenses, we may be required to discontinue or limit our use of the products that include or incorporate the licensed intellectual property.
We cannot be certain that our licensors are not infringing the intellectual property rights of others or that our suppliers and licensors have sufficient rights to the technology in all jurisdictions in which we may operate. Some of our license agreements may be terminated by our licensors for convenience. If we are unable to obtain or maintain rights to any of this technology because of intellectual property infringement claims brought by third parties against our suppliers and licensors or against us, or if we are unable to continue to obtain the technology or enter into new agreements on commercially reasonable terms, our ability to develop our services containing that technology could be severely limited and our business could be harmed. Additionally, if we are unable to obtain necessary technology from third parties, we may be forced to acquire or develop alternate technology, which may require significant time and effort and may be of lower quality or performance standards. This would limit and delay our ability to provide new or competitive offerings and increase our costs. If alternate technology cannot be obtained or developed, we may not be able to offer certain functionality as part of our offerings, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our software is highly complex and may contain undetected errors.
The software and code underlying our platform is highly interconnected and complex and may contain undetected errors, malicious code or vulnerabilities, some of which may only be discovered after the code has been released. We release or update software code regularly and this practice may result in the more frequent introduction of errors or vulnerabilities into the software underlying our platform, which can impact the customer experience on our platform. Additionally, due to the interconnected nature of the software underlying our platform, updates to certain parts of our code, including changes to our mobile app or website or third party application programming interfaces on which our mobile app or website rely, could have an unintended impact on other sections of our code, which may result in errors or vulnerabilities to our platform. Any errors or vulnerabilities discovered in our code after release could result in damage to our reputation, loss of our customers, loss of revenue or liability for damages, any of which could adversely affect our growth prospects and our business.
Furthermore, our development and testing processes may not detect errors and vulnerabilities in our technology offerings prior to their implementation. Any inefficiencies, errors, technical problems or vulnerabilities arising in our technology offerings after their release could reduce the quality of our products or interfere with our customers’ access to and use of our technology and offerings.
Risks Related to Regulatory Compliance and Legal Matters
We operate in a highly regulated industry and are subject to a wide range of federal, state and local laws, rules and regulations. Failure to comply with these laws, rules and regulations or to obtain and maintain required licenses, could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We operate in highly regulated businesses through a number of different channels across the United States. As a result, we are currently subject to a variety of, and may in the future become subject to additional,
 
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federal, state and local statutes and regulations in various jurisdictions (as well as judicial and administrative decisions and state common law), which are subject to change at any time, including laws regarding the real estate and mortgage industries, settlement services, insurance, mobile and internet based businesses and other businesses that rely on advertising, as well as data privacy and consumer protection laws, and employment laws. These laws are complex and sometimes ambiguous, and can be costly to comply with, require significant management time and effort, require a substantial investment in technology, and subject us to claims, government enforcement actions, civil and criminal liability or other remedies, including suspension of business operations.
We also originate mortgage loans, buy and sell homes, provide real estate brokerage services, title insurance and settlement services, and provide other product offerings, which results in us receiving or facilitating transmission of personally identifiable information. This information is increasingly subject to legislation and regulation in the United States. These laws and regulations are generally intended to protect the privacy and security of personal information, including borrower Social Security Numbers and credit card information that is collected, processed and transmitted. These laws also can restrict our use of this personal information for other commercial purposes. We could be adversely affected if government regulations require us to significantly change our business practices with respect to this type of information, if penetration of network security or misuse of personal information occurs, or if the third parties that we engage with to provide processing and screening services violate applicable laws and regulations, misuse information, or experience network security breaches.
In order to provide the broad range of products and services that we offer customers, certain of our subsidiaries maintain real estate brokerage services, title insurance and escrow, property and casualty insurance, and mortgage licenses in certain states in which we operate. These entities are subject to stringent state and federal laws and regulations and to the scrutiny of state and federal government agencies as licensed businesses.
Mortgage products are regulated at the state level by licensing authorities and administrative agencies, with additional oversight from the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau and other federal agencies. These laws generally regulate the manner in which lending and lending-related activities are marketed or made available to consumers, including, but not limited to, advertising, finding and qualifying applicants, the provision of consumer disclosures, payments for services, and record keeping requirements; these laws include, at the federal level, the Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act, the Fair Credit Reporting Act (as amended by the Fair and Accurate Credit Transactions Act), the Truth in Lending Act (including the Home Ownership and Equity Protection Act of 1994), the Equal Credit Opportunity Act, the Fair Housing Act, the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act, the Electronic Fund Transfer Act, the Servicemembers Civil Relief Act, the Military Lending Act, the Homeowners Protection Act, the Home Mortgage Disclosure Act, the Secure and Fair Enforcement for Mortgage Licensing Act of 2008, the Federal Trade Commission Act, the Dodd Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act of 2010, the Bank Secrecy Act (including the Office of Foreign Assets Control and the Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act), the Telephone Consumer Protection Act, the Mortgage Acts and Practices Advertising Rule (Regulation N), the Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act, all implementing regulations, and various other federal laws. The Consumer Financial Protection Bureau also has broad authority to enforce prohibitions on practices that it deems to be unfair, deceptive or abusive. Additionally, state and local laws may restrict the amount and nature of interest and fees that may be charged by a lender or mortgage broker, impose more stringent privacy requirements and protections for servicemembers, and/or otherwise regulate the manner in which lenders or mortgage brokers operate or advertise.
As a buyer and seller of residential real estate through our business, we hold real estate brokerage licenses in multiple states and may apply for additional real estate brokerage licenses as our business grows. To maintain these licenses, we must comply with the requirements governing the licensing and conduct of real estate brokerage services and brokerage-related businesses in the markets where we operate. We may be subject to additional local, state and federal laws and regulations governing residential real estate transactions, including those administered by the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, and the states and municipalities in which we transact. Further, due to the geographic scope of our operations and the nature of the products and services we provide, certain of our other subsidiaries maintain real estate
 
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brokerage, property and casualty, and title insurance and escrow licenses in certain states in which we operate. Each of these licenses subjects our subsidiaries to different federal, state, and local laws and the scrutiny of different licensing authorities, including state insurance departments. Each subsidiary must comply with different licensing statutes and regulations, as well as varied laws that govern the offering of compliant products and services.
For certain licenses, we are required to designate individual licensed brokers of record, qualified individuals and control persons. Certain licensed entities also are subject to routine examination and monitoring by the federal Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (for mortgage) and/or state licensing authorities. We cannot assure you that we, or our licensed personnel, are and will remain at all times, in full compliance with state and federal real estate, title insurance and escrow, property and casualty insurance, and mortgage licensing and consumer protection laws and regulations, and we may be subject to litigation, government investigations and enforcement actions, fines or other penalties in the event of any non-compliance. As a result of findings from examinations, we also may be required to take a number of corrective actions, including modifying business practices and making refunds of fees or money earned. In addition, adverse findings in one state may be relied on by another state to conduct investigations and impose remedies. If we apply for new licenses, we will become subject to additional licensing requirements, which we may not be in compliance with at all times. If in the future a state agency were to determine that we are required to obtain additional licenses in that state in order to operate our business, or if we lose or do not renew an existing license or are otherwise found to be in violation of a law or regulation, we may be subject to fines or legal penalties, lawsuits, enforcement actions, void contracts, or our business operations in that state may be suspended or prohibited. Our business reputation with consumers and third parties also could be damaged. Compliance with, and monitoring of, these laws and regulations is complicated and costly and may inhibit our ability to innovate or grow.
If we are unable to comply with these laws or regulations in a cost-effective manner, it may require us to modify certain products and services, which could require a substantial investment and result in a loss of revenue, or cease providing the impacted product or service altogether. Furthermore, laws and regulations and their interpretation and application may also change from time to time and those changes could have a material adverse effect on our products and business.
The Company is currently seeking to resolve an FTC investigation through consent order negotiations with the FTC, and the terms of a consent order (if any) could have a materially adverse effect on the Company’s business.
In August 2019, the Federal Trade Commission (‘‘FTC”) sent a civil investigative demand (“CID”) to Opendoor seeking documents and information relating primarily to statements in Opendoor’s advertising and website comparing selling homes to Opendoor with selling homes in a traditional manner using an agent and relating to statements that Opendoor’s offers reflect or are based on market prices. Thereafter, Opendoor responded cooperatively to the CID and related follow-up requests from the FTC. On December 23, 2020, the FTC notified the Company that they intend to recommend that the agency pursue an enforcement action against the Company and certain of its officers, if we are unable to reach a negotiated settlement acceptable to all parties. The FTC has indicated that they believe certain of Opendoor’s advertising claims relating to the amount of its offers, the repair costs charged to home sellers, and the amount of net proceeds a seller may receive from selling to Opendoor versus selling in the traditional manner were inaccurate and/or inadequately substantiated. The Company intends to proceed with settlement negotiations with the FTC. There can be no assurances that the Company will be successful in negotiating a favorable settlement. Any settlement could result in material monetary remedies and/or compliance requirements that impose significant and material cost and resource burdens on the Company and/or limit or eliminate the Company’s ability to make certain claims in its advertising materials or on its website. Any of these remedies or compliance requirements could adversely affect the Company’s ability to operate its business and/or have a materially adverse impact on its financial results.
Failure to hedge effectively against interest rate changes may adversely affect our results of operations.
Borrowings under our senior credit facilities bear interest at variable rates and expose us to interest rate risk. If interest rates were to increase, our debt service obligations on the variable rate indebtedness would increase and our earnings and cash flows will correspondingly decrease. Increased interest costs could also
 
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reduce the amount of debt financing that our homes inventory can support.   Assuming no change in the outstanding borrowings on our credit facilities, we estimate that a one percentage point increase in LIBOR would increase our interest expense by approximately $4.4 million and $10.1 million for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019   , respectively.
In connection with our floating rate debt, we may seek to obtain interest rate protection in the form of swap agreements, interest rate cap contracts or similar derivatives or instruments to hedge against the possible negative effects of interest rate increases. There is no assurance that we will be able to obtain any such interest rate hedging arrangements on attractive terms or at all. Even if we are successful in obtaining interest rate hedges, we cannot assure you that any hedging will adequately relieve the adverse effects of interest rate increases or that counterparties under these agreements will honor their obligations thereunder.
Our risk management efforts may not be effective.
We could incur substantial losses and our business operations could be disrupted if we are unable to effectively identify, manage, monitor, and mitigate financial risks, such as pricing risk, interest rate risk, liquidity risk, and other market-related risks, as well as operational and legal risks related to our business, assets, and liabilities. We also are subject to various laws, regulations and rules that are not industry specific, including employment laws related to employee hiring and termination practices, health and safety laws, environmental laws and other federal, state and local laws, regulations and rules in the jurisdictions in which we operate. Our risk management policies, procedures, and techniques may not be sufficient to identify all of the risks to which we are exposed, mitigate the risks we have identified, or identify additional risks to which we may become subject in the future. Expansion of our business activities may also result in our being exposed to risks to which we have not previously been exposed or may increase our exposure to certain types of risks, and we may not effectively identify, manage, monitor, and mitigate these risks as our business activities change or increase.
Risks Related to Our Financial Reporting
Our management has limited experience in operating a public company.
Our executive officers have limited experience in the management of a publicly traded company. Our management team may not successfully or effectively manage our transition to a public company that will be subject to significant regulatory oversight and reporting obligations under federal securities laws. Their limited experience in dealing with the increasingly complex laws pertaining to public companies could be a significant disadvantage in that it is likely that an increasing amount of their time may be devoted to these activities which will result in less time being devoted to the management and growth of the post-combination company. We may not have adequate personnel with the appropriate level of knowledge, experience and training in the accounting policies, practices or internal control over financial reporting required of public companies in the U.S. Our management will need to continually assess our staffing and training procedures to improve our internal control over financial reporting. Further, the development, implementation, documentation and assessment of appropriate processes, in addition to the need to remediate any potential deficiencies, will require substantial time and attention from management. The development and implementation of the standards and controls necessary for us to achieve the level of accounting standards required of a public company in the U.S. may require costs greater than expected. It is possible that we will be required to expand our employee base and hire additional employees to support our operations as a public company which will increase its operating costs in future periods.
We rely on assumptions, estimates, and business data to calculate our key performance indicators and other business metrics, and real or perceived inaccuracies in these metrics may harm our reputation and negatively affect our business.
Certain of our performance metrics are calculated using third party applications or internal company data that have not been independently verified. While these numbers are based on what we believe to be reasonable calculations for the applicable period of measurement, there are inherent challenges in measuring such information. For example, our measurement of visits and unique users may be affected by applications that automatically contact our servers to access our mobile applications and websites with no user action
 
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involved, and this activity can cause our system to count the user associated with such a device as a unique user or as a visit on the day such contact occurs. In addition, our measure of certain metrics may differ from estimates published by third parties or from similarly-titled metrics of our competitors due to differences in methodology and as a result our results may not be comparable to our competitors.
Our results of operations and financial condition are subject to management’s accounting judgments and estimates, as well as changes in accounting policies.
The preparation of our financial statements requires us to make estimates and assumptions affecting the reported amounts of our assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses. If these estimates or assumptions are incorrect, it could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations or financial condition. Generally accepted accounting principles in the United States are subject to interpretation by the Financial Accounting Standards Board, the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants, the Securities and Exchange Commission, and various bodies formed to promulgate and interpret appropriate accounting principles. A change in these principles or interpretations could have a significant effect on our reported financial results, and could affect the reporting of transactions completed before the announcement of a change.
Our management will be required to evaluate the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting. If we are unable to maintain effective internal control over financial reporting, investors may lose confidence in the accuracy of our financial reports.
As a public company, beginning with our second annual report on Form 10-K we are required to maintain internal control over financial reporting and to report any material weaknesses in such internal control. Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act requires that we evaluate and determine the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting. Additionally, beginning with our annual report for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021, our auditor will be required to deliver an attestation report on the effectiveness of our disclosure controls and internal control over financial reporting. An adverse report may be issued in the event our auditor is not satisfied with the level at which our controls are documented, designed or operating.
When evaluating our internal control over financial reporting, we may identify material weaknesses that we may not be able to remediate in time to meet the applicable deadline imposed upon us for compliance with the requirements of Section 404. If we identify any material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting or are unable to comply with the requirements of Section 404 in a timely manner or assert that our internal control over financial reporting is ineffective, or if our auditor is unable to express an opinion as to the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting, we could fail to meet our reporting obligations or be required to restate our financial statements for prior periods.
In addition, our internal control over financial reporting will not prevent or detect all errors and fraud. Because of the inherent limitations in all control systems, no evaluation can provide absolute assurance that misstatements due to error or fraud will not occur or that all control issues and instances of fraud will be detected.
If there are material weaknesses or failures in our ability to meet any of the requirements related to the maintenance and reporting of our internal control, investors may lose confidence in the accuracy and completeness of our financial reports and that could cause the price of our common stock to decline. In addition, we could become subject to investigations by the applicable stock exchange, the SEC or other regulatory authorities, which could require additional management attention and which could adversely affect our business.
We incur increased costs as a result of operating as a public company, and our management devotes substantial time to new compliance initiatives. As a public company, we are subject to the reporting requirements of the Exchange Act, the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, as well as rules adopted, and to be adopted, by the SEC and the applicable stock exchange. Our management and other personnel will continue to need to devote a substantial amount of time to these compliance initiatives and may not effectively or efficiently manage our transition into a public company. Moreover, we expect these rules and regulations to substantially increase our legal and financial compliance costs and to make some activities more time-consuming and costly. The increased costs will
 
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increase our net loss. For example, we expect these rules and regulations to make it more difficult and more expensive for us to obtain director and officer liability insurance and we may be forced to accept reduced policy limits or incur substantially higher costs to maintain the same or similar coverage. We cannot predict or estimate the amount or timing of additional costs we may incur to respond to these requirements. The impact of these requirements could also make it more difficult for us to attract and retain qualified persons to serve on our board of directors, its board committees or as executive officers.
We could be subject to additional tax liabilities and our ability to use net operating loss carryforwards and other tax attributes may be limited in connection with the Business Combination or other ownership changes.
We are subject to federal and state income and non-income taxes in the United States. Tax laws, regulations, and administrative practices in various jurisdictions may be subject to significant change, with or without notice, due to economic, political, and other conditions, and significant judgment is required in evaluating and estimating these taxes. Our effective tax rates could be affected by numerous factors, such as entry into new businesses and geographies, changes to our existing business and operations, acquisitions and investments and how they are financed, changes in our stock price, changes in our deferred tax assets and liabilities and their valuation, and changes in the relevant tax, accounting, and other laws, regulations, administrative practices, principles and interpretations. We are required to take positions regarding the interpretation of complex statutory and regulatory tax rules and on valuation matters that are subject to uncertainty, and IRS or other tax authorities may challenge the positions that we take.
We have incurred losses during our history and do not expect to become profitable in the near future, and may never achieve profitability. To the extent that we continue to generate taxable losses, unused losses will carry forward to offset future taxable income, if any, until such unused losses expire, if at all. As of December 31, 2020, the Company had federal and state net operating loss (“NOL”) carryforwards of $870.2 million and $585.9 million, respectively. Under the Tax Act, as modified by the Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act (the “CARES Act”), U.S. federal net operating loss carryforwards generated in taxable periods beginning after December 31, 2017, may be carried forward indefinitely, but the deductibility of such net operating loss carryforwards in taxable years beginning after December 31, 2020, is limited to 80% of taxable income. It is uncertain if and to what extent various states will conform to the Tax Act or the CARES Act.
In addition, our net operating loss carryforwards are subject to review and possible adjustment by the IRS, and state tax authorities. Under Sections 382 and 383 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”), our federal net operating loss carryforwards and other tax attributes may become subject to an annual limitation in the event of certain cumulative changes in our ownership. An “ownership change” pursuant to Section 382 of the Code generally occurs if one or more stockholders or groups of stockholders who own at least 5% of a company’s stock increase their ownership by more than 50 percentage points over their lowest ownership percentage within a rolling three-year period. Our ability to utilize our net operating loss carryforwards and other tax attributes to offset future taxable income or tax liabilities may be limited as a result of ownership changes, including potential changes in connection with the Business Combination (as defined herein) or other transactions. Similar rules may apply under state tax laws.
Risks Related to Our Liquidity and Capital Resources
We may need additional capital to pursue our business objectives and respond to business opportunities, challenges or unforeseen circumstances, and we cannot be sure that additional financing will be available.
We may require additional capital and debt financing to pursue our business objectives and respond to business opportunities, challenges or unforeseen circumstances, including to increase our marketing expenditures to improve our brand awareness, build and maintain our inventory of homes, develop new products or services or further improve existing products and services (including mortgage lending), enhance our operating infrastructure and acquire complementary businesses and technologies. During past economic and housing downturns and more recently at the onset of COVID-19, credit markets constricted and reduced sources of liquidity.
If cash on hand and cash generated from operations is not sufficient to meet our cash and liquidity needs, we may need to seek additional capital and engage in equity or debt financings to secure funds.
 
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However, additional funds may not be available when we need them on terms that are acceptable to us, or at all. In addition, any financing that we secure in the future could involve restrictive covenants which may make it more difficult for us to obtain additional capital and to pursue business opportunities.
Our ability to obtain financing will depend, among other things, on our product development efforts, business plans, operating performance and condition of the capital markets and housing markets at the time we seek financing. Volatility in the credit markets may also have an adverse effect on our ability to obtain debt financing. If we raise additional funds through the issuance of equity, equity-linked or debt securities, those securities may have rights, preferences or privileges senior to the rights of our common stock, or may require us to agree to unfavorable terms, and our existing stockholders may experience significant dilution.
If new financing sources are required, but are insufficient or unavailable, our ability to continue to pursue our business objectives and to respond to business opportunities, challenges or unforeseen circumstances could be significantly limited, and our business, operating results, financial condition and prospects could be adversely affected.
We utilize a significant amount of debt and financing arrangements in the operation of our business, and so our cash flows and operating results could be adversely affected by required payments of debt or related interest and other risks of our debt financing.
As of December 31, 2020 we had approximately $486 million aggregate principal amount of indebtedness outstanding, including $479 million of non-recourse asset-backed loans. Our leverage could have meaningful consequences to us, including increasing our vulnerability to economic downturns, limiting our ability to withstand competitive pressures, or reducing our flexibility to respond to changing business and economic conditions. We are also subject to general risks associated with debt financing, including (1) our cash flow may not be sufficient to satisfy required payments of principal and interest; (2) we may not be able to refinance our existing indebtedness or refinancing terms may be less favorable to us than the terms of our existing debt; (3) debt service obligations or facility prepayments could reduce funds available for capital investment and general corporate purposes; (4) any default on our indebtedness could result in acceleration of the indebtedness and foreclosure on the homes collateralizing that indebtedness, with our attendant loss of any prospective income and equity value from such property; and (5) aged real estate may be ineligible for financing on our debt facilities potentially forcing the sale of aged real estate for prices that do not allow us to meet our margin targets or cover our costs to repay those facilities. Any of these risks could place strains on our cash flows, reduce our ability to grow and adversely affect our results of operations.
We rely on agreements with third parties to finance our business.
We have entered into debt agreements with a limited number of counterparties to provide capital for the growth and operation of our businesses, including to finance our purchase and renovation of homes. If we fail to maintain adequate relationships with potential financial sources or we elect to prepay or we are unable to renew, refinance or extend our existing debt arrangements on favorable terms or at all, we may be unable to maintain sufficient inventory, which would adversely affect our business and results of operations. In addition, some of our financing facilities are not fully committed, meaning the applicable lender may not be obligated to advance new loan funds if they choose not to do so. Obtaining new or replacement funding arrangements may be at higher interest rates or other less favorable terms.
Our financing sources are not required to extend the maturities of our financing arrangements and if a financing source is unable or unwilling to extend financing, and other financing sources are unable or unwilling to make or increase their financing commitments, then we will be required to repay the outstanding balance of the financing on the related maturity date. If we are unable to pay the outstanding balance of our debt obligations at maturity, the financing sources generally have the right to foreclose on the homes and other collateral securing that debt and to charge higher “default rates” of interest until the outstanding obligations are paid in full. In addition, each of our mezzanine term debt facilities is associated with and subordinated to one or more of our senior revolving credit facilities. Our mezzanine term debt facilities have initial terms that may be significantly longer than the related senior facilities and often contain terms that make it financially unattractive to prepay borrowings under those term debt facilities, including certain “make-whole” payments and other prepayment penalties. If we are unable to renew or extend the terms of our
 
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existing senior facilities, we may not be able to terminate or prepay the related mezzanine term debt facilities without incurring significant financial costs.
If realized, any of these financing risks could negatively impact our results of operations and financial condition.
We intend to rely on proceeds from the sale of financed homes to repay amounts owed under our property financing facilities, but such proceeds may not be available or may be insufficient to repay the amounts when they become due.
For our senior revolving credit facilities, we typically are required to repay amounts owed with respect to a financed home upon the sale of that home. There is no assurance such sale proceeds will fully cover the amounts owed. Our senior revolving credit facilities commonly have initial terms of two years or less. It may be the case that not all homes securing these arrangements will be sold on or before the maturity dates of such financing arrangements, which would mean that sale proceeds would not be available to pay the amounts due at maturity. We may also be required to repay amounts owed with respect to a financed home prior to the sale of that home and prior to maturity of the related financing facility, typically due to the home having been held in our inventory for an extended period of time or, less commonly, if other unforeseen issues with the home arise during our holding period. In these situations, we may use cash on hand to repay the amounts owed or contribute other homes as additional collateral. To the extent we do not have sufficient cash or substitute collateral or are unable to draw on other financing facilities to make the required repayments, which could occur if a significant amount of our debt were to become due suddenly and unexpectedly, we would be in default under the related facility.
Covenants in our debt agreements may restrict our borrowing capacity and/or operating activities and adversely affect our financial condition.
Our existing debt agreements contain, and future debt agreements may contain, various financial and collateral performance covenants. These covenants may limit our operational flexibility or restrict our ability to engage in transactions that we believe would otherwise be in the best interests of our shareholders. If we breach these covenants, our lenders may be entitled to apply any excess cash proceeds from the sale of our homes that would normally be available to us in the absence of the covenant breach to the prepayment of principal and other amounts due. In certain cases, we could be required to repay all of the relevant debt immediately, even in the absence of a payment default. The occurrence of these events would have an adverse impact on our financial condition and results of operations and such impact could be material.
The borrowers under the debt facilities we use to finance the purchase and renovation of homes are special purpose entity (“SPE”) subsidiaries of Opendoor. While our SPEs’ lenders’ recourse in most situations following an event of default is only to the applicable SPE or its assets, we have provided limited guarantees for certain of the SPEs’ obligations in situations involving “bad acts” by an Opendoor entity and certain other limited circumstances that are generally under our control. To the extent a guaranty obligation is triggered, we may become obligated to pay all or a portion of the amounts owed by our SPEs to their lenders.
Our debt facilities contain cross defaults and similar provisions that could cause us to be in default under multiple debt facilities or otherwise lose access to financing for new homes and excess proceeds from sales of homes in the event we default under a single facility.
If an event of default or similar event occurs under one of our senior revolving credit facilities, this may trigger an event of default under any related mezzanine term debt facility and/or result in us losing access to financing through the mezzanine term debt facility or to excess proceeds from sales of homes that would otherwise be available to us. Similarly, an event of default or similar event under a mezzanine term debt facility may trigger an event of default under the related senior facilities and/or result in us losing access to financing through those senior facilities or to excess proceeds from sales of homes that would otherwise be available to us. In addition, all of our senior and mezzanine term debt facilities currently contain cross defaults to indebtedness of Opendoor Labs Inc., if any, subject to varying minimum dollar thresholds. It is possible our debt facilities could include similar cross defaults to indebtedness of Opendoor Technologies
 
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in the future. The foregoing considerations, significantly increase the likelihood that a default or similar event under one or more of our debt facilities would result in adverse consequences for our other debt facilities.
We may use derivatives and other instruments to reduce our exposure to interest fluctuations and those derivatives and other instruments may not prove to be effective.
We may use derivatives or other instruments to reduce our exposure to adverse changes in interest rates. Hedging interest rate risk is a complex process, requiring sophisticated models and constant monitoring. Due to interest rate fluctuations, hedged assets and liabilities will appreciate or depreciate in market value. The effect of this unrealized appreciation or depreciation will generally be offset by income or loss on the derivative instruments that are linked to the hedged assets and liabilities. If we engage in derivative transactions, we will be exposed to credit and market risk. If the counterparty fails to perform, credit risk exists to the extent of the fair value gain in the derivative. Market risk exists to the extent that interest rates change in ways that are significantly different from what we expected when we entered into the derivative transaction. Our hedging activity, if any, may fail to provide adequate coverage for interest rate exposure due to market volatility, hedging instruments that do not directly correlate with the interest rate risk exposure being hedged or counterparty defaults on obligations.
When the London Inter-Bank Offered Rate (“LIBOR”) is discontinued, interest payments under our senior revolving credit facilities and our mortgage repurchase facility may be calculated using another reference rate.
In July 2017, the United Kingdom Financial Conduct Authority (“FCA”), which regulates LIBOR, announced that the FCA intends to phase out the use of LIBOR by the end of 2021. In response, the U.S. Federal Reserve, in conjunction with the Alternative Reference Rates Committee, has proposed replacing U.S. dollar LIBOR with the Secured Overnight Financing Rate (“SOFR”), which is a new index calculated by short-term repurchase agreements and backed by U.S. Treasury securities. The market transition away from LIBOR towards SOFR is expected to be complicated, and there is no guarantee that SOFR will become a widely accepted benchmark in place of LIBOR. LIBOR is used as a benchmark rate for our senior revolving credit facilities and our mortgage repurchase facility. Some of these agreements do not contain fulsome fallback language for circumstances in which LIBOR ceases to be published. The transition process may involve, among other things, increased volatility and illiquidity in markets for instruments that currently rely on LIBOR and may result in increased borrowing costs, uncertainty under our financing facilities, or difficult and costly processes to amend our financing agreements. There remains uncertainty regarding the future utilization of LIBOR and the nature of any replacement rate, and we are uncertain what impact a transition away from LIBOR may have on our business, financial results, and operations.
Failures at financial institutions at which we deposit funds could adversely affect us.
We deposit substantial funds in various financial institutions in excess of insured deposit limits. In the event that one or more of these financial institutions fail, there is no guarantee that we could recover the deposited funds in excess of federal deposit insurance. Under these circumstances, our losses could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations or financial condition.
Additional Risks Related to Ownership of Our Common Stock
The price of our common stock and warrants may be volatile.
The price of our common stock, as well as our warrants, may fluctuate due to a variety of factors, including:

changes in the industries in which we and our customers operate;

developments involving our competitors;

changes in laws and regulations affecting our business;

variations in our operating performance and the performance of our competitors in general;

actual or anticipated fluctuations in our quarterly or annual operating results;
 
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publication of research reports by securities analysts about us or our competitors or our industry;

the public’s reaction to our press releases, our other public announcements and our filings with the SEC;

actions by stockholders, including the sale by the Third Party PIPE Investors of any of their shares of our common stock;

additions and departures of key personnel;

commencement of, or involvement in, litigation involving our company;

changes in our capital structure, such as future issuances of securities or the incurrence of additional debt;

the volume of shares of our common stock available for public sale, including fluctuations in volume related to the release of the Lock-up Shares (as defined below); and

general economic and political conditions, such as the effects of the COVID-19 outbreak, recessions, interest rates, local and national elections, fuel prices, international currency fluctuations, corruption, political instability and acts of war or terrorism.
These market and industry factors may materially reduce the market price of our common stock and warrants regardless of our operating performance.
We do not intend to pay cash dividends for the foreseeable future.
We currently intend to retain our future earnings, if any, to finance the further development and expansion of our business and do not intend to pay cash dividends in the foreseeable future. Any future determination to pay dividends will be at the discretion of our board of directors and will depend on our financial condition, results of operations, capital requirements, restrictions contained in future agreements and financing instruments, business prospects and such other factors as our board of directors deems relevant.
Future resales of common stock may cause the market price of our securities to drop significantly, even if our business is doing well.
Pursuant to a Registration Rights Agreement and the Bylaws, the Sponsor and the Opendoor Stockholders are contractually restricted from selling or transferring any of their shares of common stock (not including the shares of our common stock issued in the PIPE Investment pursuant to the terms of the Subscription Agreements) (the “Lock-up Shares”). Such restrictions end on the earlier of (i) the date that is 180 days after the date of the Closing and (ii) for 50% of the Lock-up Shares, the date on which the last reported sale price of our common stock equals or exceeds $15.00 per share for any 20 trading days within any 30-trading day period commencing at least 90 days from Closing.
However, following the expiration of such lockup, the Sponsor and the Opendoor Stockholders will not be restricted from selling shares of our common stock held by them, other than by applicable securities laws. As such, sales of a substantial number of shares of our common stock in the public market could occur at any time. These sales, or the perception in the market that the holders of a large number of shares intend to sell shares, could reduce the market price of our common stock. Upon the Closing, the Sponsor and the Opendoor Stockholders collectively owned approximately 81.3% of our outstanding common stock which are subject to such lockup (excluding the shares of our common stock reserved in respect of Opendoor Awards).
The shares held by Sponsor and the Opendoor Stockholders may be sold after the expiration of the applicable lock-up period under the Registration Rights Agreement and Bylaws. As restrictions on resale end and registration statements (to provide for the resale of such shares from time to time) are available for use, the sale or possibility of sale of these shares could have the effect of increasing the volatility in our share price or the market price of our common stock could decline if the holders of currently restricted shares sell them or are perceived by the market as intending to sell them.
 
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We anticipate incurring substantial stock-based compensation expense, which may have an adverse effect on our results of operations.
We anticipate incurring a substantial non-cash stock-based compensation expense in early 2021, as a result of a large number of historical equity awards to employees in the form of RSUs for which the liquidity event performance condition was met in February 2021. We also anticipate that the vesting conditions for certain other performance-based equity awards will be satisfied during the first half of 2021, and therefore recognized as a non-cash stock-based compensation expense over this period. We will recognize additional stock-based compensation expense over the remaining time-based vesting period for certain of these awards. We cannot be certain whether and how many RSUs will satisfy their vesting conditions and the actual amount of stock-based compensation expense we will incur. Any such expense could have a material impact on our results of operations for the periods in which such expense is recognized.
General Risk Factors
Catastrophic events may disrupt our business.
Natural disasters or other catastrophic events may cause damage or disruption to our operations, real estate commerce, and the global economy, and thus could harm our business. In particular, the COVID-19 pandemic, including the reactions of governments, markets, and the general public to the COVID-19 pandemic, may result in a number of adverse consequences for our business and results of operations, the details of which would be difficult to predict. We have a large employee presence in San Francisco, California, a region that contains active earthquake zones. In addition, properties located in the markets in which we operate in Florida, portions of North Carolina or Texas are more susceptible to certain hazards (such as floods, hurricanes or hail) than properties in other parts of the country.
In the event of a major earthquake, hurricane, windstorm, tornado, flood or catastrophic event such as pandemic, fire, flood, power loss, telecommunications failure, cyber-attack, war, or terrorist attack, we may be unable to continue our operations and may endure reputational harm, delays in developing our platform and solutions, breaches of data security and loss of critical data, all of which could harm our business, results of operations and financial condition. Furthermore, these sorts of catastrophic events may cause disruption on both resale and acquisition side as we may not be able to transact on real estate. For example, homes that we own may be damaged and disruptions to infrastructure may mean our contractors are unable to perform the necessary home repairs in a timely manner. Closures of local recording offices or other governmental offices in charge of real property records, including tax or lien-related records, would adversely affect our ability to conduct operations in the affected geographies. Any of these delays will likely result in extended hold times, increased costs, value impairment. Also, the insurance we maintain would likely not be adequate to cover our losses resulting from disasters or other business interruptions.
As we grow our business, the need for business continuity planning and disaster recovery plans will grow in significance. If we are unable to develop adequate plans to ensure that our business functions continue to operate during and after a disaster, and successfully execute on those plans in the event of a disaster or emergency, our business and reputation would be harmed.
Cybersecurity incidents could disrupt our business or result in the loss of critical and confidential information.
The evolution of technology systems introduces ever more complex security risks that are difficult to predict and defend against. An increasing number of companies, including those with significant online operations, have recently disclosed breaches of their security, some of which involved sophisticated tactics and techniques allegedly attributable to criminal enterprises or nation-state actors. Successful breaches, employee malfeasance, or human or technological error could result in, for example, unauthorized access to, disclosure, modification, misuse, loss, or destruction of company, customer, or other third party data or systems; theft of sensitive, regulated, or confidential data including personal information and intellectual property; the loss of access to critical data or systems through ransomware, destructive attacks or other means; and business delays, service or system disruptions or denials of service. We experience cyber incidents and other security incidents of varying degrees from time to time, though none which individually or in the aggregate has led to costs or consequences which have materially impacted our operations or business. In response, we have implemented controls and taken other preventative actions to further strengthen our
 
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systems against future incidents. However, we cannot assure you that such measures will provide absolute security, that we will be able to react in a timely manner, or that our remediation efforts following a cybersecurity incident will be successful.
In addition, we do not know whether our current practices will be deemed sufficient under applicable laws or whether new regulatory requirements might make our current practices insufficient. If there is a breach of our computer systems and we know or suspect that certain personal information has been accessed, or used inappropriately, we may need to inform the affected individual and may be subject to significant fines and penalties. Further, under certain regulatory schemes, we may be liable for statutory damages on a per breached record basis, irrespective of any actual damages or harm to the individual. In the event of a breach we could face government scrutiny or consumer class actions alleging statutory damages amounting to hundreds of millions, and possibly billions of dollars.
The risk of cybersecurity incidents directed at us or our third-party vendors includes uncoordinated individual attempts to gain unauthorized access to information technology systems, as well as to sophisticated and targeted measures known as advanced persistent threats. In addition, we face the risk of confidential data inadvertently leaking through human or technological errors. Cybersecurity incidents are also constantly evolving, increasing the difficulty of detecting and successfully defending against them. In the ordinary course of our business, we and our third-party vendors collect and store personal information, as well as our proprietary business information and intellectual property and that of our customers and employees. Additionally, we rely on third-parties and their security procedures for the secure storage, processing, maintenance, and transmission of information that is critical to our operations. Despite measures designed to prevent, detect, address, and mitigate cybersecurity incidents, such incidents may occur to us or our third-party providers and, depending on their nature and scope, could potentially result in the misappropriation, destruction, corruption or unavailability of critical data and confidential or proprietary information (our own or that of third parties, including personal information of our customers and employees) and the disruption of business operations. Any such compromises to our security, or that of our third-party vendors, could cause customers to lose trust and confidence in us and stop using our website and mobile applications. In addition, we may incur significant costs for remediation that may include liability for stolen assets or information, repair of system damage, and compensation to customers, employees, and business partners. We may also be subject to government enforcement proceedings and legal claims by private parties.
Any actual or alleged security breaches or alleged violations of federal or state laws or regulations relating to privacy and data security could result in mandated user notifications, litigation, government investigations, significant fines, and expenditures; divert management’s attention from operations; deter people from using our platform; damage our brand and reputation; and materially adversely affect our business, results of operations, and financial condition. Defending against claims or litigation based on any security breach or incident, regardless of their merit, will be costly and may cause reputation harm. The successful assertion of one or more large claims against us that exceed available insurance coverage, denial of coverage as to any specific claim, or any change or cessation in our insurance policies and coverages, including premium increases or the imposition of large deductible requirements, could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, and financial condition.
Our fraud detection processes and information security systems may not successfully detect all fraudulent activity by third parties aimed at our employees or customers, which could adversely affect our reputation and business results.
Third-party actors have attempted in the past, and may attempt in the future, to conduct fraudulent activity by engaging with our customers, particularly in our title insurance and escrow business. We make a large number of wire transfers in connection with loan and real estate closings and process sensitive personal data in connection with these transactions. Though we have sophisticated fraud detection processes and have taken other measures to identify fraudulent activity on our mobile applications, websites and internal systems, we may not be able to detect and prevent all such activity. Similarly, the third parties we use to effectuate these transactions may fail to maintain adequate controls or systems to detect and prevent fraudulent activity. Persistent or pervasive fraudulent activity may cause customers and real estate partners to lose trust in us and decrease or terminate their usage of our products, or could result in financial loss, thereby harming our business and results of operations.
 
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We are from time to time involved in, or may in the future be subject to, claims, suits, government investigations, and other proceedings that may result in adverse outcomes.
We are from time to time involved in, or may in the future be subject to, claims, suits, government investigations, and proceedings arising from our business, including actions with respect to intellectual property, privacy, consumer protection, information security, mortgage lending, real estate, environmental, data protection or law enforcement matters, tax matters, labor and employment, and commercial claims, as well as actions involving content generated by our customers, shareholder derivative actions, purported class action lawsuits, and other matters. Such claims, suits, government investigations, and proceedings are inherently uncertain, and their results cannot be predicted with certainty. Regardless of the outcome, any such legal proceedings can have an adverse impact on us because of legal costs, diversion of management and other personnel, negative publicity and other factors. In addition, it is possible that a resolution of one or more such proceedings could result in reputational harm, liability, penalties, or sanctions, as well as judgments, consent decrees, or orders preventing us from offering certain features, functionalities, products, or services, or requiring a change in our business practices, products or technologies, which could in the future materially and adversely affect our business, operating results and financial condition.
If analysts do not publish research about our business or if they publish inaccurate or unfavorable research, our stock price and trading volume could decline.
The trading market for our common stock depends in part on the research and reports that analysts publish about our business. We do not have any control over these analysts. If one or more of the analysts who cover us downgrade our common stock or publish inaccurate or unfavorable research about our business, the price of our common stock would likely decline. If few analysts cover us, demand for our common stock could decrease and our common stock price and trading volume may decline. Similar results may occur if one or more of these analysts stop covering us in the future or fail to publish reports on us regularly.
We may be subject to securities litigation, which is expensive and could divert management attention.
The market price of our common stock may be volatile and, in the past, companies that have experienced volatility in the market price of their stock have been subject to securities class action litigation. We may be the target of this type of litigation in the future. Securities litigation against us could result in substantial costs and divert management’s attention from other business concerns, which could seriously harm our business.
 
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USE OF PROCEEDS
All of the shares of common stock and warrants offered by the Selling Shareholders will be sold by them for their respective accounts. We will not receive any of the proceeds from these sales.
The Selling Shareholders will pay any underwriting fees, discounts, selling commissions, stock transfer taxes and certain legal expenses incurred by such Selling Shareholders in disposing of their shares of common stock and warrants, and we will bear all other costs, fees and expenses incurred in effecting the registration of such securities covered by this prospectus, including, without limitation, all registration and filing fees, Nasdaq listing fees and fees and expenses of our counsel and our independent registered public accountants.
We will receive any proceeds from the exercise of the warrants for cash, but not from the sale of the shares of common stock issuable upon such exercise.
 
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MARKET PRICE OF OUR COMMON STOCK AND WARRANTS AND DIVIDEND INFORMATION
Market Price of Our Common Stock and Warrants
Trading of our common stock and warrants began on The Nasdaq Global Select Market (the “Nasdaq”) on December 21, 2020, under the ticker symbol “OPEN” for the common stock and “OPENW” for the warrants.Prior to the Domestication and transfer to the Nasdaq, the SCH Class A ordinary shares and SCH warrants traded under the ticker symbols “IPOB” and “IPOB.WS”, respectively, on the NYSE. On March 5, 2021,the closing sale price of our common stock was $21.99 per share and the closing price of the warrants was $10.59 per warrant.
Dividend Policy
We have not paid any cash dividends on our common stock to date and prior to the Business Combination, SCH had not paid any dividends on its ordinary shares. The payment of cash dividends in the future will be dependent upon our revenues and earnings, if any, capital requirements and general financial condition. The payment of any cash dividends will be within the discretion of our board of directors. Our ability to declare dividends may be limited by the terms of financing or other agreements entered into by us or our subsidiaries from time to time.
 
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UNAUDITED PRO FORMA CONDENSED COMBINED FINANCIAL INFORMATION
Introduction
We are providing the following unaudited pro forma condensed combined financial information to aid you in your analysis of the financial aspects of the recently completed Business Combination. The following unaudited pro forma condensed combined financial information has been prepared in accordance with Article 11 of Regulation S-X.
The unaudited pro forma condensed combined statement of operations for the year ended December 31, 2020 combine the audited historical statements of operations of Opendoor for the year ended December 31, 2020 with the unaudited historical statement of operations of SCH for the nine months ended September 30, 2020 on a pro forma basis as if the Business Combination and related transactions, summarized below, had been consummated on January 1, 2020:

the merger of Merger Sub with and into Opendoor, with Opendoor surviving the merger as a wholly-owned subsidiary of SCH;

the issuance and sale of 60,005,000 shares of our common stock at $10.00 per share in the PIPE Investment; and

the conversion of all outstanding Opendoor shares, warrants, RSUs, Restricted Stock Awards and convertible debt, into our common stock as well as shares underlying Opendoor Options that will roll over into the post-combination company totaling 500.0 million shares.
The pro forma condensed combined financial information may not be useful in predicting the future financial condition and results of operations of the post-combination company. The actual financial position and results of operations may differ significantly from the pro forma amounts reflected herein due to a variety of factors.
The historical financial information of SCH was derived from the unaudited statement of operations of SCH for the nine months ended September 30, 2020, which is included elsewhere in this prospectus. The historical financial information of Opendoor was derived from the audited historical statement of operations of Opendoor for the year ended December 31, 2020, which is included elsewhere in this prospectus. This information should be read together with SCH’s and Opendoor’s unaudited and audited financial statements and related notes, the section titled “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and other financial information included elsewhere in this prospectus.
The Business Combination was accounted for as a reverse recapitalization, in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“GAAP”). Under the guidance in ASC 805, SCH was treated as the “acquired” company for financial reporting purposes. Accordingly, the Business Combination was treated as the equivalent of Opendoor issuing stock for the net assets of SCH, accompanied by a recapitalization whereby no goodwill or other intangible assets are recorded. Operations prior to the Business Combination are those of Opendoor.
Opendoor was determined to be the accounting acquirer based on evaluation of the following facts and circumstances:

Opendoor stockholders have the largest voting interest in the post-combination company;

The board of directors of the post-combination company has seven members, and Opendoor has the ability to nominate the majority of the members of the board of directors;

Opendoor management holds executive management roles (including Chief Executive Officer, Chief Financial Officer, and Chief Technology Officer, among others) for the post-combination company and is responsible for the day-to-day operations;

The Company assumed the Opendoor name after the Business Combination; and

The intended strategy of the Company will continue Opendoor’s current strategy of being a leader in the real estate industry.
 
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Description of the Business Combination
The aggregate consideration for the Business Combination was $5.0 billion based on the pre-money enterprise value of Opendoor, paid in the form of shares of Opendoor Technologies common stock.
The following summarizes the consideration:
(in thousands, except for share and per share amounts)
Shares transferred at Closing(1)
500,000,000
Value per share(2)
10.00
Total Share Consideration
$ 5,000,000
(1)
Excludes 3,980,000 shares subscribed for by the Opendoor PIPE Investors.
(2)
Share Consideration is calculated using a $10.00 reference price. The closing share price on the date of the day prior to the consummation of the Business Combination was $29.44. As the Merger Transaction was accounted for as a reverse recapitalization, the value per share is disclosed for informational purposes only in order to indicate the fair value of shares transferred.
Holders of Opendoor common stock received shares of Opendoor Technologies common stock in an amount determined by application of the Exchange Ratio of 1.618, which was based on Opendoor’s implied price per share prior to the Business Combination.
The following assumes (i) (a) the vesting of all shares of Opendoor Technologies common stock received in respect of the Opendoor Technologies Restricted Shares, (b) the vesting and exercise of all Opendoor Technologies Options for shares of Opendoor Technologies common stock, (c) the vesting of all Opendoor Technologies RSU Awards and the issuance of shares of Opendoor Technologies common stock in respect thereof and (d) that Opendoor Technologies issues shares of Opendoor Technologies common stock as the Aggregate Merger Consideration pursuant to the Merger Agreement, which in the aggregate equals 500,000,000 shares of Opendoor Technologies common stock (assuming that all Opendoor Technologies Options are net-settled), and (ii) Opendoor Technologies issues 60,005,000 shares of Opendoor Technologies common stock to the PIPE Investors pursuant to the PIPE Investment.
# New Entity Shares
%
Opendoor stockholders(1)
503,980,000 82.4%
SCH’s public shareholders
41,387,632 6.8%
Sponsor & related parties(2)
26,375,000 4.3%
Third Party PIPE Investors
40,000,000 6.5%
Pro Forma Common Stock at Closing
611,742,632 100.0%
(1)
Includes 409,534,718 shares issued to existing Opendoor common and preferred shareholders, 3,980,000 shares subscribed for by the Opendoor PIPE Investors, 21,460,400 shares issued to existing Opendoor Convertible Debt holders and 1,672,779 shares issued to Opendoor warrant holders. Also includes 67,332,103 shares of Opendoor common stock underlying options that are included as part of consideration. The shares underlying these options will not represent legally issued and outstanding shares of the Opendoor common stock and were not exercised and issued immediately upon the Closing. As such, the shares underlying these options will be excluded in the calculation of pro forma basic loss per share.
(2)
Includes 16,025,000 shares subscribed for by the Sponsor Related PIPE Investors and 200,000 shares held by the independent directors of SCH.
 
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The unaudited pro forma adjustments are based on information currently available, and assumptions and estimates underlying the unaudited pro forma adjustments are described in the accompanying notes. Actual results may differ materially from the assumptions used to present the accompanying unaudited pro forma condensed combined financial information.
Unaudited Pro Forma Condensed Combined Statement of Operations
For the Year Ended December 31, 2020
(in thousands, except per share amounts)
Opendoor
(Historical)
Social Capital
(Historical)(1)
Transaction
Accounting
Adjustments
Pro Forma
Combined
Revenue
2,583,121 2,583,121
Cost of revenue
2,363,324 2,363,324
Gross profit
219,797 219,797
Operating costs and expenses:
Formation and operating costs
(6,363) 5,849
AA
(514)
Sales, marketing and operations
(194,721) (194,721)
General and administrative
(152,769) (152,769)
Technology and development
(58,172) (58,172)
Total operating costs and expenses
(405,662) (6,363) 5,849 (406,176)
Net operating loss
(185,865) (6,363) 5,849 (186,379)
Derivative and warrant fair value adjustment
(25,941) (25,941)
Loss on extinguishment on debt
(11,356) (11,356)
Interest expense
(67,806) 7,837
BB
(59,969)
Interest income
42 (42)
CC
Other income, net
4,271 4,271
Loss before income taxes
(286,697) (6,321) 13,644 (279,374)
Income tax expense
(63)
DD
(63)
Net loss
(286,760) (6,321) 13,644 (279,437)
Less net income attributable noncontrolling interest
Net loss
(286,760) (6,321) 13,644 (279,437)
Weighted average shares outstanding of common stock — basic
109,301 10,112 540,715
Weighted average shares outstanding of common stock — diluted
109,301 10,112 540,715
Basic net income (loss) per share
$ (2.62) $ (0.63) $ (0.52)
Diluted net income (loss) per share
$ (2.62) $ (0.63) $ (0.52)
(1)
Derived from SCH’s unaudited condensed statements of operations for the nine months ended September 30, 2020.
 
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NOTES TO UNAUDITED PRO FORMA CONDENSED COMBINED FINANCIAL INFORMATION
Basis of Presentation
The Business Combination was accounted for as a reverse recapitalization, in accordance with GAAP. Under the guidance in ASC 805, SCH was treated as the “acquired” company for financial reporting purposes. Accordingly, the Business Combination was treated as the equivalent of Opendoor issuing stock for the net assets of SCH, accompanied by a recapitalization whereby no goodwill or other intangible assets are recorded. Operations prior to the Business Combination are those of Opendoor.
The unaudited pro forma condensed combined statement of operations for the year ended December 31, 2020 reflects pro forma effect of the Business Combination as if it had been completed on January 1, 2020. These periods are presented on the basis of Opendoor as the accounting acquirer.
The unaudited pro forma condensed combined statement of operations for the year ended December 31, 2020 has been prepared using, and should be read in conjunction with, the following:

SCH’s unaudited condensed statement of operations for the nine months ended September 30, 2020 and the related notes, which is included elsewhere in this prospectus; and

Opendoor’s audited condensed consolidated statement of operations for the year ended December 31, 2020 and the related notes, which is included elsewhere in this prospectus.
Management has made significant estimates and assumptions in its determination of the pro forma adjustments. As the unaudited pro forma condensed combined financial information has been prepared based on these preliminary estimates, the final amounts recorded may differ materially from the information presented.
The unaudited pro forma condensed combined financial information does not give effect to any anticipated synergies, operating efficiencies, tax savings, or cost savings that may be associated with the Business Combination.
The pro forma adjustments reflecting the Closing are based on certain currently available information and certain assumptions and methodologies that the Company believes are reasonable under the circumstances. The unaudited condensed pro forma adjustments, which are described in the accompanying notes, may be revised as additional information becomes available and is evaluated. Therefore, it is likely that the actual adjustments will differ from the pro forma adjustments and it is possible the difference may be material. The Company believes that its assumptions and methodologies provide a reasonable basis for presenting all of the significant effects of the Business Combination based on information available to management at this time and that the pro forma adjustments give appropriate effect to those assumptions and are properly applied in the unaudited pro forma condensed combined financial information.
The unaudited pro forma condensed combined financial information is not necessarily indicative of what the actual results of operations and financial position would have been had the Business Combination taken place on the dates indicated, nor are they indicative of the future consolidated results of operations or financial position of the post-combination company. They should be read in conjunction with the historical financial statements and notes thereto of SCH and Opendoor.
2.
Accounting Policies
Upon the Closing, management will perform a comprehensive review of the two entities’ accounting policies. As a result of the review, management may identify differences between the accounting policies of the two entities which, when conformed, could have a material impact on the financial statements of the post-combination company. Based on its initial analysis, management had identified differences that would have an impact on the unaudited pro forma condensed combined financial information and recorded the necessary adjustments.
3.
Adjustments to Unaudited Pro Forma Condensed Combined Financial Information
The unaudited pro forma condensed combined financial information has been prepared to illustrate the effect of the Business Combination and has been prepared for informational purposes only.
 
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The following unaudited pro forma condensed combined financial information has been prepared in accordance with Article 11 of Regulation S-X as amended by the final rule, Release No. 33-10786 “Amendments to Financial Disclosures about Acquired and Disposed Businesses”. Release No. 33-10786 replaces the existing pro forma adjustment criteria with simplified requirements to depict the accounting for the transaction (“Transaction Accounting Adjustments”) and present the reasonably estimable synergies and other transaction effects that have occurred or reasonably expected to occur (“Management’s Adjustments”). Opendoor has elected not to present Management’s Adjustments and will only be presenting Transaction Accounting Adjustments in the unaudited pro forma condensed combined financial information.
The pro forma combined provision for income taxes does not necessarily reflect the amounts that would have resulted had the post-combination company filed consolidated income tax returns during the periods presented.
The pro forma basic and diluted earnings per share amounts presented in the unaudited pro forma condensed combined statements of operations are based upon the number of the post-combination company’s shares outstanding, assuming the Business Combination occurred on January 1, 2020.
Adjustments to Unaudited Pro Forma Condensed Combined Statements of Operations
The pro forma adjustments included in the unaudited pro forma condensed combined statements of operations for the year ended December 31, 2020 are as follows:
(AA)
Elimination of non-recurring transaction expenses incurred in connection with the Business Combination
(BB)
Elimination of the interest expense associated with the Convertible Notes that converted into the right to receive common stock immediately prior to the Closing.
(CC)
Elimination of interest income on the trust account.
(DD)
Does not reflect an adjustment to income tax expense as a result of the pro forma adjustments as Opendoor has historically been in a net loss position and has therefore recorded no income tax expense.
4.
Loss per Share
Represents the net loss per share calculated using the historical weighted average shares outstanding, and the issuance of additional shares in connection with the Business Combination, assuming the shares were outstanding since January 1, 2020. As the Business Combination and transactions are being reflected as if they had occurred on January 1, 2020 the calculation of weighted average shares outstanding for basic and diluted net income (loss) per share assumes that the shares issuable relating to the Business Combination have been outstanding for the year ended December 31, 2020. Holders of Opendoor common stock received shares of Opendoor Technologies common stock in an amount determined by application of the Exchange Ratio.
The unaudited pro forma condensed combined financial information has been prepared using actual redemptions by SCH’s public stockholders of shares of SCH Class A ordinary shares for cash equal to their pro rata share of the aggregate amount on deposit (as of two business days prior to the Closing) in the trust account for the year ended December 31, 2020:
 
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(in thousands, except per share data)
For the Year ended
December 31, 2020
Pro forma net loss
279,437
Weighted average shares outstanding of common stock(1)
540,715
Net loss per share (Basic and Diluted) attributable to common stockholders(1)(2)
$ (0.52)
(1)
Excludes approximately 70,683,000 shares of Opendoor common stock underlying options and RSUs as of December 31, 2020 that are included as part of consideration. The shares underlying these options do not represent legally issued and outstanding shares of Opendoor common stock and were not exercised and issued immediately upon the Closing. As such, the shares underlying these and options will be excluded in the calculation of pro forma loss per share.
(2)
For the purposes of applying the treasury stock method for calculating diluted earnings per share, it was assumed that all outstanding warrants sold in the initial public offering and the private placement are exchanged to Class A common stock. However, since this results in anti-dilution, the effect of such exchange was not included in calculation of diluted loss per share.
 
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BUSINESS
Mission
Our mission is to empower everyone with the freedom to move.
Our Company
We are a leading digital platform for residential real estate. In 2014, we founded Opendoor to reinvent one of life’s most important transactions with a new, radically simple way to buy and sell a home with more convenience, control and cost savings than ever before. By leveraging software, data science, product design and operations, we have rebuilt the entire service model for real estate and have made buying and selling possible on a mobile device. We believe our digital, on-demand experience will be the future of how people buy or sell a home.
Our goal is to redefine residential real estate, the largest undisrupted category in the United States. In 2020 alone, more than 5.6 million existing homes were sold, representing nearly $1.9 trillion in transactions. Additionally, with 66% of Americans living in a home they own, housing is the single largest consumer expenditure in the United States, ahead of transportation, food, insurance, and healthcare.
Yet, in a world with purchases increasingly migrating online, the real estate transaction has largely remained unchanged. The typical process of buying or selling a home is complex, uncertain, time consuming and primarily offline. A traditional home sale requires countless decisions, often brings unexpected costs, and takes approximately three months from start to finish. Ultimately, the consumer is left dissatisfied with a broken, disjointed experience.
We streamline the process of buying and selling a home into a seamless digital experience, eliminating uncertainty for sellers. Sellers can go to Opendoor.com, receive an offer, sign and close on the date of their choice. Buyers can download the Opendoor app, tour and visit homes in a few taps with self-tours, shop for financing at competitive rates, and make an offer, all with just a mobile device. We have built a simple, on-demand way to buy and sell a home.
Over the past five years, customers have shown their desire for our digital, on-demand real estate solution. Since launch, we have bought and sold over 80,000 homes, making us one of the largest buyers and sellers of single family homes in the United States. We have historically achieved growth at scale, with revenue growth of over 100% in each of the four fiscal years preceding 2020, when the COVID-19 pandemic impacted our business. In 2019, we sold almost 19,000 homes and generated $4.7 billion in revenue. In that year, more than 560,000 consumers requested an Opendoor offer on their home, averaging approximately one every minute, and our homes were visited over 1.6 million times, averaging over 4,500 visits per day. Importantly, we have been able to achieve this growth while focusing on delighting customers, as reflected in our average Net Promoter Score of 70 from our sellers.
Since our initial market launch in Phoenix in 2014, we have expanded across the United States and operated in 21 markets as of December 31, 2020: Atlanta, Austin, Charlotte, Dallas-Fort Worth, Denver, Houston, Jacksonville, Las Vegas, Los Angeles, Minneapolis-St. Paul, Nashville, Orlando, Phoenix, Portland, Raleigh-Durham, Riverside, Sacramento, San Antonio, Salt Lake City, Tampa and Tucson.
More importantly, we have just scratched the surface and believe we are in the early stages of the digital transformation of real estate. Over the coming years, we plan on increasing our market share, launching additional cities across the country, and expanding our products and services to become a digital, one-stop shop for buyers and sellers of residential real estate.
 
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Market Overview
Residential real estate remains the largest undisrupted market in the United States:
Residential real estate is a massive offline market.   Approximately 66% of Americans are homeowners, and many more aspire to be. In 2020, there were approximately 5.6 million sales of existing homes, totaling approximately $1.9 trillion of transaction volume with a median home price of $296,700. Online penetration represents less than 1% of home transactions, based on iBuyer (companies that use technology for online residential real estate transactions) volumes in 2019 and 2020.
The current landscape is highly fragmented.   Today, almost 90% of residential real estate transactions involve an agent. There are over two million licensed real estate agents in the United States, who on average complete less than six transactions per year and many of whom do not solely work in real estate. The result is often an inconsistent and frustrating experience for consumers looking for guidance in what is typically the largest financial decision of their lives.
Real estate will migrate online.   Consumers are shifting their spend online and demanding digital-first experiences for greater efficiency, certainty and speed. They are increasingly comfortable with transacting online across retail, food and transportation, and now expect similar experiences in real estate. While the majority of home buyers browse for homes online, the transaction is still largely offline, requiring real estate agents to access homes and requiring physical closings. COVID-19 has increased the demand for digital-first experiences as consumers prioritize safety and convenience. This tailwind has been further heightened by 72 million digitally-native millennials who are jumpstarting their path to homeownership as they work from home, explore less densely populated areas, and pursue more space.
The Problem
The traditional process of buying or selling a home is a lengthy and stressful experience for both the seller and buyer. For the nearly 90% of sellers that list their home on the market using an agent, this is their typical experience:

Find a listing agent.   Before the seller can list, they must find a qualified agent. 75% of sellers contact only one real estate agent before listing.

Prepare the home for listing.   The seller often needs to get the home “sale ready” and this preparation requires time and money. Homeowners spend an average of $6,400 to prepare their home for sale just on paint, cleaning and staging and this spend can be significantly higher if upgrades are necessary to the kitchen, flooring or bathrooms.

List the home.   A home needs to be listed for over 30 days on average before it goes into contract.

Host open houses and home visits.   During the process, the seller will host dozens of strangers walking through their home, and deal with the hassle of cleaning up and clearing out, often on short notice and during inconvenient times.

Receive an offer.   Once an offer is received, the seller has to negotiate the offer, negotiate the closing date, and deal with any contingencies the buyer may have.

Negotiate repairs or fix issues identified by buyers.   After the offer is accepted, the buyer conducts an inspection, which often forces the seller to re-negotiate the offer or fix issues, increasing the homeowner’s costs and potentially delaying closing.

Wait for closing.   Once the contract is signed, it still takes an average of 35 days to close. The seller is reliant on the home buyer and a disparate set of counterparties — such as their agent, mortgage broker and escrow officer — to coordinate and complete the closing process.

Fall-through risk.   Finally, there is an approximately 20% chance the contract falls through between signing and closing (based on average MLS contract fall through rates in our markets in 2020), forcing the home seller to start the entire process all over again.
Additionally, we estimate approximately two-thirds of home sellers are also home buyers.
 
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These customers face an additional set of challenges to line up their home purchase with their sale:

Contingencies.   Many Americans cannot purchase their next home until they sell their existing home. Few Americans can qualify for two mortgages and few have enough money for two down payments. These buyers often have to submit offers contingent on selling their current home, putting them at a disadvantage versus other buyers.

The “double move”.   Alternatively, homeowners can sell their current home, move into a rental, and then buy a new home, forcing them to move twice and bear those costs.
Our Solution
Opendoor is an end-to-end real estate platform enabling consumers to buy and sell a home online. Today, our product and service offerings include:
A modern way to sell.   By selling to Opendoor, homeowners can avoid the stress of open houses, home repairs, overlapping mortgages and the uncertainty that can come with listing a home on the open market. Using our mobile app and website, sellers can receive a competitive cash offer online. Post offer, we conduct a virtual interior home assessment and a contact-free exterior assessment to verify the home data information. Sellers can then select their preferred closing date and close electronically (where permitted). We also recently launched “List with Opendoor” in select markets. This broadens our product suite for potential home sellers and gives them the choice between two superior sales options.
[MISSING IMAGE: tm2038271d1-ph_sell4clr.jpg]
For customers who sell directly to us, we collect a service charge that covers the costs of buying, maintaining, marketing and selling the home. In 2020, our service charge was typically 5% to 8% and varied by market. Our final offer provides the homeowner with certainty and transparency as to their expected sale proceeds. This compares favorably to the traditional listing process, which typically includes an average broker fee of 5% to 6%, as well as a number of additional costs, such as resale concessions, inspection costs, double mortgage payments on two homes, and additional moving and storage costs. Many of these expenses may be unforeseen by the homeowner at the outset.
Customers have responded positively to this modern way of selling. As a result, we achieved a real seller conversion rate of over 30% in 2019 and 2020 (excluding March through August 2020 when we were not fully operational across all markets). We define real sellers as homeowners who are intent on selling their home and either enter into a contract to sell their home to Opendoor or list their home on the MLS within 60 days after receiving an offer from us. At a 6% service charge, we found that over 40% of real sellers chose to sell their home to Opendoor. Even with a higher service charge of 10%, approximately 20% of real sellers still chose to sell to Opendoor. More importantly, due to our focus on delighting the customer, we have a best-in-class Net Promoter Score of 70 from our sellers.
 
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A modern way to buy.   Opendoor has built an on-demand, seamless and digital home buying experience. Unlike the traditional process that is intermediated by agents, Opendoor home buyers can use our app or website to self-tour or virtually tour homes at their convenience, shop for financing, submit an offer and close on their timeline. In 2019, we also launched “Buy with Opendoor” in select markets, which is a seamless buying experience that taps into Opendoor’s capabilities such as cash offers, home operations, and digital, automated fulfillment for all homes listed on the market.
[MISSING IMAGE: tm2038271d1-ph_phoenix4clr.jpg]
A modern way to move.   For customers who are both selling and buying, we have built a trade-in product that enables customers to buy and sell in a coordinated transaction, eliminating resale contingencies, double moves and double mortgages.
 
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[MISSING IMAGE: tm2038271d1-ph_real4clr.jpg]
A digital one-stop shop.   A large number of services revolve around and are dependent on the home transaction. After we have earned our customers’ trust, we are able to introduce a range of services adjacent to the core real estate transaction in a highly convenient and integrated way. Currently, we offer:

Title and escrow:   We offer customers seamless and integrated title insurance and escrow services through our affiliated companies. In the markets where our affiliates offer title insurance services, we provided title insurance services for over 80% of Opendoor home transactions that closed in 2020.

Home Loans:   In late 2019, we launched Opendoor Home Loans, a tech-enabled mortgage platform for customers looking to buy or refinance a home. We have built this platform from the ground up and have combined savings, convenience and certainty into a simpler, more transparent mortgage process for customers.
Proprietary Data and Pricing Accuracy in Home Valuation
While the real estate industry lends itself to the use of a plethora of publicly sourceable data, much of this data lacks the quality and specificity essential to accurately price homes. Since Opendoor’s founding, we have built world-class data science capabilities and systematized tooling to gather, aggregate and synthesize an expanding catalog of proprietary, hyperlocal data in order to improve and automate pricing decisions.

Proprietary offline data.   We have conducted over 180,000 home assessments during which we collect over 100 data points on each home and its surroundings. We have invested in building custom inspection and operator tooling to systematically source and translate home features into a robust data library. Once we have purchased a home, we can collect additional proprietary home-level data through visitor feedback, visitor traffic and duration of visits. These proprietary data points have led us to make over one billion annotations and corrections to MLS and tax assessor data, as well as build out new, non-traditional geospatial data assets, such as power line proximity and road noise level. The additional home level data we collect from local vendors provides structured feedback on each home and further strengthens our data moat.

Pricing accuracy.   Our unique data works in concert with our pricing algorithms. These algorithms use machine learning to drive pricing decisions through demand forecasting, outlier detection, risk pricing, and inventory management. Over time, we have improved the pricing accuracy of our
 
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models as we add new data inputs and refine model logic, improvements that compound with experience and scale. As we have continued to demonstrate improving accuracy, we have also been able to increase our number of fully automated home valuations.
Advancements in model sophistication have accelerated our feedback loops, such that our systems can dynamically adjust to leading market indicators and react to real-time macro- and micro-economic conditions. Our pricing algorithms are designed to dynamically adjust to leading indicators and market conditions so that the business can react to real-time economic conditions. This responsiveness is critical to pricing accurately and maintaining margins, especially in periods of volatility.
Low Cost Transaction Platform
Each component of our real estate business and our customer experience has been custom built from the ground up, focused on creating a scalable and vertically-integrated transaction platform that will delight customers. We have built world-class capabilities in pricing, home operations, fulfillment, capital markets and customer service. Instead of relying on the traditional, inefficient processes in place, we have intentionally developed our systems around technology, automation and centralization. We have demonstrated transaction velocity of over 100 homes per day during our busiest quarters, and our systems have the capacity to support substantially higher volumes. This platform is the foundation of our lower cost structure which allows us to drive down our costs per unit as we scale and, ultimately deliver a lower cost service for customers.
We have established a network of hundreds of local service providers that use our proprietary technology to identify and complete home repairs and maintenance, which optimizes our system to reduce delays, eliminate waste and improve quality, while also capturing additional data. Due to our scale, we have also driven down the cost of materials employed in our home repair processes through volume discounts. In addition, we have designed our home inventory management processes and home access technology to ensure our homes are regularly cleaned, well-maintained and safe to enable our on-demand, self-tour experience.
Strategic Growth Priorities
Our growth strategy is to innovate and execute on the following key strategic priorities:
Increase penetration in existing markets.   Approximately 1.3 million homes were sold in our existing markets in 2020, and our resales represented approximately 0.8% of all transactions in those markets, driving $2.6 billion in revenue. In 2019, approximately 1.1 million homes were sold in our existing markets and our resales represented approximately 1.7% of all transactions in those markets, driving $4.7 billion in revenue. In 2019, our last full year of operations before the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, we estimate that only 6% of sellers in our markets received an offer from Opendoor and either sold their home to us or subsequently listed their home on the MLS within 60 days. We are focused on driving penetration and growing market share in our existing markets as we increase awareness and more home sellers and buyers look to transact online.
Expand to new markets.   At 21 markets as of December 2020, we are just scratching the surface today. We believe we have a massive opportunity to expand our reach to the top 100 markets in the United States. Nearly 90% of existing homes in these markets fall into the price range of $100,000 to $750,000, which represents housing inventory that we are confident is in the addressable market for our products and services. In addition, we plan to double the markets we serve in 2021. We select new markets by looking at drivers of supply, demand and affordability, housing stock, cost structure and expected pricing accuracy. We have centralized many of our core pricing, operations and customer service functions, enabling us to efficiently launch new markets and maintain lean teams within each of our markets. Decision making for each home is informed by centralized, robust, data-driven playbooks that allow us to drive consistency across our markets and reach profitability in new markets more quickly.
Expand product and service offerings.   In line with our focus on delivering a seamless experience, we are building a digital one-stop shop to move. In many of our markets, we already offer tech-enabled title insurance, escrow and mortgage services. We plan to add additional services over time to further simplify the
 
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transaction and delight customers, such as home insurance, home warranty, moving and storage, and home repair and maintenance.
Marketing
Our sales and marketing efforts utilize a multichannel approach, including paid advertising, earned media and partnerships, with a focus on efficiency and low-cost growth. As our market footprint has expanded, we have optimized our marketing strategy with advanced audience segmentation methodologies and improved targeting and attribution, and have recently added broad reach channels that allow us to responsibly scale brand awareness. Earned media and online real estate partnerships with leading industry brands diversify our media mix and reduce the cost of customer acquisition.
Competition
The U.S. housing market is highly competitive and fragmented, with over five million residential real estate transactions per year. We compete directly with traditional, offline real estate brokers and agents, other iBuyers, and a range of industry service providers, including mortgage originators, title and escrow companies, and home warranty and home insurance providers. We believe that our customer-focused values, vertically-integrated business model, and technology differentiate us from our competitors and provide a meaningful and sustainable competitive advantage.
Our Values and People
Our values.   Our values reflect how we will deliver on our goal to build a once in a generation company and include a focus on the customer, a culture of frugality, continuous invention, and ruthless execution against results:

Start and end with the customer.   We invent, build and execute to improve the lives of our customers. We put in the hard work to delight customers, even when no one is looking.

Act from ownership.   When we see a problem, we roll up our sleeves and fix it. We hold ourselves accountable because it is our home and it is our responsibility to take care of it.

Build openness.   We are open, honest and direct about problems and seek the truth. We assume good intentions and treat feedback as a gift.

BPS for Breakfast.   We eat “BPS (or basis points) for breakfast”meaning we are always looking for where we can take costs out of the transaction — so we can put more money in the pockets of our customers. We will win by building the lowest cost platform.

1% Better Every Day.   We value a growth mindset and operate from a place of humility. We are energized by constantly improving.

Startup mentality.   We move fast, operate with urgency, and have a bias towards action without sacrificing quality. We are relentlessly resourceful.

One Team, One Dream.   Our superpower is a diverse community that combines technology, operational excellence, talent and respect. We work through teams and care for each other professionally and personally. We honor and respect our diverse workforce and actively work to ensure everyone feels represented.

Results matter.   We focus on outputs and outcomes and hold ourselves accountable to hitting ambitious goals. We have a high quality bar and pay attention to the pixels, words, and results.

Celebrate moments.   We work tirelessly for our customers and teammates so we take the time to celebrate moments large and small.
Employees.   As of December 31, 2020, we employed 1,048 individuals in our offices across the United States. None of our employees are currently represented by a labor organization or a party to any collective bargaining.
 
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Technology
Our business is driven by data and technology at all stages of the home buying and selling process. We have assembled a team of engineers, data scientists, designers and product managers whose expertise spans a broad range of technical areas to build our proprietary technology for pricing and home assessment, access and management. We use technological innovations where possible to increase efficiency and scale our business.
We currently use third-party cloud computing services to allow us to quickly and efficiently scale up our services without upfront infrastructure costs, allowing us to maintain our focus on building great products. We also use third party services to allow customers to digitally sign contracts, upload videos of their home and manage customer support services.
Facilities and Office Space
We have various operating leases for office space, which are summarized as of December 31, 2020 in the table below. We believe that our facilities are adequate for our current needs.
Location
Purpose
Approximate
Square Feet
Principal Lease
Expiration Dates
Tempe, Arizona
General Office Space, Corporate Mailing
Address
100,807 2030
San Francisco,
California
General Office Space 80,088 2021
Duluth, Georgia
General Office Space 71,085 2029
In addition, we lease office space in several other U.S. locations.
Intellectual Property
We rely on trademarks, domain names, patents, copyrights, trade secrets, contractual provisions and restrictions on access and use to establish and protect our proprietary rights.
As of December 31, 2020, we have 20 trademark registrations and applications, including registrations for “Opendoor” and the Opendoor logo. As of December 31, 2020, we have 15 pending patent applications covering various technologies including our home management technology and our back office management technology.
We are the registered holder of a variety of domestic domain names, including “opendoor.com”.
In addition to the protection provided by our intellectual property rights, we enter into confidentiality and proprietary rights agreements with certain of our employees, consultants, contractors and business partners. Certain of our employees and contractors are also subject to invention assignment agreements. We further control the use of our proprietary technology and intellectual property through provisions in both our general and product-specific terms of use on our website.
Government Regulation
We operate in highly regulated businesses through a number of different channels across the United States. As a result, we are currently subject to a variety of, and may in the future become subject to additional, federal, state and local statutes and regulations in various jurisdictions (as well as judicial and administrative decisions and state common law), which are subject to change at any time, including laws regarding the real estate and mortgage industries, settlement services, insurance, mobile and internet based businesses and other businesses that rely on advertising, as well as data privacy and consumer protection laws, and employment laws.
In particular, the advertising, sale, and financing of homes is highly regulated by states in which we do business, as well as the U.S. federal government. Regulatory bodies include the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (“CFPB”), the Federal Trade Commission (“FTC”), the Department of Justice (“DOJ”),
 
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the Department of Housing and Urban Development (“HUD”), and various state licensing authorities, various state consumer protection agencies, various state financial regulatory agencies and various state insurance agencies. We are subject to compliance audits of our operations by many of these authorities. For a discussion of the various risks we face from regulation and compliance matters, see “ Risk Factors — Risks Related to Regulatory and Legal Matters”.
Additionally, laws, regulations, and standards covering marketing and advertising activities conducted by telephone, email, mobile devices, and the internet, may be applicable to our business, such as the Telephone Consumer Protection Act (“TCPA”), the Telemarketing Sales Rule, the CAN-SPAM Act, and similar state consumer protection laws. Through our various subsidiaries, we also originate mortgage loans, buy and sell homes, provide real estate brokerage, title insurance and settlement services, and provide other product offerings, which results in us receiving or facilitating transmission of personally identifiable information. This information is increasingly subject to legislation and regulation in the United States. These laws and regulations are generally intended to protect the privacy and security of personal information, including customer Social Security Numbers and credit card information that is collected, processed and transmitted. These laws also can restrict our use of this personal information for other commercial purposes.
In order to provide the broad range of products and services that we offer customers, certain of our subsidiaries maintain real estate brokerage, title insurance and escrow, property and casualty insurance and mortgage licenses, and we may in the future apply for additional licenses as our business grows and develops. These entities are subject to stringent state and federal laws and regulations, including, but not limited to, the Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act (“RESPA”) and those administered by applicable state departments of real estate, banking, insurance and consumer services, and to the scrutiny of state and federal government agencies as licensed businesses as noted above. As of December 31, 2020:

Opendoor Brokerage LLC, Opendoor Brokerage Inc. and OD Homes Brokerage Inc. (formerly known as Open Listings Co.), hold real estate brokerage licenses in all our markets and certain other states.

OS National LLC, and its subsidiaries, OSN Texas LLC and OSN Alabama LLC, are licensed as title agents in 27 states. In addition, OS National LLC is licensed as an escrow agent in six states.

Opendoor Home Loans LLC holds mortgage banking/lending licenses in eight states.

Digital Opendoor Insurance Services LLC holds insurance producer licenses for property and casualty lines in Arizona, California and Texas.
Mortgage products are regulated at the state level by licensing authorities and administrative agencies, with additional oversight from the CFPB and other federal agencies. These laws generally regulate the manner in which lending and lending-related activities are marketed or made available to consumers, including, but not limited to, advertising, finding and qualifying applicants, the provision of consumer disclosures, payments for services, and record keeping requirements; these laws include, at the federal level, the RESPA, the Fair Credit Reporting Act (as amended by the Fair and Accurate Credit Transactions Act), the Truth in Lending Act (including the Home Ownership and Equity Protection Act of 1994), the Equal Credit Opportunity Act, the Fair Housing Act, the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act, the Electronic Fund Transfer Act, the Servicemembers Civil Relief Act, the Military Lending Act, the Homeowners Protection Act, the Home Mortgage Disclosure Act, the Secure and Fair Enforcement for Mortgage Licensing Act of 2008, the Federal Trade Commission Act, the Dodd Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act of 2010, the Bank Secrecy Act (including the Office of Foreign Assets Control and the Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act), the TCPA, the Mortgage Acts and Practices Advertising Rule (Regulation N), the CARES Act, all implementing regulations, and various other federal, state and local laws. The CFPB also has broad authority to enforce prohibitions on practices that it deems to be unfair, deceptive or abusive. Additionally, state and local laws may restrict the amount and nature of interest and fees that may be charged by a lender or mortgage broker, impose more stringent privacy requirements and protections for servicemembers, and/or otherwise regulate the manner in which lenders or mortgage brokers operate or advertise.
For certain licenses, we are required to designate individual licensed brokers of record, qualified individuals and control persons.
 
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Legal Proceedings
In August 2019, the FTC sent a civil investigative demand to Opendoor, our wholly-owned subsidiary seeking documents and information relating primarily to statements in our advertising and website comparing selling homes to us with selling homes in a traditional manner using an agent and relating to statements that our offers reflect or are based on market prices. Thereafter, we responded cooperatively to the civil investigative demand and related follow-up requests from the FTC. On December 23, 2020, the FTC notified us that they intend to recommend that the agency pursue an enforcement action against us and certain of our officers, if we are unable to reach a negotiated settlement acceptable to all parties. The FTC has indicated that they believe certain of our advertising claims relating to the amount of our offers, the repair costs charged to home sellers, and the amount of net proceeds a seller may receive from selling to us versus selling in the traditional manner were inaccurate and/or inadequately substantiated. We are engaged in settlement negotiations with the FTC. There can be no assurances that we will be successful in negotiating a favorable settlement.
In addition to the foregoing, we are currently and have in the past been subject to legal proceedings and regulatory actions in the ordinary course of business. We do not anticipate that the ultimate liability, if any, arising out of any such matters will have a material effect on our financial condition, results of operations or cash flows. In the future, we may be subject to further legal proceedings and regulatory actions in the ordinary course of business and we cannot predict whether any such proceeding or matter will have a material effect on our financial condition, results of operations or cash flows.
 
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SELECTED HISTORICAL FINANCIAL AND OPERATING DATA OF OPENDOOR
The selected historical consolidated statements of operations data of Opendoor for the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018 and the historical consolidated balance sheet data as of December 31, 2020 and 2019 are derived from Opendoor’s audited consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus. The selected historical consolidated financial data as of December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016 and for the years ended December 31, 2017 and 2016 have been derived from Opendoor’s accounting records and have been prepared on the same basis as Opendoor’s audited consolidated financial statements included in this prospectus for the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018. You should read the following selected historical consolidated financial data together with “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and Opendoor’s consolidated financial statements and related notes included elsewhere in this prospectus.
Statement of
Operations Data
For The Year
Ended
December 31,
2020
For The Year
Ended
December 31,
2019
For The Year
Ended
December 31,
2018
For The Year
Ended
December 31,
2017
For The Year
Ended
December 31,
2016
Revenue:
2,583,121 4,740,583 1,838,066 711,066 338,742
Cost of revenue
2,363,324 4,439,333 1,704,638 644,719 321,934
Gross profit
219,797 301,250 133,428 66,347 16,808
Operating expenses
(405,662) (549,084) (297,100) (127,989) (50,214)
Net operating loss
(185,865) (247,834) (163,672) (61,642) (33,406)
Interest expense
(67,806) (109,728) (60,456) (23,342) (10,792)
Other income / (expense) – Net
(33,026) 18,644 (15,424) 217 (2,094)
Loss before income taxes
(286,697) (338,918) (239,552) (84,767) (46,292)
Income tax expense
(63) (252) (377)
Net loss
(286,760) (339,170) (239,929) (84,767) (46,292)
Less net income attributable to noncontrolling interests 
1,847 1,362 62
Net loss attributable to Opendoor Labs, Inc
(286,760) (341,017) (241,291) (84,829) (46,292)
Weighted average shares outstanding basic
109,301 79,977 78,564 64,588 N/M(1)
Weighted average shares outstanding diluted
109,301 79,977 78,564 64,588 N/M(1)
Basic net loss per ordinary share
$ (2.62) $ (4.26) $ (3.16) $ (1.31) N/M(1)
Diluted net loss per ordinary share
$ (2.62) $ (4.37) $ (3.16) $ (1.31) N/M(1)
Net cash provided by (used in):
Operating activities . . .
$ 681,911 $ (272,050) $ (1,179,637) $ (218,553) $ (197,359)
Investing activities . . . .
(21,866) (95,078) (7,432) (29,942) (1,026)
Financing activities . . .
160.661 646,179 1,496,494 161,177 334,255
Balance Sheet Data
December 31,
2020
December 31,
2019
December 31,
2018
December 31,
2017
December 31,
2016
Total assets
$ 2,175,582 $ 2,231,684 $ 1,842,295 514,406 423,249
Total current liabilities.
393,389 1,126,382 1,068,191 224,755 113,999
Total liabilities
575,575 1,583,285 1,191,797 330,960 164,368
Working capital
1,659,722 961,262 739,980 285,944 307,395
Total stockholders’ equity (deficit)
1,600,007 (733,103) (413,366) 320,786 315,855
Total temporary Equity
1,381,502 1,063,864 (137,340) (56,974)
(1)
Weighted average shares outstanding and earnings per share were not calculated for these historical periods. These calculations have not been performed for purposes of this filing.
 
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MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL
CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
The following discussion and analysis provides information that our management believes is relevant to an assessment and understanding of our consolidated results of operations and financial condition. The discussion should be read together with the “Selected Historical Financial and Operating Data” section of this prospectus and the historical audited annual consolidated financial statements as of December 31, 2020 and 2019 and for the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018.
The discussion and analysis should also be read together with our unaudited pro forma financial information for the year ended December 31, 2020. See “Unaudited Pro Forma Condensed Combined Financial Information.” This discussion may contain forward-looking statements based upon current expectations that involve risks and uncertainties. Our actual results may differ materially from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements as a result of various factors, including those set forth under “Risk Factors” or in other parts of this prospectus.
Overview
Opendoor’s mission is to empower everyone with the freedom to move. Since our inception in 2014, we have reimagined the residential real estate transaction to provide a new, radically simple way to buy and sell a home with more convenience, control and cost savings than ever before. We believe our consumer-first orientation, scalable and integrated home transaction platform and our proprietary, machine learning-based pricing models are among our core advantages and differentiators for our business. Collectively, these underpin Opendoor’s digital suite of services, which brings simplicity, certainty and speed to the home selling and buying process.
The Business Combination
We entered into the Merger Agreement with SCH, a special purpose acquisition company, on September 15, 2020. Pursuant to the Merger Agreement, Merger Sub, a newly formed subsidiary of SCH, merged with and into Opendoor. Upon the consummation of the Closing on December 18, 2020, the separate corporate existence of Merger Sub ceased; Opendoor survived and became a wholly owned subsidiary of SCH, which was renamed Opendoor Technologies Inc.
The Business Combination was accounted for as a reverse recapitalization, in accordance with GAAP. Under the guidance in ASC 805, Opendoor Technologies was treated as the “acquired” company for financial reporting purposes. Opendoor was deemed the accounting predecessor of the combined business, and Opendoor Technologies, as the parent company of the combined business, was the successor SEC registrant, meaning that our financial statements for previous periods will be disclosed in the registrant’s future periodic reports filed with the SEC. The Business Combination had a significant impact on our reported financial position and results as a consequence of the reverse recapitalization. The most significant changes in Opendoor Technologies’ reported financial position and results are a net increase in cash of $970 million. The increase in cash includes approximately $600 million in proceeds from the private placement (“PIPE Investment”) consummated substantially simultaneously with the Business Combination, offset by additional transaction costs for the Business Combination. The transaction costs for the Business Combination are approximately $44 million, of which $14.5 million represents deferred underwriter fees related to SCH’s initial public offering.
As a result of the Business Combination, we became an SEC-registered and Nasdaq-listed company, which will require us to hire additional personnel and implement procedures and processes to address public company regulatory requirements and customary practices. We expect to incur additional annual expenses as a public company for, among other things, directors’ and officers’ liability insurance, director fees, and additional internal and external accounting, legal and administrative resources. We estimate that these incremental costs will be approximately $15 million per year.
Business Impact of COVID-19
In December 2019, a novel strain of coronavirus (“COVID-19”) was reported and subsequently spread worldwide. On March 11, 2020, the World Health Organization declared COVID-19 a pandemic. In response
 
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to the COVID-19 pandemic and the consequent health risks, we substantially ceased purchasing additional homes in March 2020 to safeguard the health and safety of our customers and employees. After ensuring our ability to close transactions safely, seeing the lifting of shelter-in-place mandates, and retooling certain operational processes to enable “contactless” transactions, we resumed making offers to purchase homes in select markets in May 2020. We resumed operations across all of our markets by the end of August 2020.
Despite pausing new acquisitions in March, we continued to sell down inventory at a healthy pace, leading to home inventory of $152 million as of September 30, 2020 compared to inventory of $1,312 million as of December 31, 2019. As our revenues are dependent on inventory levels available for sale, our near-term revenues have been pressured due to limited inventory. Accordingly, we experienced sequential, quarter-over-quarter declines in revenue in the second, third and fourth quarters of 2020. We grew inventory in the fourth quarter of 2020 to $466 million as of December 31, 2020 and plan to continue rebuilding our inventory throughout 2021. We currently expect to return to sequential quarterly revenue growth in the first quarter of 2021 and and return 2019 revenue levels on a run-rate basis as we exit 2021. See “— Components of Our Results of Operations — Revenue.”
We also implemented a workforce restructuring and realignment in April 2020 to preserve operating flexibility, given that the duration and impact of COVID-19 on the housing market was highly uncertain during that period. We expect to benefit from a lower run-rate cost base as the business grows from current levels. We believe COVID-19 has accelerated the adoption of our digital services, as well as created additional tailwinds for housing as people work from home, explore less populated areas and pursue more space.
Our Business Model
Revenue and margin model
We acquire homes directly from individual sellers and resell those homes to buyers, including both individual consumers and institutional investors. Upon acquiring a home, we typically make necessary renovations and repairs before listing it for sale on our website, our mobile app, MLS and other online real estate portals. Our average hold period for homes purchased since January 2019, from acquisition to resale, ranged from 70 to 110 days and varied by market. Home sales comprise the vast majority of our revenues today, but we expect increasing contribution from adjacent services as our current offerings mature and we introduce additional services over time.
To achieve our long-term margin objectives, we must both maintain pricing accuracy as the business expands and increase customer adoption of our newer services, such as Opendoor Home Loans, Buy with Opendoor, and List with Opendoor. We also plan to achieve operating leverage by growing our revenue at a faster pace than our fixed cost base, which includes general and administrative as well as technology and development expenses. Given the size of the opportunity in front of us, we plan to invest aggressively in the near term and appropriately balance trade-offs between growth and margin as we scale.
Offers
We generate demand for our services through organic awareness and word-of-mouth, paid media spend, and partnership channels such as our relationships with homebuilders and online portals. Home sellers can visit our website or mobile app and answer a few questions about their home’s condition, features and upgrades. For eligible homes, customers receive an initial home valuation range, which can be refreshed at any time through their personalized seller dashboard. The majority of our initial offers are algorithmically generated and do not require any human intervention.
In order to finalize our offer, we conduct a free assessment to confirm all of the home details and identify any repairs that may need to be performed. We have developed purpose-built software to guide home assessment workflows and collect over 100 unique data points regarding a home’s condition and quality, which we incorporate as structured data into our underlying pricing models. Once completed, we finalize our offer, taking into consideration any necessary repairs, and produce the purchase agreement for the seller. Our objective is to provide a competitive cash offer to sellers and we believe this approach builds trust with our potential customers. Our business model is designed to generate margins from our service charge to sellers
 
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and adjacent products and services associated with a transaction, and not from the spread between acquisition price and resale price.
We closely track the number of potential sellers who accept the Opendoor offer versus listing their home on the MLS, and this conversion rate is an important factor for our growth.
Home acquisition and renovation
Once a seller has received and accepted our final purchase offer, we enable the seller to close the transaction on a flexible timeline. This is a particularly important feature to sellers, as their home sale can accommodate other life events (including the purchase of their next home) and further differentiates our service from a traditional sale. Depending on the condition of the home, we leverage our vetted contractor network within each market to complete required repairs and upgrades. Our repair scopes are focused on high-return investments and ensuring the home is in market-ready condition. We continuously refine and adjust our repair strategies based on our operating experience in markets and reviewing neighborhood-level resale outcomes.
Home resale
Post-renovation, we market our homes across a wide variety of channels to generate buyer awareness and demand. These include the Opendoor website and mobile app, local MLS and syndication across real estate portals. We also generate buyer awareness through Opendoor signage for listed properties. Efficiently turning our inventory, inclusive of repairing, listing, and reselling the home, is important to our financial performance, as we bear holding costs (including utilities, property taxes and insurance) and financing costs during our ownership period.
As part of the listing and marketing process, we determine an appropriate pricing strategy for each home. Our proprietary pricing engine helps automate many of these steps, including relevant adjustments over time. We measure our inventory performance compared to local market trends, and our pricing models can incorporate granular, relative demand signals to optimize pricing and sell-through across the portfolio. Our resale models, in conjunction with our pricing team, aim to maximize resale margin while maintaining appropriate transaction velocity and overall inventory health.
When we receive an acceptable offer on a given home, we enter into a resale contract. Buyers will then typically conduct an inspection on the property, finalize their mortgage application process and ultimately take possession of the home upon closing of the transaction.
Factors Affecting our Business Performance
Market Penetration in Existing Markets
Residential real estate is one of the largest consumer markets, with approximately $1.9 trillion of home value transacted annually. In 2020, we estimate that we captured approximately 0.8% unit market share across our 21 markets, compared to 1.7% unit share in 2019, with the lower share volume attributable to the COVID-induced pause in home acquisitions and inventory sell down undertaken in 2020. Given we operate in a highly fragmented industry and offer a differentiated value proposition to the incumbent agent-led transaction, we believe there is significant opportunity to expand our share in our existing cities. We have already demonstrated higher market share in a number of our more mature markets, providing a template for potential share gains as the rest of the portfolio matures.
By providing a consistent, high-quality and differentiated experience to our customers, we hope to continue to drive positive word-of-mouth, awareness and trust in our platform. We believe this creates a virtuous cycle, whereby more home sellers will request an offer from Opendoor, allowing us to deepen our market penetration.
 
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Expansion into New Markets
Since our inception in 2014, we have expanded into 21 markets as of December 31, 2020. The following table represents the number of markets as of the periods presented:
Year Ended December 31,
(in whole numbers)
2020
2019
2018
Number of markets (at period end)
21 21 18
Through the end of 2020, our markets covered approximately 1.3 million of the total 5.6 million existing home transactions that occur each year in the United States. As such, we believe there is a meaningful opportunity to grow our business by expanding our geographic coverage. Based on our markets launched to date, we believe our business model and pricing capabilities allow us to service the majority of our total addressable market.
After launching 12 markets in 2018, we focused on centralizing our operations platform in 2019 for long-term scalability. We launched three additional markets in 2019 and did not launch any markets in 2020, primarily due to COVID-19. We will resume additional market launches in 2021, with a plan to double the markets we serve by the end of the year. We believe our centralized systems will allow for a higher velocity and lower cost market launch process in the future. We are able to launch a market with only a small field team focused on home assessments and subcontractor oversight, with all other key functions managed centrally, including marketing, customer sales and support and pricing.
We view the first year of a market launch as an investment period during which we refine our pricing models, renovation strategies and cost structure. Historically, we have seen purchase cohort Contribution Margins for new markets reach positive, steady-state levels approximately one year after initial launch. The significant number of new market launches in 2018 contributed to our lower Contribution Margins in 2019; as those same markets matured, we were able to improve Contribution Margin performance in 2020.
We expect to make substantial investments to support our market launches in 2021, which will impact both Contribution Margin and EBITDA as these new markets mature.
Adjacent Services
We believe home sellers and buyers value simplicity and convenience. To that end, we are building an online, integrated suite of home services, which currently include title insurance and escrow services, listing and real estate brokerage services, and mortgage services. We believe that vertically integrating services that are adjacent to the core real estate transaction will allow us to deliver a superior, seamless experience to the consumer. In the markets where our affiliates offer title insurance services, we provided title insurance services for over 80% of Opendoor home transactions that closed during 2020. Our success with title insurance services helps validate our thesis that customers prefer an online, integrated experience. We expect that these adjacent services will also be accretive to our Contribution Margins.
We will continue to evaluate new ways to improve our end-to-end solution and expect to invest in additional adjacent products and services over time.
Unit economics
We view Contribution Margin and Contribution Margin after Interest as key measures of unit economic performance. Our long-term financial performance depends, in part, on continuing to expand unit margins through the following initiatives:

Pricing engine optimization and enhancements, especially as we enter new markets and expand our reach in existing markets.

Lowering platform costs through process refinement, greater automation and self-service, and more efficient forms of financing.

Successful introduction of additional services that supplement the core transaction margin profile.
 
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Seasonality
The residential real estate market is seasonal, with greater demand from home buyers in the spring and summer, and typically weaker demand in late fall and winter. We expect our financial results and working capital requirements to reflect seasonal variations over time, although our growth and market expansion have obscured the impact of seasonality in our historical financials and may continue to do so. That said, we generally expect stronger sequential revenue growth in the first quarter of the year versus the third and fourth quarters.
Risk management
We have invested significant time and resources into our pricing engine and inventory management systems. Our engineering, data science and pricing teams collectively focus on pricing accuracy for both home acquisition and disposition, as well as managing our inventory health across markets.
While residential real estate markets are subject to fluctuations, as with any market, we believe we are well-positioned to manage our inventory risk exposure due to the following:

Our business model is based on transaction velocity and short-duration hold times, with our average days in possession typically ranging from 70 to 110 days for homes acquired since January 2019. We have historically concentrated our home purchases on the more liquid segments of the residential real estate market, thus limiting our duration risk. Moreover, residential real estate prices tend to move gradually relative to other asset classes, which meaningfully reduces our exposure to price fluctuations during our ownership period.

Our pricing models and inventory management systems are designed to recalibrate to market signals on a daily basis. Accordingly, changing market conditions will be immediately reflected in our pricing for new acquisitions, leaving only previously-acquired inventory at risk to potential market volatility.

At any moment in time, a significant portion of our inventory is under resale contract; this means we have already found buyers for those homes and are in the process of closing the resale transactions. This further limits our exposure to the remaining homes in inventory.

Our listed homes are not occupied and are in resale condition given the repairs and renovations we perform. We believe that this increases the salability and liquidity of our portfolio.

We operate in 21 distinct markets, as of December 31, 2020, affording us diversification across our inventory portfolio. While there are macro forces that may impact all markets, local real estate markets tend to be idiosyncratic in terms of their individual supply-demand dynamics.
We will continue to make substantial investments in our pricing systems and risk management functions.
Inventory Financing
Our business model is working capital intensive and inventory financing is a key enabler of our growth. We rely on our access to non-recourse asset-backed financing facilities, which consist of senior revolving credit facilities and asset-backed mezzanine term debt facilities, to finance our home acquisitions. See “—Liquidity and Capital Resources — Debt and Financing Arrangements.
Non-GAAP Financial Measures
In addition to our results of operations below, we report certain financial measures that are not required by, or presented in accordance with, U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (“GAAP”). These measures have limitations as analytical tools when assessing our operating performance and should not be considered in isolation or as a substitute for GAAP measures, including gross profit and net income. We may calculate or present our non-GAAP financial measures differently than other companies who report measures with similar titles and, as a result, the non-GAAP financial measures we report may not be comparable with those of companies in our industry or in other industries.
 
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Adjusted Gross Profit, Contribution Profit and Contribution Profit After Interest
To provide investors with additional information regarding our margins and return on inventory acquired, we have included Adjusted Gross Profit, Contribution Profit and Contribution Profit After Interest, which are non-GAAP financial measures. We believe that Adjusted Gross Profit, Contribution Profit and Contribution Profit After Interest are useful financial measures for investors as they are supplemental measures used by management in evaluating unit level economics and our operating performance in our key markets. Each of these measures is intended to present the economics related to homes sold during a given period. We do so by including revenue generated from homes sold (and adjacent services) in the period and only the expenses that are directly attributable to such home sales, even if such expenses were recognized in prior periods, and excluding expenses related to homes that remain in inventory as of the end of the period. Contribution Profit provides investors a measure to assess Opendoor’s ability to generate returns on homes sold during a reporting period after considering home purchase costs, renovation and repair costs, holding costs and selling costs. Contribution Profit After Interest further impacts gross profit by including interest costs attributable to homes sold during a reporting period. We believe these measures facilitate meaningful period over period comparisons and illustrate our ability to generate returns on assets sold after considering the costs directly related to the assets sold in a given period.
Adjusted Gross Profit, Contribution Profit and Contribution Profit After Interest are supplemental measures of our operating performance and have limitations as analytical tools. For example, these measures include costs that were recorded in prior periods under GAAP and exclude, in connection with homes held in inventory at the end of the period, costs required to be recorded under GAAP in the same period. These measures also exclude the impact of certain restructuring costs that are required under GAAP. Accordingly, these measures should not be considered in isolation or as a substitute for analysis of our results as reported under GAAP. We include a reconciliation of these measures to the most directly comparable GAAP financial measure, which is gross profit.
Adjusted Gross Profit / Margin
We calculate Adjusted Gross Profit as gross profit under GAAP adjusted for (1) inventory impairment in the current period, (2) inventory impairment in prior periods, plus (3) restructuring in cost of revenue. Restructuring in cost of revenue reflects the costs associated with the reduction in our workforce in 2020, a portion of which were related to personnel included in cost of revenue. Inventory impairment in the current period is calculated by adding back the inventory impairment charges recorded during the period on homes that remain in inventory at period end. Inventory impairment in prior periods is calculated by subtracting the inventory impairment charges recorded in prior periods on homes sold in the current period. We define Adjusted Gross Margin as Adjusted Gross Profit as a percentage of revenue.
We view this metric as an important measure of business performance, as it captures gross margin performance isolated to homes sold in a given period and provides comparability across reporting periods. Adjusted Gross Profit helps management assess home pricing, service fees and renovation performance for a specific resale cohort.
Contribution Profit / Margin
We calculate Contribution Profit as Adjusted Gross Profit, minus (1) holding costs incurred in the current period on homes sold during the period, minus (2) holding costs incurred in prior periods on homes sold in the current period, and (3) direct selling costs incurred on homes sold during the current period. The composition of our holding costs is described in the footnotes to the reconciliation table below. Contribution Margin is Contribution Profit as a percentage of revenue.
We view this metric as an important measure of business performance as it captures the unit level performance isolated to homes sold in a given period and provides comparability across reporting periods. Contribution Profit helps management assess inflows and outflows directly associated with a specific resale cohort.
Contribution Profit / Margin After Interest
We define Contribution Profit After Interest as Contribution Profit, minus interest expense under our senior revolving credit facilities incurred on the homes sold during the period. This may include interest
 
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expense recorded in periods prior to the period in which the sale occurred. Our senior revolving credit facilities are secured by our homes in inventory and drawdowns are made on a per-home basis at the time of purchase and are required to be repaid at the time the homes are sold. See “— Liquidity and Capital Resources — Debt and Financing Arrangements.” We do not include interest expense associated with our mezzanine term debt facilities in this calculation as we do not view such facilities as reflective of our expected long term capital structure and cost of financing. Contribution Margin After Interest is Contribution Profit After Interest as a percentage of revenue.