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TABLE OF CONTENTS
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-K
(Mark One)
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021
OR
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from ___________ to ____________.
Commission file number 001-39253
Opendoor Technologies Inc.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware98-1515020
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
410 N. Scottsdale Road,Suite 1600
Tempe,AZ85281
(Address of Principal Executive Offices)(Zip Code)
(415) 896-6737
Registrant's telephone number, including area code
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading Symbol(s)Name of each exchange on which registered
Common stock, $0.0001 par value per shareOPENThe Nasdaq Stock Market LLC
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.
Yes No
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.
Yes No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports); and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes No


TABLE OF CONTENTS
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):
Large accelerated filerAccelerated filer
Non-accelerated filerSmaller reporting company
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of
the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C.
7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes No
The aggregate market value of voting and non-voting stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant as of June 30, 2021 was $8,530,606,083. Shares of common stock beneficially owned by each executive officer, director, and holder of more than 10% of our common stock have been excluded in that such persons may be deemed to be affiliates.
The number of shares of registrant’s common stock outstanding as of February 18, 2022 was approximately 620,131,694.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of the registrant’s definitive Proxy Statement relating to its 2022 Annual Meeting of Stockholders to be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission within 120 days after December 31, 2021 are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.


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Annual Report On Form 10-K
For Fiscal Year Ended December 31, 2021
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ITEM 6. [RESERVED]
ITEM 8. FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND SUPPLEMENTARY DATA
ITEM 9. CHANGES IN AND DISAGREEMENTS WITH ACCOUNTANTS ON ACCOUNTING AND FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE
ITEM 12. SECURITY OWNERSHIP OF CERTAIN BENEFICIAL OWNERS AND MANAGEMENT AND RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS
ITEM 15. EXHIBIT AND FINANCIAL STATEMENT SCHEDULES

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As used in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, unless the context requires otherwise, references to “Opendoor,” the “Company,” “we,” “us,” and “our,” and similar references refer to Opendoor Technologies Inc. and its wholly owned subsidiaries following the Business Combination (as defined herein) and to Opendoor Labs Inc. prior to the Business Combination.
FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This Annual Report on Form 10-K contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”). All statements other than statements of historical facts contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, including statements regarding our future results of operations or financial condition; business strategy and plans; expectations regarding the impact of COVID-19; and market opportunity and expansion and objectives of management for future operations, including our statements regarding the benefits and timing of the roll out of new markets, products, or technology, and the expected diversification of funding sources, are forward-looking statements. When used in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, words such as “anticipate,” “believe,” “contemplate,” “continue,” “could,” “estimate,” “expect,” “forecast,” “future,” “intend,” “may,” “might,” “opportunity,” “plan,” “possible,” “potential,” “predict,” “project,” “should,” “strategy,” “strive,” “target,” “will,” or “would,” including their antonyms or other similar terms or expressions may identify forward-looking statements. The absence of these words does not mean that a statement is not forward-looking.
These forward-looking statements are based on information available as of the date of this Annual Report on Form 10-K and current expectations, forecasts and assumptions, which involve a number of judgments, risks and uncertainties, including without limitation, risks related to:
our public securities’ potential liquidity and trading;
our ability to raise financing in the future;
our success in retaining or recruiting, or changes required in, our officers, key employees or directors;
the impact of the regulatory environment and complexities with compliance related to such environment; and
factors relating to our business, operations and financial performance, including:
the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic;
our ability to maintain an effective system of internal controls over financial reporting;
our ability to grow market share in our existing markets or any new markets we may enter;
our ability to respond to general economic conditions;
the health of the U.S. residential real estate industry;
risks associated with our real estate assets and increased competition in the U.S. residential real estate industry;
our ability to manage our growth effectively;
our ability to achieve and maintain profitability in the future;
our ability to access sources of capital, including debt financing and securitization funding to finance our real estate inventories and other sources of capital to finance operations and growth;
our ability to maintain and enhance our products and brand, and to attract customers;
our ability to manage, develop and refine our technology platform, including our automated pricing and valuation technology;
the success of our strategic relationships with third parties; and
other factors detailed under the section entitled “Risk Factors” in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Accordingly, forward-looking statements should not be relied upon as representing our views as of any subsequent date, and we do not undertake any obligation to update forward-looking statements to reflect events or circumstances after the date they were made, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, except as may be required under applicable securities laws.
As a result of a number of known and unknown risks and uncertainties, including without limitation the important factors described in Part I. Item 1A “ Risk Factors” in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, our actual results or performance may be materially different from those expressed or implied by these forward-looking statements. You should not place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements.
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SUMMARY RISK FACTORS
Our business is subject to numerous risks and uncertainties that represent challenges that we face in connection with the successful implementation of our strategy and the growth of our business. In particular, the following considerations, among others, may offset our competitive strengths or have a negative effect on our business strategy or operating results, which could cause a decline in the price of shares of our common stock:
The extent to which the pandemic caused by COVID-19 and its variants will impact our future operations is highly uncertain and cannot be predicted at this time;
Our business and operating results may be significantly impacted by general economic conditions, the health of the U.S. residential real estate industry and risks associated with our real estate assets;
We have a history of losses, and we may not achieve or maintain profitability in the future;
We operate in a competitive and fragmented industry, which could impair our ability to attract users of our products, which could harm our business, results of operations and financial condition;
Our business is dependent upon our ability to appropriately price and manage our portfolio of inventory. An ineffective pricing or portfolio management strategy may have a material adverse effect on our business, sales, and results of operations;
Our growth depends in part on the success of our strategic relationships with third parties;
Our business is dependent upon access to desirable inventory. Obstacles to acquiring attractive inventory, whether because of supply, competition, or other factors may have a material adverse effect on our business, sales and results of operations;
We process, store and use personal information and other data, which subjects us to governmental regulation and other legal obligations related to privacy, and violation of these privacy obligations could result in a claim for damages, regulatory action, loss of business, or unfavorable publicity;
We operate in a highly regulated industry and are subject to a wide range of federal, state and local laws, rules and regulations. Failure to comply with these laws, rules and regulations or to obtain and maintain required licenses, could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations; and
We utilize a significant amount of debt and financing arrangements in the operation of our business, and so our cash flows and operating results could be adversely affected by required payments of debt or related interest and other risks of our debt financing.
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PART I
Item 1. Business.
Mission
Our mission is to empower everyone with the freedom to move.
Our Company
We are a leading digital platform for residential real estate. In 2014, we founded Opendoor to reinvent one of life’s most important transactions and make it possible to buy, sell, and move at the tap of a button. By leveraging software, data science, product design and operations, we have rebuilt the service model for real estate and have made buying and selling possible on a mobile device. We believe that the end state for the real estate marketplace will inevitably be a marketplace powered by technology.
Residential real estate is the largest undisrupted category in the United States. In 2021 alone, more than six million existing homes were sold, representing nearly $2.3 trillion in transactions. Additionally, with approximately two-thirds of Americans living in a home they own, housing is the single largest consumer expenditure in the United States, ahead of transportation, food, insurance, and healthcare.
Yet, in a world where purchases are increasingly migrating online, the real estate transaction has largely remained unchanged. The typical process of buying or selling a home is complex, uncertain, time consuming and primarily offline. A traditional home sale requires countless decisions, an average of six intermediaries, often brings unexpected costs, and takes approximately three months from start to finish. Ultimately, the consumer is left dissatisfied with a broken, disjointed experience.
We streamline the process of buying and selling a home into a seamless digital experience that is simple, certain, and fast. Sellers can go to Opendoor.com, receive an offer, and sign and choose their closing date. Buyers can download the Opendoor app, tour and visit both Opendoor and non-Opendoor homes, and make an offer, all with just a mobile device. Homebuyers and sellers can also integrate our current suite of adjacent services, such as title and escrow and Opendoor Home Loans to complete their transaction. We have built a simple, on-demand way to buy and sell a home.
Over the past seven years, customers have shown their desire for our digital, on-demand real estate solution. Since launch, we have bought and sold over 140,000 homes, across the United States. We have historically achieved growth at scale, with revenue growth of over 100% in each of the four fiscal years preceding 2020, when the COVID-19 pandemic impacted our business. In 2021, we sold over 21,000 homes and generated $8.0 billion in revenue, which represents a compound annual growth rate of 83% since 2017. Importantly, we have been able to achieve this growth while continuing to delight customers with an average Net Promoter Score of over 80 from our sellers.
Since our initial market launch in Phoenix in 2014, we have expanded across the United States and operated in 44 markets as of December 31, 2021: Asheville, Atlanta, Austin, Birmingham, Boise, Charlotte, Chattanooga, Cleveland, Columbus, Corpus Christi, Colorado Springs, Columbia, Dallas-Fort Worth, Denver, Greensboro-Winston, Greenville, Houston, Indianapolis, Jacksonville, Kansas City, Killeen, Knoxville-Morristown, Las Vegas, Los Angeles, Miami, Minneapolis-St. Paul, Nashville, Northern Colorado, Oklahoma City, Orlando, Phoenix, Portland, Prescott, Raleigh-Durham, Reno, Riverside, Sacramento, Saint Louis, Salt Lake City, San Antonio, San Diego, Tampa, Tucson, and Washington, DC.
We believe we are still in the early stages of the digital transformation of real estate. Over the coming years, we plan on increasing our market share in existing markets, launching in new markets across the country, and expanding our products and services to become a digital, one-stop shop for buyers and sellers of residential real estate.
Market Overview
Residential real estate is a massive offline market.  With transactions totaling approximately $2.3 trillion in 2021, online penetration based on iBuyer (companies that use technology for online residential real estate transactions) volumes represented less than 1% of 2021 real estate transactions.
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The current landscape is highly fragmented.  Today, 90% of residential real estate transactions involve an agent. There are over three million licensed real estate agents in the United States, who on average complete less than five transactions per year and many of whom do not solely work in real estate. The result is often an inconsistent and frustrating experience for consumers looking for guidance in what is typically the largest financial decision of their lives.
Real estate will migrate online.  Consumers are shifting their spend online and demanding digital-first experiences for greater efficiency, certainty and speed. They are increasingly comfortable with transacting online across retail, food and transportation, and now expect similar experiences in real estate. While the majority of home buyers browse for homes online, the transaction is still largely offline, requiring real estate agents to access homes and requiring physical closings. The COVID-19 pandemic catalyzed an increase in demand for digital-first experiences with consumers prioritizing safety and convenience. It has also accelerated the adoption of remote work, facilitating greater geographic mobility as consumers explore less densely populated areas, and pursue more space.
The Problem
The traditional process of buying or selling a home is a lengthy and stressful experience for both the seller and buyer. For the 90% of sellers that list their home on the market using an agent, this is what their experience typically looks like:
Find a listing agent.  Before the seller can list, they must find a qualified agent. Over 80% of sellers contact only one real estate agent before listing.
Prepare the home for listing.  The seller often needs to get the home “sale ready”. This preparation, including cleaning, staging and any necessary upgrades, typically involves a lot of guesswork, time and money.
List the home.  A home typically needs to be listed for 30 days or more on average before it goes into contract.
Host open houses and home visits.  During the process, the seller will typically host dozens of strangers walking through their home, and deal with the hassle of cleaning up and clearing out, often on short notice and during inconvenient times.
Receive an offer.  Once an offer is received, the seller has to negotiate the offer, negotiate the closing date, and deal with any contingencies the buyer may have.
Negotiate repairs or fix issues identified by buyers.  After the offer is accepted, the buyer conducts an inspection, which often forces the seller to re-negotiate the offer or fix issues, increasing the homeowner’s costs and potentially delaying closing.
Wait for closing.  Once the contract is signed, it still takes an average of 35 days to close. The seller is reliant on the home buyer and a disparate set of counterparties — such as their agent, mortgage broker and escrow officer — to coordinate and complete the closing process.
Fall-through risk.  Finally, there is an approximately 20% chance the contract falls through between signing and closing (based on average multiple listing services (“MLS”) contract fall through rates in our markets in 2021), forcing the home seller to start the entire process all over again.
Additionally, we estimate over two-thirds of home sellers are also home buyers. These customers face an additional set of challenges to line up their home purchase with their sale:
Contingencies.  Many Americans are reluctant to sell or cannot purchase their next home until they know with certainty what they can afford for their next home. Few Americans can qualify for two mortgages and few have enough money for two down payments. These buyers often have to submit offers contingent on selling their current home, putting them at a disadvantage versus other buyers.
The “double move”.  Alternatively, homeowners can sell their current home, move into a rental or hotel, and then buy a new home, forcing them to move twice and bear those costs.
Our Solution
Opendoor is an end-to-end real estate platform enabling consumers to buy and sell a home online. We also offer a number of services that revolve around customers who sell directly to Opendoor (what we consider our core transaction), including those that may also be buying their next home, as well as for buyers touring our homes independently via our app or website.
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We expect these adjacent services to be highly accretive to our unit economics over time. Today, our product and service offerings include:
Opendoor Complete.  Launched in late 2021, Opendoor Complete brings together all of our products and services into a single, streamlined experience so customers can move seamlessly. It provides customers with certainty on the equity in their existing home with our all-cash offer, the power to make a stronger offer on their next home with our cash backing, and the ability to line up closing dates and avoid double moves or mortgages. Customers are able to track and manage their move via a consumer dashboard and interact with Opendoor through a single primary point of contact, significantly streamlining the process of selling and buying their home.
Sell to Opendoor.  By selling to Opendoor, homeowners can avoid the stress of open houses, home repairs, overlapping mortgages and the uncertainty that can come with listing a home on the open market. Using our website, sellers can receive a preliminary offer online. We then conduct a virtual interior home assessment and a contact-free exterior assessment to verify the home data information and finalize the offer, taking into consideration the home’s condition. Sellers can then select their preferred closing date and close electronically (where permitted).
For customers who sell directly to us, we charge a service fee. We also ask for a repair credit that relates to our assessment of home condition. Beginning in the first quarter of 2021, our service fee was set at 5% across all markets. This can compare favorably to the traditional listing process, which can include a broker fee of 5% to 6%, depending on location, as well as the potential for a number of additional costs, such as resale concessions, inspection costs, staging costs, double mortgage payments on two homes, and additional moving and storage costs. Many of these expenses may be unforeseen by the homeowner at the outset. Our final offer, inclusive of purchase price, service fee, and repair credit, provides the homeowner with more certainty and transparency as to their expected sale proceeds, while removing the hassle of doing any repairs to get the home “sale ready.”
Customers have responded positively to this modern way of selling, enabling us to achieve a real seller conversion rate of over 35% in 2021. We define real sellers as homeowners who are intent on selling their home and either enter into a contract to sell their home to Opendoor or list their home on the MLS within 60 days after receiving an offer from us.
Buy with Opendoor.  Opendoor has built an on-demand, seamless and digital home buying experience with the launch of Buy with Opendoor in 2019 and the Opendoor Backed Offers feature in early 2021. Buy with Opendoor is currently offered in 16 markets. Unlike the traditional process that is intermediated by agents, Buy with Opendoor customers can use our app or website to self-tour or virtually tour both Opendoor and non-Opendoor homes at their convenience, shop for financing and submit an offer backed by Opendoor’s cash. In these transactions, we collect the buyer’s agent commission from the seller.
With Opendoor Backed Offers, qualified buyers can present the certainty of an all-cash offer to the seller, free of financing, appraisal, and home sale contingencies, thereby increasing the attractiveness of their offer and their chance of being able to purchase that home. In certain instances where the buyer takes longer than expected to obtain financing, we leverage our expertise in the home acquisition process to acquire the home. Once the buyer has obtained financing, the buyer can purchase the home at the price Opendoor paid. Customers interested in Opendoor Backed Offers can also quickly pre-qualify with Opendoor Home Loans in available markets and conveniently integrate mortgage financing with the competitive and time-sensitive home bidding process.
Opendoor Home Loans.  In late 2019, we launched Opendoor Home Loans, a tech-enabled mortgage platform for customers looking to buy or refinance a home. Since then, we have expanded our market coverage for this product to 26 markets across nine states. We have built this platform from the ground up with the goal of combining savings, convenience and certainty into a simpler, more transparent mortgage process for customers. In 2021, we acquired the assets of RedDoor, a digital-first mortgage brokerage, which will help accelerate our ability to make buying a home as easy as a tap of a button with a 60-second pre-approval process and digital, mobile-first app experience.
Title and Escrow.  We offer customers integrated title insurance and escrow services through our subsidiaries. Currently, we offer title insurance services in a majority of our markets and on both the acquisition and resale side of the transaction. In the markets where our title services are offered, we provided title insurance services for over 75% of Opendoor home transactions that closed in 2021. Our title companies charge buyers and/or sellers fees related to settlement and escrow and these fees vary by market. Additionally, as agents for national title insurance companies,
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they charge title insurance premiums based on promulgated rates or rates filed by national title insurance companies, which vary by market.
Our Business Model
The vast majority of our revenue and margins today are generated by acquiring homes directly from individual sellers and reselling those homes to buyers. We also provide additional services to home sellers and home buyers, including title and escrow services, Buy with Opendoor, Opendoor Home Loans and Opendoor Complete.
To achieve our long-term margin objectives, we must continue to provide competitive offers that customers choose, provide value-added adjacent services that our customers will increasingly adopt, and launch new adjacent services over time. We plan to achieve operating leverage by growing our revenue at a faster pace than our fixed cost base, which includes general and administrative as well as technology and development expenses. In the near term, given the size of the opportunity ahead, we plan to continue to invest aggressively in our business and appropriately balance trade-offs between growth and margin as we scale.
Offers
We generate demand for our services through organic awareness and word-of-mouth, paid media spend, and partnership channels such as our relationships with homebuilders and online portals. Home sellers can visit our website or mobile app and answer a few questions about their home’s condition, features and upgrades. For eligible homes, customers receive a preliminary offer, which can be refreshed at any time through their personalized seller dashboard. All of our preliminary offers are algorithmically generated and require minimal human intervention.
In order to finalize our offer, we conduct a virtual interior home assessment and an in-person exterior home assessment to verify the condition of the home and determine what kind of repairs will need to be performed after we acquire the home. We ask for a repair credit that relates to our assessment of home condition. We have developed purpose-built software to guide home assessment workflows and collect over 100 unique data points regarding a home’s condition and quality. In addition to informing the offer price for that particular home, we incorporate the proprietary data that we collect during home assessments as structured data into our underlying pricing models. After all the data has been collected and incorporated, each offer is reviewed and finalized by members of our pricing team, allowing us to marry the best of our algorithmic insights with human judgment. We produce the purchase agreement for the seller inclusive of repair charges. Our objective is to provide a transparent and competitive cash offer and a customer experience that is simple, certain and fast.
We closely track the number of potential sellers who accept the Opendoor offer versus listing their home on the MLS. This conversion rate is an important measure of the strength of our value proposition and driver of future growth.
Home acquisition and repairs
Once a seller has received and accepted our final purchase offer, we enable the seller to close the transaction on a flexible timeline. This is a particularly important feature as over two-thirds of sellers are also buyers, who are often looking to line up the timing of these two transactions to ensure they have their next home to move to before locking in the sale of their home or to avoid double moves or mortgages. This feature further differentiates our service from a traditional sale.
Following acquisition, we bear the subsequent risk of conducting repairs on a timely and on-budget basis. The scope of our repair work before resale is focused on ensuring the home is in market-ready condition. We engage third-party contractors within each market to conduct repairs, and continuously refine and adjust our repair strategies based on our operating experience in markets and reviewing neighborhood-level resale outcomes.
Home resale
After we complete the repairs and list the home for resale, we market our homes across a wide variety of channels to generate buyer awareness and demand. These channels include the Opendoor website and mobile app, local MLS and syndication across real estate portals. We also generate buyer awareness through Opendoor signage for listed properties. The majority of our sales are to individual consumers, with a minority sold to institutional investors. Efficiently turning our inventory, inclusive of repairing, listing, and reselling the home, is important to our financial performance, as we bear holding costs (including utilities, property taxes, maintenance and insurance) and financing costs during our ownership period.
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As part of the listing and marketing process, we determine an appropriate resale strategy for each home. As the principal rather than the agent in the transaction, we are in a structurally advantageous position as seller, relying on data-driven decisions against a large, diversified portfolio of homes. Our proprietary pricing engine helps automate many of these steps, including relevant adjustments over time. We manage and measure our inventory performance by acquisition cohort and by market, and our pricing models can incorporate granular, relative demand signals to optimize pricing and sell-through across the portfolio. Our resale models, in conjunction with our pricing team, are designed to enable realized margins within our targets while maintaining appropriate transaction velocity and inventory portfolio health.
When we receive an acceptable offer on a given home, we enter into a resale contract. Buyers will then typically conduct an inspection on the property, finalize their mortgage application process and ultimately take possession of the home upon closing of the transaction.
Industry-Leading Pricing Capabilities
Our ability to price homes competitively is fundamental to our business model. Since our inception, we have prioritized investment in our pricing capabilities across our home acquisition processes and our forecasting and resale systems. Our pricing function focuses on ensuring we are providing competitive offers to customers while managing acquisition volumes and resale policy decisions to meet our underwriting and risk management objectives. These investments pair with a strong risk management focus that is embedded in our pricing, finance and operations teams.
To create our home offers, we algorithmically produce both an estimated offer price and an assessment of our confidence level in that estimate, and we then further validate that estimate with in-depth underwriting and risk assessment, including additional review from our in-house pricing associates, to finalize the offer. We dynamically adjust our offers to account for the level of certainty in pricing each home. This degree of certainty can be impacted by factors such as macro conditions, the condition or attributes of a home, or depth of home comparables. We are constantly recalibrating our view of pricing and where market values are trending using high-frequency detailed metrics across all segments of our business, including numerous inputs related to the dynamics of market demand and supply across markets, home types and time periods.
While the real estate industry generates a wealth of publicly sourceable data, much of this data lacks the quality and specificity essential to price individual homes. Since our inception, we have focused on making significant investments in our research and data science teams, modeling capabilities, and systematized tooling to gather, aggregate and synthesize an expanding catalog of proprietary, hyperlocal data in order to enhance and automate pricing decisions. We have also made significant investments in acquiring various third party data to improve our pricing models and forecast quality. Our proprietary models are informed by hundreds of data points that have been collected and synthesized in a structured way.
Proprietary offline data.  We have conducted approximately 375,000 assessments during which we collect over 100 data points on each home and its surroundings. We have invested in building custom inspection and operator tooling to systematically source and translate home features into a robust data library. These proprietary data points have led us to make approximately 1.4 billion annotations and adjustments to MLS and tax assessor data, as well as build out unique geospatial data assets, such as power line proximity and road noise level. Once we list a home for resale, we collect additional home-level demand data such as home visits and visitor feedback, which enable us to continuously calibrate our resale strategy and acquisition home pricing.
Responsive feedback loop.  Advancements in model sophistication and the integration of systematic modeling and human insights have accelerated our feedback loops, such that our pricing system can dynamically adjust to leading market indicators and human insights, and react to macro- and micro-economic conditions on a daily basis. This responsiveness is critical to quality pricing processes and maintaining margins, especially in periods of volatility.
Pricing competitiveness.  Our unique data works in concert with our pricing algorithms. These algorithms use machine learning to drive pricing decisions through modeling of observed home sale prices, demand forecasting, outlier detection, risk assessment, and inventory management. Over time, we have improved the quality of our pricing models as we add new data inputs and refine model logic, improvements that compound with experience and scale.
Robust Risk Management Framework
Forecasting and managing our business to seasonal and macro market changes is important for our overall results and balance sheet health. Since our inception, we have prioritized investment in our pricing capabilities across our home acquisition
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processes and our forecasting and resale systems, and expect to continue to do so. These investments pair with a strong risk management focus that is embedded in our pricing, finance and operations teams. We evaluate the quality of our pricing models and processes using high-frequency detailed metrics across all segments of our business, including home acquisition, resale strategy and inventory health. All of our pricing decisions are managed centrally, giving us a high degree of control over our overall growth and margin objectives. While residential real estate markets are subject to fluctuations, as with any market, we believe we are well-positioned to manage our risk exposure due to the following:
Our business model is based on transaction velocity and short-duration hold times. We have historically concentrated our home purchases on those segments of the residential real estate market with the highest transaction volumes, thereby limiting the risk of involuntarily holding a home for longer than our target average days in possession. Moreover, residential real estate prices tend to move gradually relative to other asset classes, which reduces our exposure to price fluctuations during our ownership period.
Our pricing models and inventory management systems are designed to recalibrate to market signals on a daily basis. Accordingly, changing market conditions are reflected in our pricing for new acquisitions, largely leaving previously-acquired inventory at risk to potential market volatility. In addition, we employ sophisticated resale pricing management systems that allow us to optimize sell-through and margin using real-time, local market demand information, including down to an individual home level. We believe that the quality and scale of information we utilize in our inventory management decisions and our ability to manage these decisions across a scaled, diversified portfolio provides us with a structural advantage over individual sellers or agents in the traditional home selling process.
Our operations across 44 markets and a range of price and home types allow us to benefit from significant diversification effects. Individual buyers and sellers are exposed to price and behavioral effects that are associated with specific markets or home segments. Our scale and diverse coverage allow us to mitigate such exposures across a wider range of markets and home segments so that our overall risk per home decreases as we increase the breadth of markets, price points and home types across which we operate.
Our listed homes are not occupied and are in sale-ready condition given the repairs and renovations we perform. We believe that this increases the attractiveness and liquidity of our portfolio.
At any moment in time, a significant portion of our inventory is under resale contract; this means we have already found buyers for those homes and are in the process of closing the resale transactions. This further limits the exposure of our inventory portfolio to macro market changes.
Low Cost Transaction Platform
We continue to invest in having the lowest cost platform, which allows us to provide more competitive offers to home sellers and accelerate our growth. Each component of our real estate business and transaction experience has been purpose-built to delight our customers through a streamlined, scalable and vertically-integrated platform. We have reimagined the traditionally inefficient and labor-intensive processes required to purchase, repair, and resell each home. We have invested in developing technology that enables automation, centralization and virtualization, in order to reduce cost, increase speed and improve quality of execution.
Our proprietary construction management technology enables us to drive efficiencies across all home servicing functions, tying together pre-acquisition assessments, pricing, repair scoping, centralized back-office operations, and renovation project management. Our systems and processes facilitate the centralization of previously local labor, which provides staffing flexibility, cost economies, training and quality enhancements, and faster turnaround times, all of which result in a superior customer experience. One example is our virtual home assessment capability where home sellers are able to take our operators on a virtual, guided tour of their home. Our centralized team of construction experts then determine home condition or flag for any outlier risk prior to acquisition, leveraging a combination of industry best practices and big data. Virtual and self-service assessments have reduced our turnaround time to provide a final offer, as well as our dependence on local third-party labor, while preserving the quality of our home assessments.
We have also established a network of more than 700 trade partners and local service providers that use our proprietary technology to complete home repairs and maintenance. By leveraging our technology platform and directly interfacing with our trade partners, we reduce delays, eliminate waste, and improve quality of repairs while capturing data at every step to continuously improve the system. Due to our scale, we have driven down the cost of materials used in our home repairs through
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volume discounts. In addition, we have designed our home inventory management processes and home access technology to ensure our homes are regularly cleaned, well-maintained and safe to enable our on-demand, self-tour experience.
Strategic Growth Priorities
Our growth strategy is to innovate and execute on the following key strategic priorities:
Increase penetration in existing markets.  We are focused on continued growth in our existing markets — greater scale improves awareness, trust and adoption, operational cost efficiencies, and pricing competitiveness from more data. Across all of our markets, we estimate that less than 10% of sellers received an offer from Opendoor and either sold their home to us or subsequently listed their home on the MLS within 60 days. This low penetration gives us a significant runway for growth. We will continue to expand our customer base through partnerships and marketing campaigns that increase awareness and engage customers early in their home selling and buying research.
Expand to new markets.  At 44 markets as of December 31, 2021, we are making good progress towards our long-term goal of being able to deliver for customers nationwide. We select new markets by looking at drivers of supply, demand and affordability, housing stock, cost structure and expected pricing competitiveness. We have honed our market launch playbook by centralizing many of our core pricing, operations and customer service functions, enabling us to efficiently launch new markets with limited in-market physical presence. Our largely centralized and scalable framework for new market entry enabled us to more than double our market footprint in 2021. Furthermore, decision making for each home is informed by centralized, robust, data-driven playbooks that allow us to drive consistency across our markets and reach profitability in new markets more quickly.
Expand product and service offerings.  Our north star is to build the best end-to-end digital experience for every home buyer and seller. We are focused on continuing to refine our best-in-class seller experience and to drive additional scale and efficiencies; making investments in enhancing the buyer experience with Opendoor Home Loans and Opendoor Backed Offers; and continuing to integrate the seller and buyer experience via Opendoor Complete. Over time, we plan to launch additional services that are adjacent to the core real estate transaction, bringing us closer to our vision for a digital one-stop-shop that powers all transactions.
Marketing
We utilize a diversified, multichannel approach in marketing, with a focus on efficient growth. In addition to earned media and online real estate partnerships with leading industry brands, we leverage a diverse range of channels and platforms within paid advertising, including paid online channels, direct mail, television, radio, and outdoor advertising. As our market footprint has expanded, we are focused on increasing our investment in broad reach and national channels such as television and sponsorships, to efficiently drive awareness and build trust with consumers in a new category. We also continue to build our prospective customer base by maintaining relationships and re-engaging with homeowners who might not have been ready to sell during their first interaction with Opendoor. With over two-thirds of sellers also being buyers, these homeowners represent a large part of our marketing funnel that we are focused on converting when they are ready to transact. As more consumers start their home journey with Opendoor, we expect this prospective customer base to continue to expand over time.
Competition
The U.S. housing market is highly competitive and fragmented, with over six million residential real estate transactions per year. We view our primary competition as the 99% of transactions that are done offline. As such, we compete directly with traditional, offline real estate brokers and agents. In addition, we also compete with other iBuyers, and our adjacent services compete with a range of industry service providers, including mortgage originators and title and escrow companies. We believe our singular focus on an end-to-end digital solution, our best-in-class pricing engine, and our low-cost operational platform differentiate us from our competitors and provide a meaningful and sustainable competitive advantage.
Our Values and People
Our values.  Our values reflect how we will deliver on our goal to build a once in a generation company and include a focus on the customer, a culture of frugality, continuous invention, and ruthless execution against results:
Start and end with the customer.  We invent, build and execute to improve the lives of our customers. We put in the hard work to delight customers, even when no one is looking.
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BPs for Breakfast.  We eat “BPs (or basis points) for breakfast” — meaning we are always looking for where we can take costs out of the transaction —so we can put more money in the pockets of our customers. We will win by building the lowest cost platform.
Act from ownership.  When we see a problem, we roll up our sleeves and fix it. We hold ourselves accountable because it is our home and it is our responsibility to take care of it.
Build openness.  We are open, honest and direct about problems and seek the truth. We assume good intentions and treat feedback as a gift.
1% Better Every Day.  We value a growth mindset and operate from a place of humility. We are energized by constantly improving.
Startup mentality.  We move fast, operate with urgency, and have a bias towards action without sacrificing quality. We are relentlessly resourceful.
One Team, One Dream.  Our superpower is a diverse community that combines technology, operational excellence, talent and respect. We work through teams and care for each other professionally and personally. We honor and respect our diverse workforce and actively work to ensure everyone feels represented.
Results matter.  We focus on outputs and outcomes and hold ourselves accountable to hitting ambitious goals. We have a high quality bar and pay attention to the pixels, words, and results.
Celebrate moments.  We work tirelessly for our customers and teammates so we take the time to celebrate moments large and small.
Employees
As of December 31, 2021, we employed 2,816 individuals. None of our employees are currently represented by a labor organization or a party to any collective bargaining.
Technology
Our business is driven by data and technology at all stages of the home buying and selling process. We have assembled a team of engineers, data scientists, designers and product managers whose expertise spans a broad range of technical areas to build our proprietary technology for pricing and home assessment, access and management. We use technological innovations where possible to increase efficiency and scale our business.
We currently use third-party cloud computing services to allow us to quickly and efficiently scale up our services without upfront infrastructure costs, allowing us to maintain our focus on building great products. We also use third party services to allow customers to digitally sign contracts, upload videos of their home and manage customer support services.
Intellectual Property
We rely on trademarks, domain names, patents, copyrights, trade secrets, contractual provisions and restrictions on access and use to establish and protect our proprietary rights.
We are the registered holder of a variety of domestic domain names, including “opendoor.com.”
In addition to the protection provided by our intellectual property rights, we enter into confidentiality and proprietary rights agreements with certain of our employees, consultants, contractors and business partners. Certain of our employees and contractors are also subject to invention assignment agreements. We further control the use of our proprietary technology and intellectual property through provisions in both our general and product-specific terms of use on our website.
Government Regulation
We operate in highly regulated businesses through a number of different channels across the United States. As a result, we are currently subject to a variety of, and may in the future become subject to additional, federal, state and local statutes and regulations in various jurisdictions (as well as judicial and administrative decisions and state common law), which are subject to change at any time, including laws regarding the real estate and mortgage industries, settlement services, insurance, mobile and internet based businesses and other businesses that rely on advertising, as well as data privacy and consumer protection laws, and employment laws.
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In particular, the advertising, sale, and financing of homes is highly regulated by states in which we do business, as well as the U.S. federal government. Regulatory bodies include the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (“CFPB”), the Federal Trade Commission (“FTC”), the Department of Justice (“DOJ”), the Department of Housing and Urban Development (“HUD”), and various state licensing authorities, consumer protection agencies, financial regulatory agencies and insurance agencies. We are subject to compliance audits of our operations by many of these authorities. For a discussion of the various risks we face from regulation and compliance matters, see “Item 1A. Risk Factors — Risks Related to Regulatory Compliance and Legal Matters”.
Additionally, laws, regulations, and standards covering marketing and advertising activities conducted by telephone, email, mobile devices, and the internet, may be applicable to our business, such as the Telephone Consumer Protection Act (“TCPA”), the Telemarketing Sales Rule, the CAN-SPAM Act, and similar state consumer protection laws. Through our various subsidiaries, we also operate a mortgage lending business, buy and sell homes, provide real estate brokerage, title insurance and settlement services, and provide other product offerings, which results in us receiving or facilitating transmission of personally identifiable information. This information is increasingly subject to legislation and regulation in the United States. These laws and regulations are generally intended to protect the privacy and security of personal information, including customer Social Security Numbers and credit card information that is collected, processed and transmitted. These laws also can restrict our use of this personal information for other commercial purposes.
In order to provide the broad range of products and services that we offer customers, certain of our subsidiaries maintain real estate brokerage, title insurance and escrow, property and casualty insurance, mortgage and general contract licenses, and we may in the future apply for additional licenses as our business grows and develops. These entities are subject to stringent state and federal laws and regulations, including, but not limited to, the Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act (“RESPA”) and those administered by applicable state departments of real estate, banking, insurance and consumer services, and to the scrutiny of state and federal government agencies as licensed businesses as noted above. As of December 31, 2021:
Opendoor Brokerage LLC, Opendoor Brokerage Inc. and OD Homes Brokerage Inc. (formerly known as Open Listings Co.), collectively, hold real estate brokerage licenses in all our markets and certain other states.
OS National LLC, and its subsidiaries, OSN Texas LLC and OSN Alabama LLC, are licensed as title agents in 27 states. In addition, OS National LLC is licensed as an escrow agent in six states and is authorized to conduct the business of title insurance in four additional states that do not require entity and/or individual licensing.
Opendoor Home Loans LLC holds mortgage banking/lending licenses in nine states.
Digital Opendoor Insurance Services LLC holds insurance producer licenses for property and casualty lines in Arizona, California and Texas.
Mortgage products are regulated at the state level by licensing authorities and administrative agencies, with additional oversight from the CFPB and other federal agencies. These laws generally regulate the manner in which lending and lending-related activities, including mortgage brokering, are marketed or made available to consumers, including, but not limited to, advertising, finding and qualifying applicants, the provision of consumer disclosures, payments for services, and record keeping requirements; these laws include, at the federal level, the RESPA, the Fair Credit Reporting Act (as amended by the Fair and Accurate Credit Transactions Act), the Truth in Lending Act (including the Home Ownership and Equity Protection Act of 1994), the Equal Credit Opportunity Act, the Fair Housing Act, the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act, the Electronic Fund Transfer Act, the Servicemembers Civil Relief Act, the Military Lending Act, the Homeowners Protection Act, the Home Mortgage Disclosure Act, the Secure and Fair Enforcement for Mortgage Licensing Act of 2008, the Federal Trade Commission Act, the Dodd Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act of 2010, the Bank Secrecy Act (including the Office of Foreign Assets Control and the Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act), the TCPA, the Mortgage Acts and Practices Advertising Rule (Regulation N), the CARES Act, all implementing regulations, and various other federal, state and local laws. The CFPB also has broad authority to enforce prohibitions on practices that it deems to be unfair, deceptive or abusive. Additionally, state and local laws may restrict the amount and nature of interest and fees that may be charged by a lender or mortgage broker, impose more stringent privacy requirements and protections for servicemembers, and/or otherwise regulate the manner in which lenders or mortgage brokers operate or advertise.
For certain licenses, we are required to designate individual licensed brokers of record, qualified individuals and control persons.
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Seasonality
For information regarding the seasonality of our business, please see “Part II – Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations – Factors Affecting our Business Performance”.
Corporate History and Background
Opendoor Technologies Inc. was formed through a business combination with Social Capital Hedosophia Holdings Corp. II (“SCH”), a Cayman Islands exempted company formed for the purpose of effecting a merger, share exchange, asset acquisition, share purchase, reorganization or similar business combination with one or more businesses (the “Business Combination”). The Business Combination, pursuant to which Opendoor Labs Inc. became a wholly owned subsidiary of SCH and SCH changed its name from “Social Capital Hedosophia Holdings Corp. II” to “Opendoor Technologies Inc.,” was completed on December 18, 2020 (the “Closing”), and was accounted for as a reverse recapitalization, in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“GAAP”).
Available Information
Our website is www.opendoor.com. At our Investor Relations website, investor.opendoor.com, we make available, free of charge, a variety of information for investors, including our annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K and any amendments to those reports, proxy statements and other information, as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file that material with, or furnish it to, the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”). We also use the Investor Relations page of our website for purposes of compliance with Regulation FD and as a routine channel for distribution of important information, including blogs, news releases, analyst presentations, financial information and corporate governance practices. The information found on our website is not part of this or any other report we file with, or furnish to, the SEC. Our SEC filings are also available to the public at the SEC's website at http://www.sec.gov.
Item 1A. Risk Factors.
In the course of conducting our business operations, we are exposed to a variety of risks. These risks are generally inherent to the U.S. residential real estate industry or otherwise generally impact iBuyers like us. Any of the risk factors we describe below have affected or could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. The market price of shares of our common stock could decline, possibly significantly or permanently, if one or more of these risks and uncertainties occurs. Certain statements in “Risk Factors” are forward-looking statements. See “Forward-Looking Statements.”
Risks Related to Our Business and Industry
The extent to which the pandemic caused by COVID-19 and its variants will impact our future operations is highly uncertain and cannot be predicted at this time.
The COVID-19 pandemic significantly and adversely affected our business in 2020 when governmental authorities put in place limitations on in-person activities related to the sale of residential real estate. As a result of these restrictions and safety concerns for our customers and employees, we temporarily suspended home acquisitions and sold down most home inventory before resuming home acquisitions later in the year.
We believe we have successfully adapted our operations to effectively execute on our business model during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. However, given the impact of COVID-19 variants, there remains uncertainty as to COVID-19’s overall impact on the U.S. economy. Future limitations may be imposed by governmental authorities on processes and procedures attendant to residential real estate transactions as a result of COVID-19 and trends in consumer spending on real estate transactions may be impacted. Transaction volumes are important to our business. They affect all of the ways that we generate revenue, including our ability to acquire new homes and generate associated service fees, our ability to sell homes that we own, the generation of commissions from our brokerage business, the number of loans our mortgage business originates and resells, and the number of transactions our title and settlement business closes. We cannot predict the extent to which our transaction volumes and financial results may be adversely affected by the pandemic caused by COVID-19 and its variants.
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Our business and operating results may be significantly impacted by general economic conditions, the health of the U.S. residential real estate industry and risks associated with our real estate assets.
Our success depends, directly and indirectly, on general economic conditions, the health of the U.S. residential real estate industry, particularly the single family home resale market, and risks generally incidental to the ownership of residential real estate, many of which are beyond our control. A number of factors could have a negative impact and harm our business, including the following:
downturns in the U.S. residential real estate market which may be due to one or more factors, whether included in this list or not;
the continuing and future impact of the pandemic caused by COVID-19 and its variants on buying and selling trends in the residential real estate market;
potential governmental or regulatory changes or requirements in response to the COVID-19 pandemic that may affect our business;
changes in national, regional, or local economic, demographic or real estate market conditions;
increased mortgage interest rates or down payment requirements and/or restrictions on mortgage financing availability;
low home inventory levels or lack of affordably priced homes;
labor or materials supply shortages;
slow economic growth or inflationary or recessionary conditions;
increased levels of unemployment or declining wages;
declines in the value of residential real estate and/or the pace of home appreciation, or the lack thereof;
illiquidity in residential real estate;
overall conditions in the housing market, including macroeconomic shifts in demand, and increases in costs for homeowners such as property taxes, homeowners’ association fees and insurance costs;
low levels of consumer confidence in the economy and/or the U.S. residential real estate industry;
changes in household debt levels;
volatility and general declines in the stock market;
federal, state, or local legislative or regulatory changes that would negatively impact owners or potential purchasers of single family homes or the residential real estate industry in general, such as the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017, which limited deductions of certain mortgage interest expenses and property taxes; or
natural disasters, such as hurricanes, windstorms, tornadoes, earthquakes, wildfires, floods, hailstorms and other events that disrupt local, regional, or national real estate markets.
We have a history of losses, and we may not achieve or maintain profitability in the future.
We have incurred net losses on an annual basis since we were founded. We incurred net losses of $662 million, $253 million, and $339 million for the years ended December 31, 2021, 2020, and 2019, respectively. We had an accumulated deficit of $1.7 billion and $1.0 billion as of December 31, 2021 and 2020, respectively. We expect to continue to make future investments in developing and expanding our business, including technology, recruitment and training, marketing and pursuing strategic opportunities. These investments may not result in increased revenue or growth in our business. Additionally, we may incur significant losses in the future for a number of reasons, including:
our failure to appropriately price and manage the home inventory we acquire;
changes in our fee structure or rates;
the availability of debt financing and securitization funding to finance our real estate inventories;
our inability to grow market share in our existing markets or any new markets we may enter;
our expansion into new markets, for which we typically incur more significant losses immediately following entry;
increased competition in the U.S. residential real estate industry;
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our failure to realize anticipated efficiencies through our technology and business model;
costs associated with enhancements of our products;
our failure to execute our growth strategies;
declines in U.S. residential real estate transaction volumes;
increased marketing costs;
lack of access to housing market data that is used in our pricing models at reasonable cost;
hiring additional personnel to support our overall growth;
loss in value of real estate due to changes in market conditions in the area in which real estate or assets are located;
increases in costs associated with holding our real estate inventories, including financing costs; and
unforeseen expenses, difficulties, complications and delays, and other unknown factors.
Accordingly, we may not be able to achieve or maintain profitability and we may continue to incur significant losses in the future. Moreover, as we continue to invest in our business, we expect expenses to continue to increase in the near term. These investments may not result in increased revenue or growth in our business. If we fail to manage our losses or to grow our revenue sufficiently to keep pace with our investments and other expenses, our business will be harmed. In addition, we incur significant legal, accounting and other expenses related to being a public company.
Because we incur substantial costs and expenses from our growth efforts before we receive any incremental revenues with respect thereto, we may find that these efforts are more expensive than we currently anticipate or that these efforts may not result in an increase in revenues to offset these expenses, which would further increase our losses.
Our limited operating history makes it difficult to evaluate our current business and future prospects.
Our business model and technology is still nascent compared to the business models of the incumbents in the U.S. residential real estate industry. We launched our first market in 2014 and do not have a long operating history. Our operating results are not predictable and our historical results may not be indicative of our future results. Few peer companies exist and none have yet established long-term track records that might assist us in predicting whether our business model and strategy can be implemented and sustained over an extended period of time. It may be difficult for you to evaluate our potential future performance without the benefit of established long-term track records from companies implementing a similar business model. We may encounter unanticipated problems as we continue to refine our business model and may be forced to make significant changes to our anticipated sales and revenue models to compete with our competitors’ offerings, which may adversely affect our results of operations and profitability.
We operate in a competitive and fragmented industry, which could impair our ability to attract users of our products, which could harm our business, results of operations and financial condition.
We operate in a competitive and fragmented industry, and we expect competition to continue to increase. We believe that our ability to compete depends upon many factors both within and beyond our control, including the following:
the financial competitiveness of our products for consumers;
the number of potential customers;
the timing and market acceptance of our products, including new products offered by us or our competitors;
our selling and marketing efforts;
our customer service and support efforts;
our continued ability to develop and improve our technology to support our business model;
customer adoption of our platform as an alternative to traditional methods of buying and selling residential real estate; and
our brand strength relative to our competitors.
Our business model depends on our ability to continue to attract customers to our digital platform and the products we offer and to enhance customers’ engagement with our products in a cost-effective manner. New entrants continue to join our
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market categories at a rapid pace. Our existing and potential competitors include companies that operate, or could develop, national and/or local real estate businesses offering services to home buyers or sellers, including real estate brokerage services, mortgage and title insurance, and escrow services.
Some of our competitors have well-established national reputations and may market similar products and services. These companies may be larger than us and have significant competitive advantages, including better name recognition, greater resources, lower cost of funds and additional access to capital, and a broader set of offerings than we currently do. These companies may also have higher risk tolerances or different risk assessments than we do. In addition, these competitors could devote greater financial, technical and other resources than we have available to develop, grow or improve their businesses. If we are not able to continue to attract customers to our platform and products, our business, results of operations and financial condition will be harmed.
Failures by our perceived competitors may adversely impact Opendoor.
In November 2021, an internet-based advertising and lead generation company, who was attempting to compete with Opendoor’s digital home buying business, announced that it was exiting the “iBuyer” business. The company cited their inability to accurately price homes and operational constraints as the chief reasons for winding down their home buying business. Because of the novelty of our business model and our limited track record as a public company, high profile failures of companies operating in similar or adjacent spaces may impact investor perceptions of the digital home buying industry as a whole. Such events may negatively impact our stock price and ability to raise capital regardless of whether those events have any actual relationship with our business and financial or operational performance.
We have experienced rapid growth since inception which may not be indicative of our future growth and, if we continue to grow rapidly, we may not be able to manage our growth effectively.
We have experienced rapid growth and demand for our products since inception. We expect that, in the future, even if our revenues increase, our rate of growth may decline. In any event, we will not be able to grow as fast or at all if we do not, among other things:
increase the number of customers using our platform;
acquire sufficient inventory based on our underwriting standards to meet the increasing demand for our homes;
increase our market share within existing markets and expand into new markets;
increase our brand awareness;
retain adequate availability of financing sources;
obtain necessary capital to meet our business objectives;
expand our third-party vendor networks; and
scale our internal operations and customer support teams.
Furthermore, in order to preserve our market position, we may expand into new markets or launch new products or services in existing or new markets more quickly than we would if we did not operate in such a highly competitive industry. Expanding into new markets may prove to be challenging as some markets may have very different characteristics than the markets we currently operate in, some of which may be unanticipated or unknown to us. These differences may result in greater pricing uncertainty, as well as higher capital requirements, hold times, repair costs and transaction costs that may result in those markets being less profitable for us than those that we currently operate in.
Our business is dependent upon our ability to appropriately price and manage our portfolio of inventory. An ineffective pricing or portfolio management strategy may have a material adverse effect on our business, sales, and results of operations.
We appraise and price the homes we buy and sell using data science, proprietary algorithms, and analysis from specially trained employees, incorporating a number of factors, including our knowledge of the real estate markets in which we operate. This assessment includes estimates on time of possession, seasonality, macro and hyper-local market conditions, renovation costs and holding costs, transaction costs, and anticipated resale proceeds. Our ability to acquire and resell homes profitability may be negatively impacted if our models lack robust historical data on home sales, material home features, or other market nuances, especially those outside of features and nuances we have previously encountered and modeled in our existing 44
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markets. This, in turn, could negatively impact our revenue growth if resulting valuations are too low and/or fees are too high, or our profitability, if valuations are too high and/or fees are too low.
Once we have acquired a home, we may decrease our anticipated resale price for reasons such as unknown defects related to home condition requiring remediation, lower/higher than forecasted demand/supply, or other detractors that were unknown or missed at the time of acquisition. This in turn could negatively impact our revenue, gross margins and results of operations, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our business is dependent upon our ability to expeditiously sell inventory. Failure to expeditiously sell our inventory could have an adverse effect on our business, sales and results of operations.
Our purchases of homes are based in large part on our estimates of projected demand. If actual sales are materially less than our forecasts, we would experience an over-supply of inventory. An over-supply of home inventory will generally cause downward pressure on our sales prices and margins and increase our average days to sale. Our inventory of homes purchased has typically represented a significant portion of total assets. Having such a large portion of our total assets in the form of non-income producing home inventory for an extended period of time subjects us to significant holding costs, including financing expenses, maintenance and upkeep, insurance, property taxes, homeowners’ association fees, and other expenses that accompany the ownership of residential real property and increased risk of depreciation of value. In addition, the value of homes in inventory may decline significantly and we could experience losses, which in the aggregate could be detrimental to our business and results of operations. Disruptions in the supply chain for the materials necessary to restore and resell home inventory, such as paint and carpet, could lengthen the period of time during which we must hold home inventory. If we have excess inventory or our average days to sale increases, the results of our operations may be adversely affected because we may be unable to liquidate such inventory at prices that allow us to meet margin targets or to recover our costs.
Launches of new product or service offerings, and expansions of existing product and servicing offerings, may consume significant financial and other resources and may not achieve the desired results.
We regularly evaluate launching new product or service offerings, and expanding existing offerings, to our customers. Such offerings may require significant expenses, new sources of capital and financing, and time of our key personnel. New or expanded product and service offerings may also subject us to new regulatory environments, which could increase our costs as we evaluate compliance with the new regulatory regime. Despite the expenses and time devoted to launching new or expanded product or service offerings, we may fail to achieve the financial and market share goals anticipated, which may adversely affect our business and results of operations.
Our business model and growth strategy depend on our marketing efforts and ability to attract buyers and sellers to our platform in a cost-effective manner.
Our long-term success depends in part on our ability to continue to attract more buyers and sellers to our platform in each of our markets. We believe that an important component of our growth will be the growth of potential customers to our website. Our marketing efforts may not succeed for a variety of reasons, including changes to search engine algorithms, ineffective campaigns across marketing channels, and limited experience in certain marketing channels like television. External factors beyond our control may also affect the success of our marketing initiatives, such as filtering of our targeted communications by email servers, buyers and sellers failing to respond to our marketing initiatives, and competition from third parties. Any of these factors could reduce the number of customers coming to our platform.
Our business model relies on our ability to scale rapidly and to decrease incremental customer acquisition costs as we grow. If we are unable to recover our marketing costs through increases in customer traffic and in the number of transactions by users of our platform, or if our broad marketing campaigns are not successful or are terminated, it could have a material adverse effect on our growth, results of operations and financial condition.
A significant portion of our costs and expenses are fixed, and we may not be able to adapt our cost structure to offset declines in our revenue.
A significant portion of our expenses are fixed and do not vary proportionately with fluctuations in revenues. We need to maintain and continue to increase our transaction volumes to benefit from operating efficiencies. When we operate at less than expected capacity, fixed costs are inflated and represent a larger percentage of overall cost basis and percentage of revenue. Due to our fixed cost base, our operating results can vary significantly based on transaction volumes in any given period.
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Our growth depends in part on the success of our strategic relationships with third parties.
In order to grow our business, we anticipate that we will continue to depend on relationships with third parties, such as settlement service providers, lenders, real estate agents, valuation companies, vendors we use to service and repair our homes, third party partners we rely on for referrals, such as homebuilders and online real estate websites, and institutional buyers of our inventory, such as single family rental REITs. Identifying partners, and negotiating and documenting agreements with them, and establishing and maintaining good relationships requires significant time and resources.
In addition, we rely on our relationships with MLS providers in all our markets both as key data sources for our pricing and for listing our inventory for resale. Many of our competitors and other real estate websites have similar access to MLSs and listing data and may be able to source real estate information faster or more efficiently than we can. If we lose existing relationships with MLSs and other listing providers, whether due to termination of agreements or otherwise, changes to our rights to use or timely access listing data, an inability to continue to add new listing providers or changes to the way real estate information is shared, our ability to price or list our inventory for resale could be impaired and our operating results may suffer.
If we are unsuccessful in establishing or maintaining successful relationships with third parties, our ability to compete in the marketplace or to grow our revenues could be impaired and our operating results may suffer. Even if we are successful, we cannot assure you that these relationships will result in increased customer usage of our product or increased revenues.
The loss of one or more of our key personnel, or our failure to attract and retain other highly qualified personnel in the future, could harm our business.
Our success depends upon the continued service of our senior management team and successful transitions when management team members pursue other opportunities. In addition, our business depends on our ability to continue to attract, motivate and retain a large number of skilled employees across all of our product lines. Furthermore, much of our key technology and processes are custom-made for our business by our personnel. The loss of key personnel, including key members of management, could materially and adversely affect our ability to build on the efforts they have undertaken and to execute our business plan, and we may not be able to find adequate replacements. If we do not succeed in attracting well-qualified employees or retaining and motivating existing employees in a cost-effective manner, our business could be harmed.
Declining real estate values could result in recording inventory valuation adjustments and may also adversely affect our financial condition and operating results.
There are risks inherent in owning properties and inventory risks are substantial for our business. Home prices can be volatile and the values of our inventory may fluctuate significantly and we may incur inventory valuation adjustments due to changes in market conditions and/or economic sentiment. We periodically review the value of our properties to determine whether their value, based on market factors and generally accepted accounting principles, has permanently decreased such that it is necessary or appropriate to record an inventory valuation adjustment in the relevant accounting period. Such a loss would cause an immediate reduction of net income in the applicable accounting period and would be reflected in a decrease in our balance sheet assets. Even if we do not determine that it is necessary or appropriate to record an inventory valuation adjustment, a reduction in the intrinsic value of a property would become manifest over time through reduced income from the property and would therefore affect our earnings and financial condition.
Our business is concentrated in certain geographic markets. Exposure to local economies, regional economic downturns, severe weather or catastrophic occurrences, or other disruptions or events may materially adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.
As of December 31, 2021, we were in 44 markets across the United States. For the year ended December 31, 2021, a majority of our revenue was generated from our top five markets by revenue. As a result, local and regional conditions in these markets, including those arising from COVID-19’s impacts, may differ significantly from prevailing conditions in the United States or other parts of the country. Any unforeseen events or circumstances that negatively affect these areas could materially adversely affect our revenues and profitability. These risks include, without limitation: possible declines in the value of real estate; risks related to general and local economic conditions; demographic and population shifts and migration; possible lack of availability of mortgage funds; overbuilding; extended vacancies of properties; increases in competition, property taxes and operating expenses; changes in zoning laws; increased labor costs; unemployment; costs resulting from the clean-up of, and liability to third parties for damages resulting from, environmental problems; casualty or condemnation losses; and uninsured damages from floods, hurricanes, earthquakes or other natural disasters.
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In addition, our top markets are primarily larger metropolitan areas, where home prices and transaction volumes are generally higher than other markets in the United States. To the extent people migrate outside of these markets due to lower home prices or other factors, and this migration continues to take place over the long-term, then the relative percentage of residential housing transactions may shift away from our historical top markets where we have generated most of our revenue. If we are unable to effectively adapt to any shift, including failing to increase revenue from other markets, then our financial performance may be harmed.
Our business is dependent upon access to desirable inventory. Obstacles to acquiring attractive inventory, whether because of supply, competition, or other factors may have a material adverse effect on our business, sales and results of operations.
We primarily acquire homes directly from consumers and there can be no assurance of an adequate supply of such homes on terms that are attractive to us. A reduction in the availability of or access to inventory could have a material adverse effect on our business, sales and results of operations. Additionally, we evaluate thousands of potential homes daily using our proprietary pricing model. If we fail to adjust our pricing to stay in line with broader market trends, or fail to recognize those trends, it could adversely affect our ability to acquire inventory.
Our ongoing ability to acquire homes is critical to our business model. A lack of available homes that meet our purchase criteria may have adverse effects on our ability to reach our desired inventory levels, our desired portfolio diversification, and our results of operations.
Increases in transaction costs to acquire properties, including costs of evaluating homes and making offers, title insurance and escrow service costs, changes in transfer taxes, and any other new or increased acquisition costs, would have an adverse impact on our home acquisitions and our business.
Reductions in the availability of mortgage financing provided by government agencies, changes in government financing programs, or an increase in mortgage interest rates could decrease our buyers’ ability or desire to obtain financing and adversely affect our business or financial results.
The secondary market for mortgage loans continues to primarily desire securities backed by Fannie Mae, Freddie Mac or Ginnie Mae, and we believe the liquidity these agencies provide to the mortgage industry is important to the housing market. Any significant change regarding the long-term structure and viability of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac could result in adjustments to the size of their loan portfolios and to guidelines for their loan products. Additionally, a reduction in the availability of financing provided by these institutions could adversely affect interest rates, mortgage availability and sales of new homes and mortgage loans.
Mortgage interest rates are currently low as compared to most historical periods. However, they could increase in the future, particularly if the Federal Reserve Board raises its benchmark rate. When interest rates increase, the cost of owning a home increases, which will likely reduce the number of potential home buyers who can obtain mortgage financing and could result in a decline in the demand for our homes.
We rely on third parties to renovate and repair homes before we resell the homes, and the cost or availability of third-party labor could adversely affect our holding period and investment return for homes.
We frequently need to renovate or repair homes prior to listing for resale. We rely on third-party contractors and sub-contractors to undertake these renovations and repairs. These third-party providers may not be able to complete the required renovations or repairs within our expected timeline or proposed budget. Labor and supply shortages, as well as increased demand for home construction, may exacerbate these delays and increase our costs.
Difficulty sourcing third-party contractors and subcontractors and a longer than expected period for completing renovations or repairs could both negatively impact our ability to sell a home within our anticipated timeline. This prolonged timing exposes us to factors that adversely affect the home’s resale value and may result in selling the home for a lower price than anticipated or not being able to sell the home at all. Meanwhile, incurring more than budgeted costs would adversely affect our investment return on purchased homes. Additionally, any undetected issues with a third-party provider’s work may adversely affect our reputation as a home seller.
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We may acquire other businesses which could require significant management attention, disrupt our business, dilute stockholder value and adversely affect our operating results.
As part of our business strategy, we may make investments in or acquire complementary companies, products or technologies. We may not realize benefits from acquisitions that we may make in the future. If we fail to integrate successfully such acquisitions, or the businesses and technologies associated with such acquisitions, into our Company, the revenue and operating results of our Company could be adversely affected. Any integration process will require significant time and resources, and we may not be able to manage the process successfully. We may not successfully evaluate or utilize the acquired business or technology and accurately forecast the financial impact of an acquisition transaction, including accounting charges. We may have to pay cash, incur debt or issue equity securities to pay for any such acquisition, each of which could affect our financial condition or the value of our capital stock. The sale of equity or issuance to finance any such acquisitions could result in dilution to our stockholders. The incurrence of indebtedness in connection with an acquisition would result in increased fixed obligations and could also include covenants or other restrictions that may impede our ability to manage our operations.
A health and safety incident relating to our operations could be costly in terms of potential liability and reputational damage.
Customers will visit homes on a regular basis through our mobile application or with a real estate agent. Due to the number of homes we own, the safety of our homes is critical to the success of our business. A failure to keep our homes safe that results in a major or significant health and safety incident could expose us to liability that could be costly. Such an incident could generate significant negative publicity and have a corresponding impact on our reputation, our relationships with relevant regulatory agencies or governmental authorities, and our ability to attract customers and employees, which in turn could have a material adverse effect on our financial results and liquidity.
Environmentally hazardous conditions may adversely affect us.
Under various federal, state and local environmental laws, a current or previous owner or operator of real property may be liable for the cost of removing or remediating hazardous or toxic substances on such property. Such laws often impose liability whether or not the owner or operator knew of, or was responsible for, the presence of such hazardous or toxic substances. Even if more than one person may have been responsible for the contamination, each person covered by applicable environmental laws may be held responsible for all of the clean-up costs incurred. A property owner who violates environmental laws may be subject to sanctions which may be enforced by governmental agencies or, in certain circumstances, private parties. In connection with the acquisition and ownership of our properties, we may be exposed to such costs. The cost of defending against environmental claims, of compliance with environmental regulatory requirements or of remediating any contaminated property could materially and adversely affect us.
Compliance with new or more stringent environmental laws or regulations or stricter interpretation of existing laws may require material expenditures by us.We may be subject to environmental laws or regulations relating to our properties, such as those concerning lead-based paint, mold, asbestos, radon, pesticides, proximity to power lines or other issues. Failure to comply with such applicable laws and regulations could result in fines and/or damages, suspension of personnel, civil liability or other sanctions.
Some of our potential losses may not be covered by insurance. We may not be able to obtain or maintain adequate insurance coverage.
We maintain insurance to cover costs and losses from certain risk exposures in the ordinary course of our operations, including in connection with the issuance of title insurance policies and mortgages, but our insurance may not cover 100% of the costs and losses from all events. We are responsible for certain retentions and deductibles that vary by policy, and we may suffer losses that exceed our insurance coverage limits by a material amount. We may also incur costs or suffer losses arising from events against which we have no insurance coverage. In addition, large-scale market trends or the occurrence of adverse events in our business may raise our cost of procuring insurance or limit the amount or type of insurance we are able to secure. We may not be able to maintain our current coverage, or obtain new coverage in the future; on commercially reasonable terms or at all. Incurring uninsured or underinsured costs or losses could harm our business.
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Risks Related to Our Intellectual Property and Technology
Any significant disruption in service in our computer systems and third-party networks and mobile infrastructure that we depend on could result in a loss of customers and we may be unable to maintain and scale the technology underlying our offerings.
Customers and potential customers access our products primarily through our website and mobile applications. Our ability to attract, retain and serve customers depends on the reliable performance and availability of our website, mobile application, and technology infrastructure. Furthermore, we depend on the reliable performance of third-party networks and mobile infrastructure to provide our technology offerings to our customers and potential customers. The proper operation of these third-party networks and mobile infrastructure is beyond our control, and service interruptions or website unavailability could impact our ability to service our customers in a timely manner, and may have an adverse effect on existing and potential customer relationships.
Our information systems and technology may not be able to continue to accommodate our growth and may be subject to security risks. The cost of maintaining such systems may increase. Such a failure to accommodate growth, or an increase in costs related to such information systems, could have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations and could result in a loss of customers.
We process, store and use personal information and other data, which subjects us to governmental regulation and other legal obligations related to privacy, and violation of these privacy obligations could result in a claim for damages, regulatory action, loss of business, or unfavorable publicity.
We receive, store and process personal information and other customer information, or personal information. There are numerous federal and state laws, as well as regulations and industry guidelines, regarding privacy and the storing, use, processing, and disclosure and protection of personal information, the scope of which are changing, subject to differing interpretations, and may be inconsistent among countries or conflict with other rules. Additionally, laws, regulations, and standards covering marketing and advertising activities conducted by telephone, email, mobile devices, and the internet, may be applicable to our business, such as the Telephone Consumer Protection Act, or the TCPA, (as implemented by the Telemarketing Sales Rule), the CAN-SPAM Act, and similar state consumer protection laws. We generally seek to comply with industry standards and are subject to the terms of our own privacy policies and privacy-related obligations to third parties. We strive to comply with all applicable laws, policies, legal obligations and industry codes of conduct relating to privacy and data protection to the extent possible. However, it is possible that these obligations may be interpreted and applied in a manner that is inconsistent from one jurisdiction to another and may conflict with other rules or regulations, making enforcement, and thus compliance requirements, ambiguous, uncertain, and potentially inconsistent. Any failure or perceived failure by us to comply with our privacy policies, privacy-related obligations to customers or other third parties, or our privacy-related legal obligations, or any compromise of security that results in the unauthorized access to or unintended release of personally identifiable information or other customer data, may result in governmental enforcement actions, litigation, or public statements against us by consumer advocacy groups or others. Any of these events could cause us to incur significant costs in investigating and defending such claims and, if found liable, pay significant damages. Further, these proceedings and any subsequent adverse outcomes may cause our customers to lose trust in us, which could have an adverse effect on our reputation and business.
Any significant change to applicable laws, regulations or industry practices regarding the use or disclosure of personal information, or regarding the manner in which the express or implied consent of customers for the use and disclosure of personal information is obtained, could require us to modify our products and features, possibly in a material manner and subject to increased compliance costs, which may limit our ability to develop new products and features that make use of the personal information that our customers voluntarily share. For example, the California Consumer Privacy Act (the “CCPA”), which took effect on January 1, 2020, imposes obligations and restrictions on companies regarding their collection, use, and sharing of personal information and provides new and enhanced data privacy rights to California residents. The CCPA imposes a severe statutory damages framework. Additionally, although not effective until January 1, 2023, we will be subject to the California Privacy Rights Act, or the CPRA, which expands upon the CCPA. The CCPA requires (and the CPRA will require) covered companies to, among other things, provide new disclosures to California consumers, and affords such consumers new privacy rights such as the ability to opt-out of certain sales of personal information and expanded rights to access and require deletion of their personal information, opt out of certain personal information sharing, and receive detailed information about how their personal information is collected, used and shared. The CCPA provides for civil penalties for violations, as well as a private right of action for certain security breaches that may increase security breach litigation. Further, Virginia enacted the Virginia Consumer Data Protection Act, or the CDPA, another comprehensive state privacy law, that will also be effective January 1, 2023. Also in 2021, Colorado enacted the Colorado Privacy Act, or the CPA, which goes into effect July 1, 2023.
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The CCPA, CPRA, CDPA and CPA may increase our compliance costs and potential liability, particularly in the event of a data breach, and could have a material adverse effect on our business, including how we use personal information, our financial condition, the results of our operations or prospects. A number of other proposals exist for new federal and state privacy legislation that, if passed, could increase our potential liability, increase our compliance costs and adversely affect our business.
Any of the foregoing could materially adversely affect our brand, reputation, business, results of operations, and financial condition.
Failure to protect our trade secrets, know-how, proprietary applications, business processes and other proprietary information, could adversely affect the value of our technology and products.
Our success and ability to compete depends in part on our intellectual property and our other proprietary business information. We seek to control access to our proprietary information by entering into a combination of confidentiality and proprietary rights agreements, invention assignment agreements and nondisclosure agreements with our employees, consultants and third parties with whom we have relationships. While these agreements will give us contractual remedies upon any unauthorized use or disclosure of our proprietary information, we cannot guarantee that we will be able to detect such unauthorized activity, or if detected, that our rights under these agreements will be effective in controlling access to, or use and distribution of, our proprietary information, intellectual property or technology. We also have numerous trademarks and patents to protect certain aspects of our intellectual property. However, we may be unable to secure intellectual property protection for all of our technology and methodologies, or the steps we take to enforce our intellectual property rights may be inadequate. Furthermore, third parties may knowingly or unknowingly infringe our proprietary rights, third parties may challenge proprietary rights held by us, and we may not be able to prevent infringement or misappropriation of our proprietary rights without incurring substantial expense. If our intellectual property rights are used or misappropriated by third parties, the value of our brand and other intangible assets may be diminished and competitors may be able to more effectively mimic our products and methods of operations. Any of these events would have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
In the future we may be party to intellectual property rights claims and other litigation which are expensive to support, and if resolved adversely, could have a significant impact on us.
Our success depends in part on us not infringing upon the intellectual property of others. Our competitors and other third parties may own or claim to own intellectual property relating to the real estate industry. In the future, third parties may claim that we are infringing on their intellectual property rights, and we may be found to be infringing such rights. Any claims or litigation could cause us to incur significant expenses. If such claims are successfully asserted against us, it would require additional damages or ongoing licensing payments, prevent us from offering our services or require us to comply with unfavorable terms. Even if we were to prevail, the time and resources necessary to resolve such disputes could be costly, time-consuming, and divert the attention of management and key personnel from our business operations. We have been previously subject to trademark infringement claims. These claims allege, among other things, that aspects of our trademarks infringe upon the plaintiffs’ trademarks. While these prior claims have not been material and have all been resolved, there may be additional claims in the future where, if we are not successful in defending ourselves against these claims, we may be required to pay damages and may be subject to injunctions, each of which could harm our business, results of operations, financial condition and reputation.
Our services utilize third-party open source software components, which may pose particular risks to our proprietary software, technologies, products and services in a manner that could negatively affect our business.
We use open source software in our services and will continue to use open source software in the future. Use and distribution of open source software may entail greater risks than use of third-party commercial software, as open source licensors generally do not provide support, warranties, indemnification or other contractual protections regarding infringement claims or the quality of the code. To the extent that our services depend upon the successful operation of open source software, any undetected errors or defects in this open source software could prevent the deployment or impair the functionality of our platform, delay new solutions introductions, result in a failure of our platform, and injure our reputation.
Some open source licenses contain requirements that we make available source code for modifications or derivative works we create based upon the type of open source software we use, or grant other licenses to our intellectual property. If we combine our proprietary software with open source software in a certain manner, we could, under certain open source licenses, be required to release or license the source code of our proprietary software to the public. Although we monitor our use of open-source software to avoid subjecting our platform to conditions we do not intend, we cannot assure you that our processes
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for controlling our use of open-source software in our platform will be effective. From time to time, we may be subject to claims claiming ownership of, or demanding release of, the source code, the open source software and/or derivative works that were developed using such software, requiring us to provide attributions of any open source software incorporated into our distributed software, or otherwise seeking to enforce the terms of the applicable open source license. These claims could also result in litigation, require us to purchase a costly license or require us to devote additional research and development resources to re-engineer our software or change our products or services, any of which would have a negative effect on our business and results of operations.
We rely on licenses to use the intellectual property rights of third parties which are incorporated into our products and services. Failure to renew or expand existing licenses may require us to modify, limit or discontinue certain offerings, which could materially affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We rely on products, technologies and intellectual property that we license from third parties for use in our services. We cannot assure that these third-party licenses, or support for such licensed products and technologies, will continue to be available to us on commercially reasonable terms, if at all. In the event that we cannot renew and/or expand existing licenses, we may be required to discontinue or limit our use of the products that include or incorporate the licensed intellectual property.
We cannot be certain that our licensors are not infringing the intellectual property rights of others or that our suppliers and licensors have sufficient rights to the technology in all jurisdictions in which we may operate. Some of our license agreements may be terminated by our licensors for convenience. If we are unable to obtain or maintain rights to any of this technology because of intellectual property infringement claims brought by third parties against our suppliers and licensors or against us, or if we are unable to continue to obtain the technology or enter into new agreements on commercially reasonable terms, our ability to develop our services containing that technology could be severely limited and our business could be harmed. Additionally, if we are unable to obtain necessary technology from third parties, we may be forced to acquire or develop alternate technology, which may require significant time and effort and may be of lower quality or performance standards. This would limit and delay our ability to provide new or competitive offerings and increase our costs. If alternate technology cannot be obtained or developed, we may not be able to offer certain functionality as part of our offerings, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our software is highly complex and may contain undetected errors.
The software and code underlying our platform is highly interconnected and complex and may contain undetected errors, malicious code or vulnerabilities, some of which may only be discovered after the code has been released. We release or update software code regularly and this practice may result in the more frequent introduction of errors or vulnerabilities into the software underlying our platform, which can impact the customer experience on our platform. Additionally, due to the interconnected nature of the software underlying our platform, updates to certain parts of our code, including changes to our mobile app or website or third party application programming interfaces on which our mobile app or website rely, could have an unintended impact on other sections of our code, which may result in errors or vulnerabilities to our platform. Any errors or vulnerabilities discovered in our code after release could result in damage to our reputation, loss of our customers, loss of revenue or liability for damages, any of which could adversely affect our growth prospects and our business.
Furthermore, our development and testing processes may not detect errors and vulnerabilities in our technology offerings prior to their implementation. Any inefficiencies, errors, technical problems or vulnerabilities arising in our technology offerings after their release could reduce the quality of our products or interfere with our customers’ access to and use of our technology and offerings.
Risks Related to Regulatory Compliance and Legal Matters
We operate in a highly regulated industry and are subject to a wide range of federal, state and local laws, rules and regulations. Failure to comply with these laws, rules and regulations or to obtain and maintain required licenses, could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We operate in highly regulated businesses through a number of different channels across the United States. As a result, we are currently subject to a variety of, and may in the future become subject to additional, federal, state and local statutes and regulations in various jurisdictions (as well as judicial and administrative decisions and state common law), which are subject to change at any time, including laws regarding the real estate and mortgage industries, settlement services, insurance, construction, mobile and internet based businesses and other businesses that rely on advertising, as well as data privacy and consumer protection laws, and employment laws. These laws are complex and sometimes ambiguous, and can be costly to
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comply with, require significant management time and effort, require a substantial investment in technology, and subject us to supervisory audits, claims, government enforcement actions, civil and criminal liability or other remedies, including suspension of business operations.
We also operate a mortgage business, buy and sell homes, provide real estate brokerage services, title insurance and settlement services, and provide other product offerings, which results in us receiving or facilitating transmission of personally identifiable information. This information is increasingly subject to legislation and regulation in the United States. These laws and regulations are generally intended to protect the privacy and security of personal information, including borrower Social Security Numbers and credit card information that is collected, processed and transmitted. These laws also can restrict our use of this personal information for other commercial purposes. We could be adversely affected if government regulations require us to significantly change our business practices with respect to this type of information, if penetration of network security or misuse of personal information occurs, or if the third parties that we engage with to provide processing and screening services violate applicable laws and regulations, misuse information, or experience network security breaches.
In order to provide the broad range of products and services that we offer customers, certain of our subsidiaries maintain real estate brokerage services, title insurance and escrow, property and casualty insurance, construction, mortgage, and general contractor licenses in certain states in which we operate. These entities are subject to stringent state and federal laws and regulations and to the scrutiny of state and federal government agencies as licensed businesses.
Mortgage products are regulated at the state level by licensing authorities and administrative agencies, with additional oversight from the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau and other federal agencies. These laws generally regulate the manner in which lending and lending-related activities, including mortgage brokering, are marketed or made available to consumers, including, but not limited to, advertising, finding and qualifying applicants, the provision of consumer disclosures, payments for services, and record keeping requirements; these laws include, at the federal level, the Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act, the Fair Credit Reporting Act (as amended by the Fair and Accurate Credit Transactions Act), the Truth in Lending Act (including the Home Ownership and Equity Protection Act of 1994), the Equal Credit Opportunity Act, the Fair Housing Act, the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act, the Electronic Fund Transfer Act, the Servicemembers Civil Relief Act, the Military Lending Act, the Homeowners Protection Act, the Home Mortgage Disclosure Act, the Secure and Fair Enforcement for Mortgage Licensing Act of 2008, the Federal Trade Commission Act, the Dodd Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act of 2010, the Bank Secrecy Act (including the Office of Foreign Assets Control and the Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act), the Telephone Consumer Protection Act, the Mortgage Acts and Practices Advertising Rule (Regulation N), the Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act, all implementing regulations, and various other federal laws. The Consumer Financial Protection Bureau also has broad authority to enforce prohibitions on practices that it deems to be unfair, deceptive or abusive. Additionally, state and local laws may restrict the amount and nature of interest and fees that may be charged by a lender or mortgage broker, impose more stringent privacy requirements and protections for servicemembers, and/or otherwise regulate the manner in which lenders or mortgage brokers operate or advertise.
As a buyer and seller of residential real estate through our business, we hold real estate brokerage licenses in multiple states and may apply for additional real estate brokerage licenses as our business grows. To maintain these licenses, we must comply with the requirements governing the licensing and conduct of real estate brokerage services and brokerage-related businesses in the markets where we operate. We may be subject to additional local, state and federal laws and regulations governing residential real estate transactions, including those administered by the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, and the states and municipalities in which we transact. Further, due to the geographic scope of our operations and the nature of the products and services we provide, certain of our other subsidiaries maintain real estate brokerage, property and casualty, and title insurance and escrow, and construction licenses in certain states in which we operate. Each of these licenses subjects our subsidiaries to different federal, state, and local laws and the scrutiny of different licensing authorities, including state insurance departments. Each subsidiary must comply with different licensing statutes and regulations, as well as varied laws that govern the offering of compliant products and services.
For certain licenses, we are required to designate individual licensed brokers of record, qualified individuals and control persons. Certain licensed entities also are subject to routine examination and monitoring by the federal Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (for mortgage) and/or state licensing authorities. We cannot assure you that we, or our licensed personnel, are and will remain at all times, in full compliance with local, state and federal real estate, title insurance and escrow, property and casualty insurance, construction and mortgage licensing and consumer protection laws and regulations, and we may be subject to litigation, government investigations and enforcement actions, fines or other penalties in the event of any non-compliance. As a result of findings from examinations, we also may be required to take a number of corrective actions, including modifying business practices and making refunds of fees or money earned. In addition, adverse findings in one state
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may be relied on by another state to conduct investigations and impose remedies. If we apply for new licenses, we will become subject to additional licensing requirements, which we may not be in compliance with at all times. If in the future a state agency were to determine that we are required to obtain additional licenses in that state in order to operate our business, or if we lose or do not renew an existing license or are otherwise found to be in violation of a law or regulation, we may be subject to fines or legal penalties, lawsuits, enforcement actions, void contracts, or our business operations in that state may be suspended or prohibited. Our business reputation with consumers and third parties also could be damaged. Compliance with, and monitoring of, these laws and regulations is complicated and costly and may inhibit our ability to innovate or grow.
If we are unable to comply with these laws or regulations in a cost-effective manner, it may require us to modify certain products and services, which could require a substantial investment and result in a loss of revenue, or cease providing the impacted product or service altogether. Furthermore, laws and regulations and their interpretation and application may also change from time to time and those changes could have a material adverse effect on our products and business.
Our business is subject to the risks of international operations.
Some of our employees are located in Canada and India. Compliance with applicable U.S. and foreign laws and regulations, such as labor laws, anti-corruption laws, tax laws, foreign exchange controls and data privacy and data localization requirements, increases our cost of doing business. Although we have implemented policies and procedures to comply with these laws and regulations, a violation by us or our employees, contractors or agents could nevertheless occur. In some cases, compliance with the laws and regulations of one country could violate the laws and regulations of another country. Violations of these laws and regulations could materially adversely affect our brand, international growth efforts and business.
The Company is currently seeking to resolve an FTC investigation through consent order negotiations with the FTC, and the terms of a consent order (if any) could have a materially adverse effect on the Company’s business.
In August 2019, the Federal Trade Commission (‘‘FTC”) sent a civil investigative demand (“CID”) to Opendoor seeking documents and information relating primarily to statements in Opendoor’s advertising and website comparing selling homes to Opendoor with selling homes in a traditional manner using an agent and relating to statements that Opendoor’s offers reflect or are based on market prices. Thereafter, Opendoor responded cooperatively to the CID and related follow-up requests from the FTC. On December 23, 2020, the FTC notified the Company that they intend to recommend that the agency pursue an enforcement action against the Company and certain of its officers, if we are unable to reach a negotiated settlement acceptable to all parties. The FTC has indicated that they believe certain of Opendoor’s advertising claims relating to the amount of its offers, the repair costs charged to home sellers, and the amount of net proceeds a seller may receive from selling to Opendoor versus selling in the traditional manner were inaccurate and/or inadequately substantiated. The Company is engaged in settlement negotiations with the FTC. There can be no assurances that the Company will be successful in negotiating a favorable settlement. Any settlement could result in material monetary remedies and/or compliance requirements that impose significant and material cost and resource burdens on the Company and/or limit or eliminate the Company’s ability to make certain claims in its advertising materials or on its website. Any of these remedies or compliance requirements could adversely affect the Company’s ability to operate its business and/or have a materially adverse impact on its financial results.
Our risk management efforts may not be effective.
We could incur substantial losses and our business operations could be disrupted if we are unable to effectively identify, manage, monitor, and mitigate financial risks, such as pricing risk, interest rate risk, liquidity risk, and other market-related risks, as well as operational and legal risks related to our business, assets, and liabilities. We also are subject to various laws, regulations and rules that are not industry specific, including employment laws related to employee hiring and termination practices, health and safety laws, environmental laws and other federal, state and local laws, regulations and rules in the jurisdictions in which we operate. Our risk management policies, procedures, and techniques may not be sufficient to identify all of the risks to which we are exposed, mitigate the risks we have identified, or identify additional risks to which we may become subject in the future. Expansion of our business activities may also result in our being exposed to risks to which we have not previously been exposed or may increase our exposure to certain types of risks, and we may not effectively identify, manage, monitor, and mitigate these risks as our business activities change or increase.
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Risks Related to Our Financial Reporting
We rely on assumptions, estimates, and business data to calculate our key performance indicators and other business metrics, and real or perceived inaccuracies in these metrics may harm our reputation and negatively affect our business.
Certain of our performance metrics are calculated using third party applications or internal company data that have not been independently verified. While these numbers are based on what we believe to be reasonable calculations for the applicable period of measurement, there are inherent challenges in measuring such information. For example, our measurement of visits and unique users may be affected by applications that automatically contact our servers to access our mobile applications and websites with no user action involved, and this activity can cause our system to count the user associated with such a device as a unique user or as a visit on the day such contact occurs. In addition, our measure of certain metrics may differ from estimates published by third parties or from similarly-titled metrics of our competitors due to differences in methodology and as a result our results may not be comparable to our competitors.
Our results of operations and financial condition are subject to management’s accounting judgments and estimates, as well as changes in accounting policies.
The preparation of our financial statements requires us to make estimates and assumptions affecting the reported amounts of our assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses. If these estimates or assumptions are incorrect, it could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations or financial condition. Generally accepted accounting principles in the United States are subject to interpretation by the Financial Accounting Standards Board, the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants, the Securities and Exchange Commission, and various bodies formed to promulgate and interpret appropriate accounting principles. A change in these principles or interpretations could have a significant effect on our reported financial results, and could affect the reporting of transactions completed before the announcement of a change.
Our management is required to evaluate the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting. If we are unable to maintain effective internal control over financial reporting, investors may lose confidence in the accuracy of our financial reports.
As a public company we are required to maintain internal control over financial reporting and to report any material weaknesses in such internal control. Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act requires that we evaluate and determine the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting. Additionally, our auditor is required to deliver an attestation report on the effectiveness of our disclosure controls and internal control over financial reporting. An adverse report may be issued in the event our auditor is not satisfied with the level at which our controls are documented, designed or operating.
When evaluating our internal control over financial reporting, we may identify material weaknesses that we may not be able to remediate in time to meet the applicable deadline imposed upon us for compliance with the requirements of Section 404. If we identify any material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting, are unable to comply with the requirements of Section 404 in a timely manner or assert that our internal control over financial reporting is ineffective, or if our auditor is unable to express an opinion as to the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting, we could fail to meet our reporting obligations.
In addition, our internal control over financial reporting will not prevent or detect all errors and fraud. Because of the inherent limitations in all control systems, no evaluation can provide absolute assurance that misstatements due to error or fraud will not occur or that all control issues and instances of fraud will be detected.
If there are material weaknesses or failures in our ability to meet any of the requirements related to the maintenance and reporting of our internal control, investors may lose confidence in the accuracy and completeness of our financial reports and that could cause the price of our common stock to decline. In addition, we could become subject to investigations by the applicable stock exchange, the SEC or other regulatory authorities, which could require additional management attention and which could adversely affect our business.
We incur costs as a result of operating as a public company, and our management devotes substantial time to our compliance initiatives. As a public company, we are subject to the reporting requirements of the Exchange Act, the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, as well as rules adopted, and to be adopted, by the SEC and the applicable stock exchange. These rules and regulations result in legal and financial compliance costs that are costly and our management and other personnel will continue to need to devote a substantial amount of time to these compliance initiatives. The increased costs will increase our net loss. We cannot predict or estimate the amount or timing of
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additional costs we may incur to respond to these requirements. The impact of these requirements could also make it more difficult for us to attract and retain qualified persons to serve on our board of directors, its board committees or as executive officers.
We could be subject to additional tax liabilities and our ability to use net operating loss carryforwards and other tax attributes may be limited in connection with the Business Combination or other ownership changes.
We are subject to federal and state income and non-income taxes in the United States, and foreign income and non-income taxes in Canada and India. Tax laws, regulations, and administrative practices in various jurisdictions may be subject to significant change, with or without notice, due to economic, political, and other conditions, and significant judgment is required in evaluating and estimating these taxes. Our effective tax rates could be affected by numerous factors, such as entry into new businesses and geographies, changes to our existing business and operations, acquisitions and investments and how they are financed, changes in our stock price, changes in our deferred tax assets and liabilities and their valuation, and changes in the relevant tax, accounting, and other laws, regulations, administrative practices, principles and interpretations. We are required to take positions regarding the interpretation of complex statutory and regulatory tax rules and on valuation matters that are subject to uncertainty, and the U.S. Internal Revenue Service (“IRS”) or other tax authorities may challenge the positions that we take.
We have incurred losses during our history and do not expect to become profitable in the near future, and may never achieve profitability. To the extent that we continue to generate taxable losses, unused losses will carry forward to offset future taxable income, if any, until such unused losses expire, if at all. As of December 31, 2021, the Company had federal and state net operating loss (“NOL”) carryforwards of $1.2 billion and $854 million, respectively. Under the Tax Act, as modified by the Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act (the “CARES Act”), U.S. federal net operating loss carryforwards generated in taxable periods beginning after December 31, 2017, may be carried forward indefinitely, but the deductibility of such net operating loss carryforwards in taxable years beginning after December 31, 2020, is limited to 80% of taxable income. It is uncertain if and to what extent various states will conform to the Tax Act or the CARES Act.
In addition, our net operating loss carryforwards are subject to review and possible adjustment by the IRS, and state tax authorities. Under Sections 382 and 383 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”), our federal net operating loss carryforwards and other tax attributes may become subject to an annual limitation in the event of certain cumulative changes in our ownership. An “ownership change” pursuant to Section 382 of the Code generally occurs if one or more stockholders or groups of stockholders who own at least 5% of a company’s stock increase their ownership by more than 50 percentage points over their lowest ownership percentage within a rolling three-year period. Our ability to utilize our net operating loss carryforwards and other tax attributes to offset future taxable income or tax liabilities may be limited as a result of ownership changes, including potential changes in connection with the Business Combination (as defined herein) or other transactions. Similar rules may apply under state tax laws.
Risks Related to Our Liquidity and Capital Resources
We may need additional capital to pursue our business objectives and respond to business opportunities, challenges or unforeseen circumstances, and we cannot be sure that additional financing will be available.
We may require additional capital and debt financing to pursue our business objectives and respond to business opportunities, challenges or unforeseen circumstances, including to increase our marketing expenditures to build and maintain our inventory of homes, develop new products or services or further improve existing products and services (including mortgage lending), improve our brand awareness, enhance our operating infrastructure and acquire complementary businesses and technologies. During past economic and housing downturns and more recently at the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, credit markets constricted and reduced sources of liquidity.
If cash on hand and cash generated from operations is not sufficient to meet our cash and liquidity needs, we may need to seek additional capital and engage in equity or debt financings to secure funds. However, additional funds may not be available when we need them on terms that are acceptable to us, or at all. In addition, any financing that we secure in the future could involve restrictive covenants which may make it more difficult for us to obtain additional capital and to pursue business opportunities.
Our ability to obtain financing will depend, among other things, on our product development efforts, business plans, operating performance, action or performance of competitors, and condition of the capital markets and housing markets at the time we seek financing. Volatility in the credit markets may also have an adverse effect on our ability to obtain debt financing.
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If we raise additional funds through the issuance of equity, equity-linked or debt securities, those securities may have rights, preferences or privileges senior to the rights of our common stock, or may require us to agree to unfavorable terms, and our existing stockholders may experience significant dilution.
If new financing sources are required, but are insufficient or unavailable, our ability to continue to pursue our business objectives and to respond to business opportunities, challenges or unforeseen circumstances could be significantly limited, and our business, operating results, financial condition and prospects could be adversely affected.
We utilize a significant amount of debt and financing arrangements in the operation of our business, and so our cash flows and operating results could be adversely affected by required payments of debt or related interest and other risks of our debt financing.
As of December 31, 2021 we had approximately $6.1 billion of non-recourse asset-backed loans. Our leverage could have meaningful consequences to us, including increasing our vulnerability to economic downturns, limiting our ability to withstand competitive pressures, or reducing our flexibility to respond to changing business and economic conditions. We are also subject to general risks associated with debt financing, including (1) our cash flow may not be sufficient to satisfy required payments of principal and interest; (2) we may not be able to refinance our existing indebtedness or refinancing terms may be less favorable to us than the terms of our existing debt; (3) debt service obligations or facility prepayments could reduce funds available for capital investment and general corporate purposes; (4) any default on our indebtedness could result in acceleration of the indebtedness and foreclosure on the homes collateralizing that indebtedness, with our attendant loss of any prospective income and equity value from such property; and (5) aged real estate may be ineligible for financing on our debt facilities potentially forcing the sale of aged real estate for prices that do not allow us to meet our margin targets or cover our costs to repay those facilities. Any of these risks could place strains on our cash flows, reduce our ability to grow and adversely affect our results of operations.
We rely on agreements with third parties to finance our business.
We have entered into debt agreements with various counterparties to provide capital for the growth and operation of our businesses, including to finance our purchase and renovation of homes. If we fail to maintain adequate relationships with potential financial sources or we elect to prepay or we are unable to renew, refinance or extend our existing debt arrangements on favorable terms or at all, we may be unable to maintain sufficient inventory, which would adversely affect our business and results of operations. In addition, some of our financing facilities are not fully committed, meaning the applicable lender may not be obligated to advance new loan funds if they choose not to do so. Obtaining new or replacement funding arrangements may be at higher interest rates or other less favorable terms.
Our financing sources are not required to extend the maturities of our financing arrangements and if a financing source is unable or unwilling to extend financing, and other financing sources are unable or unwilling to make or increase their financing commitments, then we will be required to repay the outstanding balance of the financing on the related maturity date. If we are unable to pay the outstanding balance of our debt obligations at maturity, the financing sources generally have the right to foreclose on the homes and other collateral securing that debt and to charge higher “default rates” of interest until the outstanding obligations are paid in full.
In addition, each of our mezzanine term debt facilities is associated with and subordinated to one or more of our senior credit facilities. Our mezzanine term debt facilities have initial terms that may be significantly longer than the related senior facilities and often contain terms that make it financially unattractive to prepay borrowings under those term debt facilities, including certain “make-whole” payments and other prepayment penalties. If we are unable to renew or extend the terms of our existing senior facilities, we may not be able to terminate or prepay the related mezzanine term debt facilities without incurring significant financial costs. Our senior term debt facilities also generally include “make-whole” payments or other prepayment penalties that make it financially unattractive to prepay borrowings under those term debt facilities.
If realized, any of these financing risks could negatively impact our results of operations and financial condition.
We intend to rely on proceeds from the sale of financed homes to repay amounts owed under our property financing facilities, but such proceeds may not be available or may be insufficient to repay the amounts when they become due.
For our senior revolving credit facilities, we typically are required to repay amounts owed with respect to a financed home upon the sale of that home. There is no assurance such sale proceeds will fully cover the amounts owed. Our senior revolving credit facilities commonly have initial terms of two years or less. It may be the case that not all homes securing these
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arrangements will be sold on or before the maturity dates of such financing arrangements, which would mean that sale proceeds would not be available to pay the amounts due at maturity. We may also be required to repay amounts owed with respect to a financed home prior to the sale of that home and prior to maturity of the related financing facility, typically due to the home having been held in our inventory for an extended period of time or, less commonly, if other unforeseen issues with the home arise during our holding period. In these situations, we may use cash on hand to repay the amounts owed or contribute other homes as additional collateral. To the extent we do not have sufficient cash or substitute collateral or are unable to draw on other financing facilities to make the required repayments, which could occur if a significant amount of our debt were to become due suddenly and unexpectedly, we would be in default under the related facility.
Covenants in our debt agreements may restrict our borrowing capacity and/or operating activities and adversely affect our financial condition.
Our existing debt agreements contain, and future debt agreements may contain, various financial and collateral performance covenants. These covenants may limit our operational flexibility or restrict our ability to engage in transactions that we believe would otherwise be in the best interests of our shareholders. If we breach these covenants, our lenders may be entitled to apply any excess cash proceeds from the sale of our homes that would normally be available to us in the absence of the covenant breach to the prepayment of principal and other amounts due. In certain cases, we could be required to repay all of the relevant debt immediately, even in the absence of a payment default. The occurrence of these events would have an adverse impact on our financial condition and results of operations and such impact could be material.
The borrowers under the debt facilities we use to finance the purchase and renovation of homes are special purpose entity (“SPE”) subsidiaries of Opendoor. While our SPEs’ lenders’ recourse in most situations following an event of default is only to the applicable SPE or its assets, we have provided limited guarantees for certain of the SPEs’ obligations in situations involving “bad acts” by an Opendoor entity and certain other limited circumstances that are generally under our control. To the extent a guaranty obligation is triggered, we may become obligated to pay all or a portion of the amounts owed by our SPEs to their lenders.
Our debt facilities contain cross defaults and similar provisions that could cause us to be in default under multiple debt facilities or otherwise lose access to financing for new homes and excess proceeds from sales of homes in the event we default under a single facility.
If an event of default or similar event occurs under one of our asset-backed senior debt facilities, this may trigger an event of default under any related mezzanine term debt facility and/or result in us losing access to financing through the mezzanine term debt facility or to excess proceeds from sales of homes that would otherwise be available to us. Similarly, an event of default or similar event under a mezzanine term debt facility may trigger an event of default under the related senior facilities and/or result in us losing access to financing through those senior facilities or to excess proceeds from sales of homes that would otherwise be available to us. In addition, certain of our senior and mezzanine term debt facilities contain cross defaults to indebtedness of Opendoor Labs Inc., if any, subject to varying minimum dollar thresholds. It is possible our debt facilities could include similar cross defaults to indebtedness of Opendoor Technologies in the future. The foregoing considerations significantly increase the likelihood that a default or similar event under one or more of our debt facilities would result in adverse consequences for our other debt facilities.
We may use derivatives and other instruments to reduce our exposure to interest fluctuations and those derivatives and other instruments may not prove to be effective.
We may use derivatives or other instruments to reduce our exposure to adverse changes in interest rates. Hedging interest rate risk is a complex process, requiring sophisticated models and constant monitoring. Due to interest rate fluctuations, hedged assets and liabilities will appreciate or depreciate in market value. The effect of this unrealized appreciation or depreciation will generally be offset by income or loss on the derivative instruments that are linked to the hedged assets and liabilities. If we engage in derivative transactions, we will be exposed to credit and market risk. If the counterparty fails to perform, credit risk exists to the extent of the fair value gain in the derivative. Market risk exists to the extent that interest rates change in ways that are significantly different from what we expected when we entered into the derivative transaction. Our hedging activity, if any, may fail to provide adequate coverage for interest rate exposure due to market volatility, hedging instruments that do not directly correlate with the interest rate risk exposure being hedged or counterparty defaults on obligations.
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When the London Inter-Bank Offered Rate (“LIBOR”) is discontinued, interest payments under our senior revolving credit facilities and our mortgage repurchase facility may be calculated using another reference rate.
In July 2017, the United Kingdom Financial Conduct Authority (“FCA”), which regulates LIBOR, announced that the FCA intends to phase out the use of LIBOR by the end of 2021. Subsequently, ICE Benchmark Administration, the administrator of LIBOR announced that publication of overnight 1-, 3-, 6-, and 12-month tenors of U.S. dollar LIBOR would continue through June 30, 2023 for use in legacy contracts, after which publication would cease unless the FCA were to use its powers to require continued publication. On March 5, 2021, the FCA stated that it did not intend to use such powers at that time, but would consult in the future on continued publication of select tenors of U.S. dollar LIBOR.
In response to the proposed discontinuance of LIBOR, the U.S. Federal Reserve, in conjunction with the Alternative Reference Rates Committee, proposed replacing U.S. dollar LIBOR with the Secured Overnight Financing Rate (“SOFR”), which is a new index calculated by short-term repurchase agreements and backed by U.S. Treasury securities. The market transition away from LIBOR toward SOFR is expected to be complicated, and there is no guarantee that SOFR will become a widely accepted benchmark in place of LIBOR. LIBOR is used as a benchmark rate for our senior revolving credit facilities and our mortgage repurchase facility. Some of these agreements may not contain fulsome fallback language for circumstances in which LIBOR ceases to be published. The transition process may involve, among other things, increased volatility and illiquidity in markets for instruments that currently rely on LIBOR, as well as SOFR and other alternative rates, and may result in increased borrowing costs, uncertainty under our financing facilities, or difficult and costly processes to amend our financing agreements. There remains uncertainty regarding the future utilization of LIBOR and the nature, acceptance, and equivalence of any replacement rate, and we cannot predict what impact a transition away from LIBOR may have on our business, financial results, and operations.
Failure to hedge effectively against interest rate changes may adversely affect our results of operations.
Borrowings under our senior revolving credit facilities bear interest at variable rates and expose us to interest rate risk. If interest rates were to increase, our debt service obligations on the variable rate indebtedness would increase and our earnings and cash flows would correspondingly decrease. Increased interest costs could also reduce the amount of debt financing that our homes inventory can support. Assuming no change in the outstanding borrowings on our credit facilities, we estimate that a one percentage point increase in LIBOR would increase our interest expense by approximately $37 million and $4 million for the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020, respectively.
In connection with our floating rate debt, we may seek to obtain interest rate protection in the form of swap agreements, interest rate cap contracts or other derivatives or instruments to hedge against the possible negative effects of interest rate increases. There is no assurance that we will be able to obtain any such interest rate hedging arrangements on attractive terms or at all. Even if we are successful in obtaining interest rate hedges, we cannot assure you that any hedging will adequately relieve the adverse effects of interest rate increases or that counterparties under these agreements will honor their obligations thereunder.
Additional Risks Related to Ownership of Our Common Stock
The price of our common stock may be volatile.
The price of our common stock may fluctuate due to a variety of factors, including:
changes in the industries in which we and our customers operate;
developments involving our competitors;
changes in laws and regulations affecting our business;
variations in our operating performance and the performance of our competitors in general;
actual or anticipated fluctuations in our quarterly or annual operating results;
publication of research reports by securities analysts about us or our competitors or our industry;
changes in financial estimates and recommendations by securities analysts;
the public’s reaction to our press releases, our other public announcements and our filings with the SEC;
actions by stockholders, including the sale of their shares of our common stock;
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additions and departures of key personnel;
commencement of, or involvement in, litigation involving our Company;
changes in our capital structure, such as future issuances of securities or the incurrence of additional debt;
the volume of shares of our common stock available for public sale; and
general economic and political conditions, such as the effects of the pandemic related to COVID-19 and its variants, recessions, interest rates, local and national elections, fuel prices, international currency fluctuations, corruption, inflation, political instability and acts of war or terrorism.
These market and industry factors may materially reduce the market price of our common stock and warrants regardless of our operating performance.
We do not intend to pay cash dividends for the foreseeable future.
We currently intend to retain our future earnings, if any, to finance the further development and expansion of our business and do not intend to pay cash dividends in the foreseeable future. Any future determination to pay dividends will be at the discretion of our board of directors and will depend on our financial condition, results of operations, capital requirements, restrictions contained in future agreements and financing instruments, business prospects and such other factors as our board of directors deems relevant.
General Risk Factors
Catastrophic events may disrupt our business.
Natural disasters or other catastrophic events may cause damage or disruption to our operations, real estate commerce, and the global economy, and thus could harm our business. In particular, the pandemic related to COVID-19 and its variants, including the reactions of governments, markets, and the general public to the pandemic related to COVID-19 and its variants, may result in a number of adverse consequences for our business and results of operations, the details of which would be difficult to predict. We have a large employee presence in San Francisco, California, a region that contains active earthquake zones. In addition, properties located in the markets in which we operate in Florida, portions of North Carolina or Texas are more susceptible to certain hazards (such as floods, hurricanes or hail) than properties in other parts of the country.
In the event of a major earthquake, hurricane, windstorm, tornado, flood or catastrophic event such as pandemic, fire, flood, power loss, telecommunications failure, cyber-attack, war, or terrorist attack, we may be unable to continue our operations and may endure reputational harm, delays in developing our platform and solutions, breaches of data security and loss of critical data, all of which could harm our business, results of operations and financial condition. Furthermore, these sorts of catastrophic events may cause disruption on both resale and acquisition side as we may not be able to transact on real estate. For example, homes that we own may be damaged and disruptions to infrastructure may mean our contractors are unable to perform the necessary home repairs in a timely manner. Closures of local recording offices or other governmental offices in charge of real property records, including tax or lien-related records, would adversely affect our ability to conduct operations in the affected geographies. Any of these delays will likely result in extended hold times and increased costs. Also, the insurance we maintain would likely not be adequate to cover our losses resulting from disasters or other business interruptions.
As we grow our business, the need for business continuity planning and disaster recovery plans will grow in significance. If we are unable to develop adequate plans to ensure that our business functions continue to operate during and after a disaster, and successfully execute on those plans in the event of a disaster or emergency, our business and reputation would be harmed.
Cybersecurity incidents could disrupt our business or result in the loss of critical and confidential information.
The evolution of technology systems introduces ever more complex security risks that are difficult to predict and defend against. An increasing number of companies, including those with significant online operations, have recently disclosed breaches of their security, some of which involved sophisticated tactics and techniques allegedly attributable to criminal enterprises or nation-state actors. Successful breaches, employee malfeasance, or human or technological error could result in, for example, unauthorized access to, disclosure, modification, misuse, loss, or destruction of company, customer, or other third party data or systems; theft of sensitive, regulated, or confidential data including personal information and intellectual property; the loss of access to critical data or systems through ransomware, destructive attacks or other means; and business delays, service or system disruptions or denials of service. We experience cyber incidents and other security incidents of varying
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degrees from time to time, though none which individually or in the aggregate has led to costs or consequences which have materially impacted our operations or business. In response, we have implemented controls and taken other preventative actions to further strengthen our systems against future incidents. However, we cannot assure you that such measures will provide absolute security, that we will be able to react in a timely manner, or that our remediation efforts following a cybersecurity incident will be successful.
In addition, we do not know whether our current practices will be deemed sufficient under applicable laws or whether new regulatory requirements might make our current practices insufficient. If there is a breach of our computer systems and we know or suspect that certain personal information has been accessed, or used inappropriately, we may need to inform the affected individual and may be subject to significant fines and penalties. Further, under certain regulatory schemes, we may be liable for statutory damages on a per breached record basis, irrespective of any actual damages or harm to the individual. In the event of a breach we could face government scrutiny or consumer class actions alleging statutory damages amounting to hundreds of millions, and possibly billions of dollars.
The risk of cybersecurity incidents directed at us or our third-party vendors includes uncoordinated individual attempts to gain unauthorized access to information technology systems, as well as to sophisticated and targeted measures known as advanced persistent threats. In addition, we face the risk of confidential data inadvertently leaking through human or technological errors. Cybersecurity incidents are also constantly evolving, increasing the difficulty of detecting and successfully defending against them. In the ordinary course of our business, we and our third-party vendors collect and store personal information, as well as our proprietary business information and intellectual property and that of our customers and employees.
Additionally, we rely on third-parties and their security procedures for the secure storage, processing, maintenance, and transmission of information that is critical to our operations. Despite measures designed to prevent, detect, address, and mitigate cybersecurity incidents, such incidents may occur to us or our third-party providers and, depending on their nature and scope, could potentially result in the misappropriation, destruction, corruption or unavailability of critical data and confidential or proprietary information (our own or that of third parties, including personal information of our customers and employees) and the disruption of business operations. Any such compromises to our security, or that of our third-party vendors, could cause customers to lose trust and confidence in us and stop using our website and mobile applications. In addition, we may incur significant costs for remediation that may include liability for stolen assets or information, repair of system damage, and compensation to customers, employees, and business partners. We may also be subject to government enforcement proceedings and legal claims by private parties.
Any actual or alleged security breaches or alleged violations of federal or state laws or regulations relating to privacy and data security could result in mandated user notifications, litigation, government investigations, significant fines, and expenditures; divert management’s attention from operations; deter people from using our platform; damage our brand and reputation; and materially adversely affect our business, results of operations, and financial condition. Defending against claims or litigation based on any security breach or incident, regardless of their merit, will be costly and may cause reputation harm. The successful assertion of one or more large claims against us that exceed available insurance coverage, denial of coverage as to any specific claim, or any change or cessation in our insurance policies and coverages, including premium increases or the imposition of large deductible requirements, could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, and financial condition.
Our fraud detection processes and information security systems may not successfully detect all fraudulent activity by third parties aimed at our employees or customers, which could adversely affect our reputation and business results.
Third-party actors have attempted in the past, and may attempt in the future, to conduct fraudulent activity by engaging with our customers, particularly in our title insurance and escrow business. We make a large number of wire transfers in connection with loan and real estate closings and process sensitive personal data in connection with these transactions. Though we have sophisticated fraud detection processes and have taken other measures to identify fraudulent activity on our mobile applications, websites and internal systems, we may not be able to detect and prevent all such activity. Similarly, the third parties we use to effectuate these transactions may fail to maintain adequate controls or systems to detect and prevent fraudulent activity. Persistent or pervasive fraudulent activity may cause customers and real estate partners to lose trust in us and decrease or terminate their usage of our products, or could result in financial loss, thereby harming our business and results of operations.
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We are from time to time involved in, or may in the future be subject to, claims, suits, government investigations, and other proceedings that may result in adverse outcomes.
We are from time to time involved in, or may in the future be subject to, claims, suits, government investigations, and proceedings arising from our business, including actions with respect to intellectual property, privacy, consumer protection, information security, mortgage lending, real estate, environmental, data protection or law enforcement matters, tax matters, labor and employment, and commercial claims, as well as actions involving content generated by our customers, shareholder derivative actions, purported class action lawsuits, and other matters. Such claims, suits, government investigations, and proceedings are inherently uncertain, and their results cannot be predicted with certainty. Regardless of the outcome, any such legal proceedings can have an adverse impact on us because of legal costs, diversion of management and other personnel, negative publicity and other factors. In addition, it is possible that a resolution of one or more such proceedings could result in reputational harm, liability, penalties, or sanctions, as well as judgments, consent decrees, or orders preventing us from offering certain features, functionalities, products, or services, or requiring a change in our business practices, products or technologies, which could in the future materially and adversely affect our business, operating results and financial condition.
We may be subject to securities litigation, which is expensive and could divert management attention.
The market price of our common stock may be volatile and, in the past, companies that have experienced volatility in the market price of their stock have been subject to securities class action litigation. We may be the target of this type of litigation in the future. Securities litigation against us could result in substantial costs and divert management’s attention from other business concerns, which could seriously harm our business.
Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments.
None.
Item 2. Properties.
We have various operating leases for office space, which are summarized as of December 31, 2021 in the table below. We believe that our facilities are adequate for our current needs.
LocationPurposeApproximate Square FeetPrincipal Lease Expiration Dates
Tempe, ArizonaGeneral Office Space, Corporate Mailing Address100,807 2030
Duluth, GeorgiaGeneral Office Space71,085 2029
In addition, we lease office space in several other locations in the United States and India.
Item 3. Legal Proceedings.
In August 2019, the Federal Trade Commission (“FTC”) sent a civil investigative demand to Opendoor Labs Inc., our wholly-owned subsidiary, seeking documents and information relating primarily to statements in our advertising and website comparing selling homes to us with selling homes in a traditional manner using an agent and relating to statements that our offers reflect or are based on market prices. Thereafter, we responded cooperatively to the civil investigative demand and related follow-up requests from the FTC. On December 23, 2020, the FTC notified us that they intend to recommend that the agency pursue an enforcement action against us and certain of our officers, if we are unable to reach a negotiated settlement acceptable to all parties. The FTC has indicated that they believe certain of our advertising claims relating to the amount of our offers, the repair costs charged to home sellers, and the amount of net proceeds a seller may receive from selling to us versus selling in the traditional manner were inaccurate and/or inadequately substantiated. We are engaged in settlement negotiations with the FTC. There can be no assurances that we will be successful in negotiating a favorable settlement.
In addition to the foregoing, we are currently and have in the past been subject to legal proceedings and regulatory actions in the ordinary course of business. We do not anticipate that the ultimate liability, if any, arising out of any such matters will have a material effect on our financial condition, results of operations or cash flows. In the future, we may be subject to further legal proceedings and regulatory actions in the ordinary course of business and we cannot predict whether any such proceeding or matter will have a material effect on our financial condition, results of operations or cash flows.
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Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures.
Not applicable.
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PART II
Item 5. Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities.
Market Information for Common Stock
Our common stock is listed on the Nasdaq Global Select Market (“Nasdaq”) under the symbol “OPEN.”
Holders of Record
As of February 18, 2022, there were approximately 80 holders of record of our common stock.
Dividend Policy
We have never declared or paid dividends on our capital stock. We currently intend to retain any future earnings to fund the development and growth of our business, and therefore do not expect to pay any dividends in the foreseeable future. Any future determination as to the declaration and payment of dividends, if any, will be at the discretion of our board of directors, subject to compliance with contractual restrictions and covenants in the agreements governing our current and future indebtedness. Any such determination will also depend upon our business prospects, results of operations, financial condition, cash requirements and availability and other factors that our board of directors may deem relevant.
Sales of Unregistered Equity Securities
None.
Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
None.
Item 6. [Reserved]


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Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
(Tabular amounts in millions, except share and per share data and ratios,or as noted)
Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.
The following discussion and analysis provides information that our management believes is relevant to an assessment and understanding of our consolidated results of operations and financial condition. The discussion should be read together with the historical audited annual consolidated financial statements as of December 31, 2021 and 2020 and for the years ended December 31, 2021, 2020, and 2019. As discussed in Note 1 to the accompanying consolidated financial statements the Company corrected the 2020 consolidated financial statements to account for Sponsor Warrants as a liability on the Company’s balance sheet with subsequent changes in their value recognized in the Company’s consolidated statement of operations at each reporting date. These corrections are reflected in the discussions. See “Part II – Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data – Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements – Note 1. Description of Business and Accounting Policies” for additional information.
This discussion may contain forward-looking statements based upon current expectations that involve risks and uncertainties. Our actual results may differ materially from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements as a result of various factors, including those set forth under “Risk Factors” or in other parts of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Overview
Opendoor’s mission is to empower everyone with the freedom to move and make it possible to buy, sell and move at the tap of a button. We are transforming what has historically been a complex, uncertain, time-consuming and mostly offline process into a simple, online experience. Since our inception in 2014, we have built scalable pricing capabilities, technology-enabled centralized operations, and a suite of digital-first consumer products. These investments have enabled us to help customers buy or sell homes in over 140,000 transactions and expand our footprint to 44 markets across the country. Most importantly, we have grown rapidly while delighting our customers with an experience that brings simplicity, certainty and speed to the home selling and buying process.
Financial Highlights

Year Ended December 31,
(in millions, except percentages, homes sold, number of markets, and homes in inventory)2021202020192020 to 2021 Change2019 to 2020 Change
Revenue$8,021 $2,583 $4,741 $5,438 $(2,158)
Homes sold21,725 9,913 18,799 11,812 (8,886)
Gross profit$730 $220 $301 $510 $(81)
Gross margin9.1 %8.5 %6.4 %
Net loss$(662)$(253)$(339)$(409)$86 
Adjusted Net Loss$(116)$(175)$(327)$59 $152 
Contribution Profit$525 $110 $92 $415 $18 
Contribution Margin6.5 %4.3 %1.9 %
Adjusted EBITDA$58 $(98)$(218)$156 $120 
Adjusted EBITDA Margin0.7 %(3.8)%(4.6)%
Number of markets (at period end)44212123 — 
Inventory (at period end)$6,096 $466 $1,312 $5,630 $(846)
Homes in inventory (at period end)17,009 1,826 5,572 15,183 (3,746)
Business Impact of COVID-19
In response to the COVID-19 pandemic and the consequent health risks, we substantially paused purchasing additional homes in March 2020 to safeguard the health and safety of our customers and employees. In addition to pausing new acquisitions, we sold down most of our homes in inventory at a healthy pace, leading to a low point in inventory of $152 million as of September 30, 2020 compared to $1.3 billion as of December 31, 2019. As our revenues are dependent on inventory levels available for sale, we experienced sequential, quarter-over-quarter declines in revenue in the second, third and fourth quarters of 2020. After retooling certain operational processes to enable “contactless” transactions, we resumed making
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Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
(Tabular amounts in millions, except share and per share data and ratios,or as noted)
offers to purchase homes in select markets in May 2020 and resumed operations across all of our markets by the end of August 2020. We surpassed pre-COVID-19 inventory levels in the second quarter of 2021 and ended the year with inventory of $6.1 billion as of December 31, 2021. While we believe we have adapted our operations to function effectively during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, our business remains sensitive to potential future disruptions of the real estate market caused by COVID-19 and its variants.
Factors Affecting our Business Performance
Market Penetration in Existing Markets
Residential real estate is one of the largest consumer markets, with approximately $2.3 trillion of home value transacted annually. Given we operate in a highly fragmented industry and offer a differentiated value proposition to the incumbent agent-led transaction, we believe there is significant opportunity to expand our share in our existing cities. By providing a consistent, high-quality and differentiated experience to our customers, we hope to continue to drive positive word-of-mouth awareness and trust in our platform. We believe this creates a virtuous cycle, whereby more home sellers will request an offer from Opendoor, allowing us to deepen our market penetration.
Expansion into New Markets
We have expanded into 44 markets as of December 31, 2021. The following table represents the number of markets as of the periods presented:
Year Ended December 31,
(in whole numbers)202120202019
Number of markets (at period end)442121
We launched 23 new markets in 2021, exceeding our goal to double the markets we serve over the course of 2021. We have honed our market launch playbook by centralizing many of our core pricing, operations, and customer service functions, enabling us to launch new markets more efficiently and quickly in the future. For example, we are generally able to launch a market with only a small field team focused on home renovation oversight, with all other key functions managed centrally.
We view the first year of a market launch as an investment period during which we refine our pricing models, renovation strategies and cost structure. Historically, we have seen underwriting performance for purchase cohorts in new markets improve approximately one year after initial launch. While new markets do not contribute significantly to revenue during their first year of operation, they provide a foundation for long-term growth once local operational and pricing capabilities have been refined.
We made substantial investments to support our market launches in 2021, which we expect will impact both Contribution Margin and Adjusted EBITDA as these new markets mature. We expect such investments to continue as we launch additional markets.
Adjacent Services
We believe home sellers and buyers value simplicity and convenience. To that end, we are building an online, integrated suite of home services, which currently include title insurance and escrow services, Buy with Opendoor, Opendoor Home Loans, and Opendoor Complete. We believe that vertically integrating services that are adjacent to the core real estate transaction will allow us to deliver a superior, seamless experience to the consumer. Our success with title insurance and escrow services helps validate our view that customers prefer an online, integrated experience. We expect that these adjacent services will also be accretive to our Contribution Margin.
We will continue to evaluate new ways to improve our end-to-end solution and expect to invest in additional adjacent products and services over time.
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Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
(Tabular amounts in millions, except share and per share data and ratios,or as noted)
Unit Economics
We view Contribution Margin and Contribution Margin after Interest as key measures of unit economic performance. Our long-term financial performance depends, in part, on continuing to expand unit margins through the following initiatives:
Successful incremental attach of services that supplement the core transaction margin profile via our existing services as well as new ones.
Pricing engine optimization and enhancements, as we expand our reach in existing markets and enter new markets.
Lowering platform costs through process refinement, greater automation and self-service, and more efficient forms of financing.
Inventory Management
Effectively managing our overall inventory position is critical to our financial performance. Since our inception, we have prioritized investment in our pricing capabilities across our home acquisition processes and our forecasting and resale systems, and will continue to do so. As part of our overall risk management framework, we consider both individual market and aggregate portfolio exposures. We typically seek to maximize the resale margin performance of our inventory while balancing sell-through rates, holding periods, and portfolio aging. Similarly, we evaluate our portfolio health metrics relative to the broader market (as observed on the MLS) as another key indicator of inventory management performance. One such metric is our percentage of homes “on the market” for greater than 120 days (as measured from initial listing date). As of December 31, 2021, such homes represented 8% of our portfolio, compared to 24% for the broader market when filtered for the types of homes we are able to underwrite and acquire in a given market based on characteristics such as price range, home type, home location, year built and lot size (defined as our “Buybox".)
Inventory Financing
Our business model is working capital intensive and inventory financing is a key enabler of our growth. We primarily rely on our access to non-recourse asset-backed debt, which consist of asset-backed senior debt facilities and asset-backed mezzanine term debt facilities, to finance our home acquisitions. See “—Liquidity and Capital Resources — Debt and Financing Arrangements.
Seasonality
The residential real estate market is seasonal, with greater demand from home buyers in the spring and summer, and typically weaker demand in late fall and winter. We expect our financial results and working capital requirements to reflect seasonal variations over time, although our growth and market expansion have obscured the impact of seasonality in our historical financials and may continue to do so. That said, we generally expect stronger sequential revenue growth in the first quarter of the year versus the third and fourth quarters.
Non-GAAP Financial Measures
In addition to our results of operations below, we report certain financial measures that are not required by, or presented in accordance with, U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (“GAAP”).
These measures have limitations as analytical tools when assessing our operating performance and should not be considered in isolation or as a substitute for GAAP measures, including gross profit and net income. We may calculate or present our non-GAAP financial measures differently than other companies who report measures with similar titles and, as a result, the non-GAAP financial measures we report may not be comparable with those of companies in our industry or in other industries.
Adjusted Gross Profit, Contribution Profit and Contribution Profit After Interest
To provide investors with additional information regarding our margins and return on inventory acquired, we have included Adjusted Gross Profit, Contribution Profit and Contribution Profit After Interest, which are non-GAAP financial measures. We believe that Adjusted Gross Profit, Contribution Profit and Contribution Profit After Interest are useful financial measures for investors as they are supplemental measures used by management in evaluating unit level economics and our
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Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
(Tabular amounts in millions, except share and per share data and ratios,or as noted)
operating performance in our key markets. Each of these measures is intended to present the economics related to homes sold during a given period. We do so by including revenue generated from homes sold (and adjacent services) in the period and only the expenses that are directly attributable to such home sales, even if such expenses were recognized in prior periods, and excluding expenses related to homes that remain in inventory as of the end of the period. Contribution Profit provides investors a measure to assess Opendoor’s ability to generate returns on homes sold during a reporting period after considering home purchase costs, renovation and repair costs, holding costs and selling costs. Contribution Profit After Interest further impacts gross profit by including senior interest costs attributable to homes sold during a reporting period. We believe these measures facilitate meaningful period over period comparisons and illustrate our ability to generate returns on assets sold after considering the costs directly related to the assets sold in a given period.
Adjusted Gross Profit, Contribution Profit and Contribution Profit After Interest are supplemental measures of our operating performance and have limitations as analytical tools. For example, these measures include costs that were recorded in prior periods under GAAP and exclude, in connection with homes held in inventory at the end of the period, costs required to be recorded under GAAP in the same period. These measures also exclude the impact of certain restructuring costs that are required under GAAP. Accordingly, these measures should not be considered in isolation or as a substitute for analysis of our results as reported under GAAP. We include a reconciliation of these measures to the most directly comparable GAAP financial measure, which is gross profit.
Adjusted Gross Profit / Margin
We calculate Adjusted Gross Profit as gross profit under GAAP adjusted for (1) inventory valuation adjustment in the current period, (2) inventory valuation adjustment in prior periods, and (3) restructuring in cost of revenue. Restructuring in cost of revenue reflects the costs associated with the reduction in our workforce in 2020, a portion of which were related to personnel included in cost of revenue. Inventory valuation adjustment in the current period is calculated by adding back the inventory valuation adjustments recorded during the period on homes that remain in inventory at period end. Inventory valuation adjustment in prior periods is calculated by subtracting the inventory valuation adjustments recorded in prior periods on homes sold in the current period. We define Adjusted Gross Margin as Adjusted Gross Profit as a percentage of revenue. See “—Critical Accounting Estimates and Policies — Real Estate Inventory” for detailed discussion of inventory valuation adjustment.
We view this metric as an important measure of business performance as it captures gross margin performance isolated to homes sold in a given period and provides comparability across reporting periods. Adjusted Gross Profit helps management assess home pricing, service fees and renovation performance for a specific resale cohort.
Contribution Profit / Margin
We calculate Contribution Profit as Adjusted Gross Profit, minus certain costs incurred on homes sold during the current period including: (1) holding costs incurred in the current period, (2) holding costs incurred in prior periods, and (3) direct selling costs. The composition of our holding costs is described in the footnotes to the reconciliation table below. Contribution Margin is Contribution Profit as a percentage of revenue.
We view this metric as an important measure of business performance as it captures the unit level performance isolated to homes sold in a given period and provides comparability across reporting periods. Contribution Profit helps management assess inflows and outflows directly associated with a specific resale cohort.
Contribution Profit / Margin After Interest
We define Contribution Profit After Interest as Contribution Profit, minus interest expense under our non-recourse asset-backed senior debt facilities incurred on the homes sold during the period. This may include interest expense recorded in periods prior to the period in which the sale occurred. Our asset-backed senior debt facilities are secured by our real estate inventory and cash. See “— Liquidity and Capital Resources — Debt and Financing Arrangements.” In addition to our senior debt facilities, we use a mix of debt and equity capital to finance our inventory and that mix will vary over time. In addition, we expect to continue to evolve our cost of financing as we include other debt sources beyond mezzanine capital. As such, in order to allow more meaningful period over period comparisons that more accurately reflect our asset performance rather than our evolving financing choices, we do not include interest expense associated with our mezzanine term debt facilities in this calculation. Contribution Margin After Interest is Contribution Profit After Interest as a percentage of revenue.
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Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
(Tabular amounts in millions, except share and per share data and ratios,or as noted)
We view this metric as an important measure of business performance. Contribution Profit After Interest helps management assess Contribution Margin performance, per above, when burdened with the cost of senior financing.
The following table presents a reconciliation of our Adjusted Gross Profit, Contribution Profit and Contribution Profit After Interest to our gross profit, which is the most directly comparable GAAP measure, for the periods indicated:
Year Ended December 31,
(in millions, except percentages)202120202019
Gross profit (GAAP)$730 $220 $301 
Gross Margin9.1 %8.5 %6.4 %
Adjustments:
Inventory valuation adjustment – Current Period(1)(2)
39 — 11 
Inventory valuation adjustment – Prior Periods(1)(3)
— (11)(15)
Restructuring in cost of revenue(4)
— — 
Adjusted Gross Profit$769 $211 $297 
Adjusted Gross Margin9.6 %8.2 %6.3 %
Adjustments:
Direct selling costs(5)
(195)(73)(149)
Holding costs on sales – Current Period(6)(7)
(47)(17)(43)
Holding costs on sales – Prior Periods(6)(8)
(2)(11)(13)
Contribution Profit$525 $110 $92 
Contribution Margin6.5 %4.3 %1.9 %
Adjustments:
Interest on homes sold – Current Period(9)(10)
(42)(18)(52)
Interest on homes sold – Prior Periods(9)(11)
(1)(10)(13)
Contribution Profit After Interest
$482 $82 $27 
Contribution Margin After Interest6.0 %3.2 %0.6 %
________________
(1)Inventory valuation adjustment includes adjustments to record real estate inventory at the lower of its carrying amount or its net realizable value. See “—Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates — Real Estate Inventory.
(2)Inventory valuation adjustment — Current Period is the inventory valuation adjustments recorded during the period presented associated with homes that remain in inventory at period end.
(3)Inventory valuation adjustment — Prior Periods is the inventory valuation adjustments recorded in prior periods associated with homes that sold in the period presented.
(4)Restructuring in cost of revenue consists mainly of severance and employee termination benefits that were recorded to cost of revenue due to a reduction in workforce in the second quarter of 2020 following the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic.
(5)Represents selling costs incurred related to homes sold in the relevant period. This primarily includes broker commissions, external title and escrow-related fees and transfer taxes.
(6)Holding costs include mainly property taxes, insurance, utilities, homeowners association dues, cleaning and maintenance costs. Holding costs are included in Sales, marketing, and operations on the Consolidated Statements of Operations.
(7)Represents holding costs incurred in the period presented on homes sold in the period presented.
(8)Represents holding costs incurred in prior periods on homes sold in the period presented.
(9)This does not include interest on mezzanine term debt facilities or other indebtedness. See “— Liquidity and Capital Resources — Debt and Financing Arrangements.”
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Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
(Tabular amounts in millions, except share and per share data and ratios,or as noted)
(10)Represents the interest expense under our asset-backed senior debt facilities incurred during the period on homes sold in the current period.
(11)Represents the interest expense under our asset-backed senior debt facilities incurred during prior periods on homes sold in the current period.
Adjusted Net Loss and Adjusted EBITDA
We also present Adjusted Net Loss and Adjusted EBITDA, which are non-GAAP financial measures that management uses to assess our underlying financial performance. These measures are also commonly used by investors and analysts to compare the underlying performance of companies in our industry. We believe these measures provide investors with meaningful period over period comparisons of our underlying performance, adjusted for certain charges that are non-recurring, non-cash, not directly related to our revenue-generating operations or not aligned to related revenue.
Adjusted Net Loss and Adjusted EBITDA are supplemental measures of our operating performance and have important limitations. For example, these measures exclude the impact of certain costs required to be recorded under GAAP. These measures also include inventory valuation adjustments that were recorded in prior periods under GAAP and exclude, in connection with homes held in inventory at the end of the period, inventory valuation adjustments required to be recorded under GAAP in the same period. These measures could differ substantially from similarly titled measures presented by other companies in our industry or companies in other industries. Accordingly, these measures should not be considered in isolation or as a substitute for analysis of our results as reported under GAAP. We include a reconciliation of these measures to the most directly comparable GAAP financial measure, which is net loss.
Adjusted Net Loss
We calculate Adjusted Net Loss as GAAP net loss adjusted to exclude non-cash expenses of stock-based compensation, equity securities fair value adjustment, derivative and warrant fair value adjustment, and intangibles amortization expense. It also excludes non-recurring payroll tax on initial RSU release, restructuring charges, loss on extinguishment of debt, gain on lease termination, legal contingency accrual, and convertible note payment-in-kind (“PIK”) interest and issuance discount amortization. Adjusted Net Loss also aligns the timing of inventory valuation adjustments recorded under GAAP to the period in which the related revenue is recorded in order to improve the comparability of this measure to our non-GAAP financial measures of unit economics, as described above. Our calculation of Adjusted Net Loss does not currently include the tax effects of the non-GAAP adjustments because our taxes and such tax effects have not been material to date.
Adjusted EBITDA
We calculated Adjusted EBITDA as Adjusted Net Loss adjusted for depreciation and amortization, property financing and other interest expense, interest income, and income tax expense. Adjusted EBITDA is a supplemental performance measure that our management uses to assess our operating performance and the operating leverage in our business.
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Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
(Tabular amounts in millions, except share and per share data and ratios,or as noted)
The following table presents a reconciliation of our Adjusted Net Loss and Adjusted EBITDA to our net loss, which is the most directly comparable GAAP measure, for the periods indicated:
Year Ended December 31,
(in millions, except percentages)202120202019
Net loss (GAAP)$(662)$(253)$(339)
Adjustments:
Stock-based compensation536 38 13 
Equity securities fair value adjustment(1)
(35)— — 
Derivative and warrant fair value adjustment(1)
(12)(8)(6)
Intangibles amortization expense(2)
Inventory valuation adjustment – Current Period(3)(4)
39 — 11 
Inventory valuation adjustment – Prior Periods(3)(5)
— (11)(15)
Restructuring(6)
— 31 
Convertible note PIK interest and discount amortization(7)
— 
Loss on extinguishment of debt— 11 — 
Gain on lease termination(5)— — 
Payroll tax on initial RSU release— — 
Legal contingency accrual
14 — 
Other(8)
— — 
Adjusted Net Loss$(116)$(175)$(327)
Adjustments:
Depreciation and amortization, excluding amortization of intangibles
33 22 15 
Property financing(9)
119 38 84 
Other interest expense(10)
24 22 22 
Interest income(11)
(3)(5)(12)
Income tax expense— — 
Adjusted EBITDA$58 $(98)$(218)
Adjusted EBITDA Margin0.7 %(3.8)%(4.6)%
________________
(1)Represents the gains and losses on certain financial instruments, which are marked to fair value at the end of each period.
(2)Represents amortization of acquisition-related intangible assets. The acquired intangible assets have useful lives ranging from 1 to 5 years and amortization is expected until the intangible assets are fully amortized.
(3)Inventory valuation adjustment includes adjustments to record real estate inventory at the lower of its carrying amount or its net realizable value. See “—Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates — Real Estate Inventory.
(4)Inventory valuation adjustment — Current Period is the inventory valuation adjustment charge recorded during the period presented associated with homes that remain in inventory at period end.
(5)Inventory valuation adjustment — Prior Periods is the inventory valuation adjustments recorded in prior periods associated with homes that sold in the period presented.
(6)Restructuring costs consist mainly of employee termination benefits, relocation packages and retention bonuses as well as costs related to the exiting of certain non-cancelable leases. In 2020, these costs related mainly to a reduction in workforce implemented in April 2020 as well as our exercise of the early termination option related to our San Francisco headquarters. In 2019, these costs related mainly to the centralization of our administrative and selling functions, including the relocation of local teams to Phoenix.
(7)Includes non-cash payment-in-kind (“PIK”) interest and amortization of the discount on the convertible notes issued from July through November 2019 (the “2019 Convertible Notes”). We exclude convertible note PIK interest and amortization
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Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
(Tabular amounts in millions, except share and per share data and ratios,or as noted)
from Adjusted Net Loss since these are non-cash in nature and were converted into equity in September 2020 when the Company entered into the Convertible Notes Exchange Agreement with the convertible note holders.
(8)Includes primarily gain or loss on disposal of fixed assets, gain or loss on interest rate lock commitments, gain or loss on the sale of available for sale securities, and sublease income.
(9)Includes interest expense on our non-recourse asset-backed debt facilities.
(10)Includes amortization of debt issuance costs and loan origination fees, commitment fees, unused fees, other interest related costs on our asset-backed debt facilities, interest expense related to the 2026 convertible senior notes outstanding, and interest expense on other secured borrowings.
(11)Consists mainly of interest earned on cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities.
Components of Our Results of Operations
Revenue
We generate the majority of our revenue from the sale of homes that we previously acquired from homeowners. In addition, we generate revenue from additional services we provide to both home sellers and buyers, which consists primarily of title insurance and escrow services, Buy with Opendoor and Opendoor Home Loans.
Home sales revenue from selling residential real estate is recognized when title to and possession of the property has transferred to the buyer and we have no continuing involvement with the property, which is generally the close of escrow. The amount of revenue recognized for each home sale is equal to the sale price of the home net of any concessions.
Cost of Revenue
Cost of revenue includes the property purchase price, acquisition costs, direct costs to renovate or repair the home and inventory valuation adjustments. These costs are accumulated in real estate inventory during the property holding period and charged to cost of revenue under the specific identification method when the property is sold. Additionally, for our revenue other than home sales revenue, cost of revenue consists of any costs incurred in delivering the service, including associated headcount expenses such as salaries, benefits and stock-based compensation.
Operating Expenses
Sales, Marketing and Operations Expense
Sales, marketing and operations expense consists primarily of broker commissions (paid to the home buyers’ real estate agents and third-party listing agents, if applicable), resale closing costs, holding costs related to real estate inventory including utilities, property taxes and maintenance, and expenses associated with product marketing, promotions and brand-building. Sales, marketing and operations expense also includes any headcount expenses in support of sales, marketing, and real estate operations such as salaries, benefits and stock-based compensation.
General and Administrative Expense
General and administrative expense consists primarily of headcount expenses, including salaries, benefits and stock-based compensation for our executive, finance, human resources, legal and administrative personnel, third-party professional services fees and rent expense.
We incurred a significant increase in stock-based compensation in 2021 as a result of certain performance-based awards and historical RSUs satisfying their liquidity event vesting conditions. The increase in stock-based compensation impacts each line item within Operating expenses. See “Part II – Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data – Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements – Note 14. Share-based Awards” for additional information.
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Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
(Tabular amounts in millions, except share and per share data and ratios,or as noted)
Technology and Development Expense
Technology and development expense consists primarily of headcount expenses, including salaries, benefits and stock-based compensation for employees in the design, development, testing, maintenance and operation of our mobile applications, websites, tools and applications that support our products. Technology and development expense also includes amortization of capitalized software development costs.
Derivative and Warrant Fair Value Adjustment
Derivative and warrant fair value adjustment consists of unrealized and realized gains and losses as a result of marking our warrants and embedded derivatives related to the 2019 Convertible Notes to fair value at the end of each reporting period and subsequent settlement through exercise of warrants and conversion of the 2019 Convertible Notes to equity.
Loss on Extinguishment of Debt
Loss on extinguishment of debt is the result of the Company’s early termination of one of its mezzanine term debt facilities and certain amounts paid to lender in excess of the book basis with respect to the facility.
Interest Expense
Interest expense consists primarily of interest paid or payable and the amortization of debt discounts and debt issuance costs. Interest expense varies period over period, primarily due to fluctuations in our inventory volumes and changes in LIBOR, which impact the interest incurred on our senior revolving credit facilities (see “— Liquidity and Capital Resources — Debt and Financing Arrangements”).
We expect our overall interest expense to increase as inventory increases. Subject to market conditions and cost of capital trade-offs, we will evaluate opportunities to expand our sources of financing over time, which may allow us to diversify our mix of financing sources to include more cost effective financing relative to our higher cost mezzanine term debt facilities.
Other Income — Net
Other income-net consists primarily of change in fair value of and dividend income from our investment in equity securities as well as interest income from our investment in debt securities.
Income Tax Expense
We record income taxes using the asset and liability method. Under this method, deferred income tax assets and liabilities are recorded based on the estimated future tax effects of differences between the financial statement and income tax basis of existing assets and liabilities. These differences are measured using the enacted statutory tax rates that are expected to apply to taxable income for the years in which differences are expected to reverse. We recognize the effect on deferred income taxes of a change in tax rates in income in the period that includes the enactment date.
We record a valuation allowance to reduce our deferred tax assets and liabilities to the net amount that we believe is more likely than not to be realized. We consider all available evidence, both positive and negative, including historical levels of income, expectations and risks associated with estimates of future taxable income and ongoing tax planning strategies in assessing the need for a valuation allowance.
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OPENDOOR TECHNOLOGIES INC.
Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
(Tabular amounts in millions, except share and per share data and ratios,or as noted)
Results of Operations
Year Ended December 31, 2021 Compared to Year Ended December 31, 2020
The following table sets forth our results of operations for the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020:
Year Ended December 31,Change in
(in millions, except percentages)20212020$%
Revenue$8,021 $2,583 $5,438 211 %
Cost of revenue7,291 2,363 4,928 209 %
Gross profit730 220 510 232 %
Operating expenses:
Sales, marketing and operations544 195 349 179 %
General and administrative620 153 467 305 %
Technology and development134 58 76 131 %
Total operating expenses1,298 406 892 220 %
Net operating loss(568)(186)(382)205 %
Derivative and warrant fair value adjustment12 50 %
Loss on extinguishment of debt— (11)11 (100)%
Interest expense(143)(68)(75)110 %
Other income-net38 34 850 %
Loss before income taxes(661)(253)(408)161 %
Income tax expense(1)— (1)N/M
Net loss(662)(253)$(409)162 %
N/M - Not meaningful.
Revenue
Revenue increased by $5.4 billion, or 211%, for the year ended December 31, 2021 compared to the year ended December 31, 2020. The increase in revenue was primarily attributable to higher sales volumes in 2021 compared to 2020, as well as higher revenue per home. We sold 21,725 homes during the year ended December 31, 2021, compared to 9,913 homes during the year ended December 31, 2020, representing an increase of 119%, while revenue per home sold increased 42% between periods. The higher sales volumes are a reflection of growing market share in existing markets and, to a lesser extent, our expansion into new markets. We successfully grew our inventory levels throughout 2021, allowing us to sell-through significantly more homes relative to 2020, when we had much lower inventory levels due to our temporary pause in home purchases at the start of the COVID-19 pandemic. See “— Business Impact of COVID-19”. Average resale prices were positively impacted by price mix within markets, overall home price appreciation and Buybox expansion.
Cost of Revenue and Gross Profit
Cost of revenue increased by $4.9 billion, or 209%, for the year ended December 31, 2021 compared to the year ended December 31, 2020. This increase in cost of revenue was primarily attributable to higher sales volumes and a 41% increase in cost of revenue per home as a result of inventory mix, home price appreciation and Buybox expansion.
Gross margin improved from 8.5% to 9.1% for the year ended December 31, 2020 and December 31, 2021, respectively. For the same periods, Adjusted Gross Margin improved from 8.2% to 9.6%. The gross margin increase was primarily due to a combination of higher resale prices relative to our net purchase price for homes, repair and renovation efficiencies, and the effectiveness of our inventory resale systems. Contribution Margin increased from 4.3% to 6.5% for the same periods, due largely to a higher Adjusted Gross Margin as well as improvements in direct selling and holding costs. See “— Non-GAAP Financial Measures.”
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Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
(Tabular amounts in millions, except share and per share data and ratios,or as noted)
Operating Expenses
Sales, Marketing and Operations. Sales, marketing and operations increased by $349 million, or 179%, for the year ended December 31, 2021 compared to the year ended December 31, 2020. The increase was primarily attributable to a $123 million increase in resale transaction costs and broker commissions, consistent with the 119% increase in the number of homes sold. In addition, advertising expense increased by $90 million as we increased marketing to drive acquisition volumes in both existing and new markets launched in 2021, relative to the limited marketing spend in 2020 due to the onset of COVID-19. Property holding costs increased by $71 million consistent with increased inventory levels. Personnel expenses, including salaries and benefits increased $28 million consistent with the increase in headcount.
General and Administrative. General and administrative increased by $467 million, or 305%, for the year ended December 31, 2021 compared to the year ended December 31, 2020. The increase was primarily attributable to $430 million of additional stock-based compensation from the commencement of expense recognition of certain performance awards following the consummation of the Business Combination in December 2020 as well as the expense recognition of certain RSUs upon the fulfillment of the liquidity event vesting condition satisfied by the February 2021 Offering. Personnel expenses, including salaries and benefits increased $22 million consistent with the increase in headcount.
Technology and Development. Technology and development increased by $76 million, or 131%, for the year ended December 31, 2021 compared to the year ended December 31, 2020. The increase was primarily attributable to a $56 million increase in stock-based compensation reflecting both an increase in headcount as well as the recognition of stock-based compensation beginning in 2021 when the February 2021 Offering satisfied the liquidity event vesting condition of certain RSUs. Personnel expenses, including salaries and benefits increased $12 million consistent with the increase in headcount.
Derivative and Warrant Fair Value Adjustment
Derivative and warrant fair value adjustment increased by $4 million, or 50%, for the year ended December 31, 2021 compared to the year ended December 31, 2020. The adjustments recorded in the years ended December 31, 2020 and December 31, 2021 were primarily attributable to gain of $34 million and $12 million, respectively, due to a decrease in the fair value of the Sponsor Warrants between the time of the Business Combination and the completion of their redemption in July 2021. The gains recorded for the year ended December 31, 2020 were offset by a $23 million increase in the fair value of a derivative liability in extinguishment of the Company's 2019 Convertible Notes.
Loss on Extinguishment of Debt
Loss on extinguishment of debt decreased by $11 million, or 100%, for the year ended December 31, 2021 compared to the year ended December 31, 2020. The loss on extinguishment of debt of $11 million in 2020 resulted from the Company’s early termination of one of its mezzanine term debt facilities. The Company did not have any meaningful losses on extinguishment of debt during the year ended December 31, 2021.
Interest Expense
Interest expense increased by $75 million, or 110%, for the year ended December 31, 2021 compared to the year ended December 31, 2020. The increase was primarily attributable to increases in the average outstanding balances of our asset-backed senior debt facilities and mezzanine term debt facilities, which is consistent with our increase in inventory over the same periods. The increase in interest expense from our asset backed credit facilities is partially offset by a $8 million decrease in interest expense and amortization of debt issuance costs related to the 2019 Convertible Notes, which were converted into equity in September 2020.
Other Income — Net
Other income – net increased by $34 million, or 850%, for the year ended December 31, 2021 compared to the year ended December 31, 2020. The increase is primarily related to the $35 million fair value adjustment on marketable equity securities recorded in 2021 when a company in which we invested went public.
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
OPENDOOR TECHNOLOGIES INC.
Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
(Tabular amounts in millions, except share and per share data and ratios,or as noted)
Income Tax Expense
Income tax expense increased by a nominal amount for the year ended December 31, 2021 compared to the year ended December 31, 2020.
Year Ended December 31, 2020 Compared to Year Ended December 31, 2019
The following table sets forth our results of operations for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019:
Year Ended December 31,Change in
(in millions, except percentages)20202019$%
Revenue$2,583 $4,741 $(2,158)(46)%
Cost of revenue2,363 4,440 (2,077)(47)%
Gross profit220 301 (81)(27)%
Operating expenses:
Sales, marketing and operations195 384 (189)(49)%
General and administrative153 114 39 34 %
Technology and development58 51 14 %
Total operating expenses406 549 (143)(26)%
Net operating loss(186)(248)62 (25)%
Derivative and warrant fair value adjustment33 %
Loss on extinguishment of debt(11)— (11)N/M
Interest expense(68)(110)42 (38)%
Other income-net13 (9)(69)%
Loss before income taxes(253)(339)86 (25)%
Income tax expense— — — N/M
Net loss(253)(339)86 (25)%
Less net income attributable to noncontrolling interest— (2)(100)%
Net loss attributable to Opendoor Technologies Inc.$(253)$(341)$88 (26)%
N/M - Not meaningful.
Revenue
Revenue decreased by $2.2 billion, or 46%, for the year ended December 31, 2020 compared to the year ended December 31, 2019. The decrease in revenue was primarily attributable to lower sales volumes, reflecting the decline in our inventory levels in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. See “— Business Impact of COVID-19”. We sold 9,913 homes during the year ended December 31, 2020, compared to 18,799 homes during the year ended December 31, 2019, representing a decrease of 47%, while the average resale home price increased 2.2% between periods.
Cost of revenue decreased by $2.1 billion, or 47%, for the year ended December 31, 2020 compared to the year ended December 31, 2019. This decrease in cost of revenue was primarily attributable to lower sales volumes.
Gross profit margins improved from 6.4% to 8.5% for the year ended December 31, 2019 and December 31, 2020, respectively. For the same periods, adjusted Gross Margins improved from 6.3% to 8.2%. Gross margin improvement was primarily due to pricing improvements, home renovation efficiency, and margins associated with adjacent services. Contribution Margin increased from 1.9% to 4.3% for the same periods, due largely to higher Adjusted Gross Margins as well as improvements in direct selling and holding costs. See “— Non-GAAP Financial Measures.”
Operating Expenses
Sales, Marketing and Operations.  Sales, marketing and operations decreased by $189 million, or 49%, for the year ended December 31, 2020 compared to the year ended December 31, 2019. The decrease was primarily attributable to a $42 million decrease in advertising expense, as we largely suspended paid marketing spend in the second quarter of 2020 in response to COVID-19 before gradually resuming spend in the second half of the year. In addition, property holding costs declined by
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
OPENDOOR TECHNOLOGIES INC.
Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
(Tabular amounts in millions, except share and per share data and ratios,or as noted)
$39 million due to lower inventory volumes. Resale broker commissions and resale transaction costs declined by $60 million and $15 million, respectively, due to lower resale volumes. Personnel expenses decreased by $27 million due to headcount reductions, as a result of the April 2020 workforce reduction.
General and Administrative.  General and administrative increased by $39 million, or 34%, for the year ended December 31, 2020 compared to the year ended December 31, 2019. The increase was primarily attributable to $20 million of additional stock based compensation from the commencement of expense recognition of certain performance awards upon the consummation of the Business Combination in December 2020. In addition, the Company incurred $18 million of costs related to exiting certain non-cancelable leases with no future benefits to the Company.
Technology and Development.  Technology and development increased by $7 million, or 14%, for the year ended December 31, 2020 compared to the year ended December 31, 2019. The increase was primarily attributable to an $8 million increase in amortization of internally developed software.
Derivative and Warrant Fair Value Adjustment
Derivative and warrant fair value adjustment increased by $2 million, or 33% for the year ended December 31, 2020 compared to the year ended December 31, 2019. The adjustments recorded during the year ended December 31, 2020 were primarily attributable to a gain of $34 million due to a decrease in the fair value of the Sponsor Warrants between the time of the Business Combination and December 31, 2020. The gains were offset by a $23 million increase in the fair value of a derivative liability in extinguishment of the Company's 2019 Convertible Notes.
Loss on Extinguishment of Debt
Loss on extinguishment of debt increased from $0 to $11 million for the years ended December 31, 2019 and December 31, 2020, respectively. The loss on extinguishment of debt of $11 million resulted from the Company’s early termination of one of its mezzanine term debt facilities in December 2020.
Interest Expense
Interest expense decreased by $42 million, or 38%, for the year ended December 31, 2020 compared to the year ended December 31, 2019. The decrease was primarily attributable to a 47% decrease in the average outstanding balance of our financing facilities due to the reduction in inventory levels as a result of our initial response to the COVID-19 pandemic. This decrease was partially offset by interest expenses related to the $178 million in convertible notes issued in the second half of 2019 and outstanding until September 2020.
Other Income — Net
Other income – net decreased by $9 million, or 69%, for the year ended December 31, 2020 compared to the year ended December 31, 2019. The decrease was primarily attributable to lower interest income from cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities.
Liquidity and Capital Resources
Overview
Our principal sources of liquidity have historically consisted of cash generated from our operations and from financing activities. As of December 31, 2021, we had cash and cash equivalents of $1.7 billion, restricted cash of $847 million, and marketable securities of $484 million. The Company had total outstanding balances on our asset-backed debt and other secured borrowings of $6.1 billion and aggregate principal outstanding from Convertible Senior Notes of $978 million. In addition, we had undrawn borrowing capacity of $4.7 billion under our non-recourse asset-backed debt facilities (as described further below), of which $2.8 billion was fully committed.
On February 9, 2021, we completed an underwritten public offering (the “February 2021 Offering”) in which we sold 32,817,421 shares of our common stock at a public offering price of $27.00 per share, including the exercise in full by the underwriters of their option to purchase up to 4,280,533 additional shares of common stock, which was completed on
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February 11, 2021. We received aggregate net proceeds from the February 2021 Offering of approximately $859 million after deducting underwriting discounts and commissions and offering expenses payable by us.
In August 2021, we issued 0.25% convertible senior notes due in 2026 (the “2026 Notes”) with an aggregate principal amount of $978 million, which resulted in net proceeds after underwriting fees and other transactions costs of $953 million. In connection with the issuance of the 2026 Notes, the Company purchased capped calls from certain financial institutions at a cost of $119 million.
We have incurred losses from inception through December 31, 2021 and expect to incur additional losses for the foreseeable future. Our ability to service our debt, fund working capital, business operations and capital expenditures will depend on our ability to generate cash from operating activities, which is subject to our future operating success, and obtain inventory acquisition financing on reasonable terms, which is subject to factors beyond our control, including general economic, political and financial market conditions.
We expect our working capital requirements to continue to increase in the immediate future, as we seek to increase our inventory and expand into more markets across the United States. We believe our cash, cash equivalents, and marketable securities together with cash we expect to generate from future operations and borrowings, will be sufficient to meet our working capital and capital expenditure requirements for a period of at least twelve months from the date of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Debt and Financing Arrangements
Our financing activities include: short-term borrowings under our asset-backed senior revolving credit facilities and our mortgage repurchase financing; the issuance of long-term asset-backed senior term debt, asset-backed mezzanine term debt, and convertible debt; and new issuances of equity. Historically, we have required access to external financing resources in order to fund growth, expansion into new markets and strategic initiatives and we expect this to continue in the future. Our access to capital markets can be impacted by factors outside our control, including economic conditions.
We primarily use non-recourse asset-backed debt, consisting of asset-backed senior debt facilities and asset-backed mezzanine term debt facilities, to provide financing for our real estate inventory purchases and renovations. Our business is capital intensive and maintaining adequate liquidity and capital resources is needed as we continue to scale and accumulate additional inventory. While there can be no assurance that these trends will continue, we have observed increased availability and engagement for this lending product across a variety of financial institutions and we have seen improved terms and an increase in our borrowing capacity in recent years. We actively manage our relationships with multiple financial institutions and seek to optimize duration, flexibility, efficiency and cost of funds.
Our asset-backed facilities are each collateralized by a specified pool of assets, consisting of real estate inventory, restricted cash and equity interests in certain consolidated subsidiaries of Opendoor that directly or indirectly own our real estate inventory.
Our real estate-owning subsidiaries’ assets and credit generally are not available to satisfy the debts and other obligations of any other Opendoor entities except to the extent other Opendoor entities are also a party to the relevant financing arrangements. Our asset-backed debt is non-recourse to Opendoor except for limited guarantees provided by an Opendoor subsidiary for certain obligations in situations involving “bad acts” by an Opendoor entity and certain other limited circumstances that are generally under our control.
Our asset-backed senior debt facilities generally provide for advance rates of 80% to 90% against our cost basis in the underlying properties upon acquisition and our mezzanine term facilities will finance up to 100% of our cost basis in the underlying properties upon acquisition. The maximum initial advance rates for a given financed property vary by facility and generally decrease on a fixed timeline that varies by facility based on the length of time the property has been financed and any other facility-specific adjustments.
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The following table summarizes certain details related to our non-recourse asset-backed debt and other secured borrowings as of December 31, 2021 (in millions, except interest rates):
Outstanding Amount
December 31, 2021
Borrowing
Capacity
CurrentNon-Current
Weighted
Average
Interest Rate
End of Revolving / Withdrawal Period
Final Maturity
Date
Non-Recourse Asset-backed Debt:
Asset-backed Senior Revolving Credit Facilities
Revolving Facility 2018-2$1,250 $759 $— 2.84 %September 23, 2022December 23, 2022
Revolving Facility 2018-3750 673 — 2.39 %May 26, 2024May 26, 2024
Revolving Facility 2019-1900 648 — 2.84 %June 30, 2023June 30, 2023
Revolving Facility 2019-21,850 1,149 — 2.52 %July 8, 2023July 8, 2024
Revolving Facility 2019-3925 886 — 3.25 %August 22, 2022August 21, 2023
Revolving Facility 2021-1125 125 — 2.15 %October 31, 2022October 31, 2022
Asset-backed Senior Term Debt Facilities
Term Debt Facility 2021-S1400 — 400 3.48 %April 1, 2024April 1, 2025
Term Debt Facility 2021-S2600 — 500 3.20 %September 10, 2024September 10, 2025
Term Debt Facility 2021-S31,000 — — 3.75 %
5 Years from Initial Draw Date
5 Years, 6 Months from Initial Draw Date
Total$7,800 $4,240 $900 
Issuance Costs(3)
Carrying Value$897 
Asset-backed Mezzanine Term Debt Facilities
Term Debt Facility 2020-M1$3,000 $— $1,000 10.00 %April 1, 2025April 1, 2026
Total$3,000 $— $1,000 
Issuance Costs(35)
Carrying Value$965 
Total Non-Recourse Asset-backed Debt$10,800 $4,240 $1,862 
Recourse Debt - Other Secured Borrowings:
Mortgage Financing
Repo Facility 2019-R1$100 $$— 1.84 %May 26, 2022May 26, 2022
Total Recourse Debt$100 $$— 
Asset-backed Senior Revolving Credit Facilities
We classify the senior revolving credit facilities as current liabilities on our consolidated balance sheets. In some cases, the borrowing capacity amounts under the asset-backed senior revolving credit facilities as reflected in the table are not fully committed and any borrowings above those amounts are subject to the applicable lender’s discretion. As of December 31, 2021, we had fully committed borrowing capacity with respect to asset-backed senior revolving credit facilities of $3.9 billion.
The revolving period end dates and final maturity dates reflected in the table above are inclusive of any extensions that are at the sole discretion of the Company. Certain of our asset-backed senior revolving credit facilities also have additional extension options that are subject to lender approval that are not reflected in the table above.
Asset-backed Senior Term Debt Facilities
We classify our senior term debt facilities as non-current liabilities in our consolidated balance sheets. The carrying value of the non-current liabilities is reduced by issuance costs of $3 million. In some cases, the borrowing capacity amounts under the asset-backed senior term debt facilities as reflected in the table are not fully committed and any borrowings above those
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amounts are subject to the applicable lender’s discretion. As of December 31, 2021, we had fully committed borrowing capacity with respect to asset-backed senior term debt facilities of $1.7 billion.
The withdrawal period end dates and final maturity dates reflected in the table above are inclusive of any extensions that are at the sole discretion of the Company. Certain of our asset-backed senior term debt facilities also have additional extension options that are subject to lender approval that are not reflected in the table above.
Asset-backed Mezzanine Term Debt Facilities
In addition to the asset-backed senior revolving credit facilities and asset-backed senior term debt facilities, we have issued asset-backed mezzanine term debt facilities which are subordinated to the related senior facilities. As of December 31, 2021, we had fully committed borrowing capacity with respect to asset-backed mezzanine term debt facilities of $2.3 billion. Any borrowings above those amounts are not fully committed and subject to the applicable lender’s discretion.
Mortgage Financing
We primarily use debt financing to fund our mortgage loan originations. In 2019 we entered into a master repurchase agreement to finance substantially all of the mortgage loans that we originate. Once our mortgage business sells a loan in the secondary mortgage market, we use the sale proceeds to reduce the outstanding balance under the repurchase facility.
Convertible Senior Notes
In August 2021, we issued the 2026 Notes with an aggregate principal amount of $978 million. The table below summarizes certain details related to our 2026 Notes (in millions):
December 31, 2021
Aggregate Principal Amount
Unamortized Debt Issuance CostsNet Carrying Amount
2026 Notes$978 $(24)$954 
See “Part II – Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data – Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements – Note 7. Credit Facilities and Long-Term Debt” for additional information regarding our debt and financing arrangements.
Cash Flows
The following table summarizes our cash flows for the years ended December 31, 2021, 2020 and 2019:
Year Ended December 31,
(in millions)202120202019
Net cash (used in) provided by operating activities$(5,794)$682 $(272)
Net cash used in investing activities$(476)$(22)$(95)
Net cash provided by financing activities$7,342 $161 $646 
Net increase in cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash$1,072 $821 $279 
Net Cash (Used in) Provided by Operating Activities
Net cash (used in) provided by operating activities was $(5.8) billion, $682 million and $(272) million for the years ended December 31, 2021, 2020 and 2019, respectively. For the year ended December 31, 2021, cash used in operating activities was primarily driven by a $5.7 billion increase in real estate inventory and an $83 million increase in escrow receivables correlated to the increase in revenue during the year. For the year ended December 31, 2020, cash provided by operating activities was primarily driven by an $834 million reduction in real estate inventory offset by our net loss net of non-cash items of $149 million. For the year ended December 31, 2019, cash used in operating activities reflected primarily our net loss net of non-cash items of $258 million and our change in operating working capital of ($11) million.
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Net Cash Used in Investing Activities
Net cash used in investing activities was $476 million, $22 million and $95 million for the years ended December 31, 2021, 2020 and 2019, respectively. For the year ended December 31, 2021, cash used in investing activities primarily consisted of $394 million in investments in marketable securities, $33 million for the acquisitions of Pro.com and RedDoor, net of cash acquired, the $15 million purchase of strategic investments in certain privately held companies and $33 million in capital expenditures, including internally developed software. For the year ended December 31, 2020, cash used in investing activities primarily consisted of capital expenditures, including internally developed software. For the year ended December 31, 2019, cash used in investing activities primarily reflected the purchase, net of sales, of marketable securities in the amount of $34 million. In addition, we acquired OSN for $33 million and spent $28 million on capital expenditures, including internally developed software, computers and leasehold improvements.
Net Cash Provided by Financing Activities
Net cash provided by financing activities was $7.3 billion, $161 million and $646 million for the years ended December 31, 2021, 2020 and 2019, respectively. For the year ended December 31, 2021, cash provided by financing activities was primarily attributable to $5.7 billion net proceeds from asset-backed debt and $886 million in proceeds from the February 2021 Offering, net of $29 million of issuance costs. In addition, we received $978 million in proceeds from the issuance of the 2026 Notes, net of $25 million of issuance costs and offset by $119 million purchase of the Capped Calls related to the 2026 Notes. For the year ended December 31, 2020, cash provided by financing activities was primarily attributable to proceeds from the Business Combination and PIPE Investment in the amount of $1.0 billion, partially offset by the repayment of $816 million of our asset-backed debt and other secured borrowings. For the year ended December 31, 2019, cash provided by financing activities was driven by proceeds from the issuance of preferred stock and convertible notes, as well as net proceeds from the senior revolving credit facilities and mezzanine term debt facilities to acquire new inventory.
Contractual Obligations and Commitments
Contractual obligations are cash amounts that we are obligated to pay as part of certain contracts that we have entered into during the normal course of business. Below is a table that shows our contractual obligations as of December 31, 2021:
Payment Due by Year
(in millions)Total
Less than
1 year
1 – 3 years3 – 5 years
More than
5 years
Senior revolving credit facilities(1)
$4,269 $4,269 $— $— $— 
Senior and mezzanine term debt facilities(2)
2,430 130 260 2,040 — 
Convertible senior notes(3)
990 983 — 
Mortgage financing(4)
— — — 
Operating leases(5)
67 17 15 27 
Purchase commitments(6)
1,929 1,929 — — — 
Total9,692 6,345 282 3,038 27 
________________
(1)Represents the principal amounts outstanding as of December 31, 2021. Includes estimated interest payments, calculated using the variable rate in existence at period end over an assumed holding period of 90 days. Borrowings under the senior revolving credit facilities are payable as the related inventory is sold. The payment is expected to be within one year of December 31, 2021.
(2)Represents the principal amounts outstanding as of December 31, 2021 and interest payments assuming the principal balances remain outstanding until maturity. The final maturity dates of the senior and mezzanine term debt facilities vary, as discussed above.
(3)Represents the principal amounts outstanding as of December 31, 2021 and interest payments assuming the principal balances remain outstanding until maturity.
(4)Represents the principal amounts outstanding as of December 31, 2021. The facility provides short-term financing between the origination of a mortgage loan and when Opendoor Home Loans sells the loan to an investor. Included estimated
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interest payments, calculated using the variable rate in existence at period end over the Company’s average holding period for mortgage loans.
(5)Represents future payments for long-term operating leases that have commenced as of December 31, 2021.
(6)As of December 31, 2021, we were under contract to purchase 5,411 homes for an aggregate purchase price of $1.9 billion.
Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates
Discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations are based on our financial statements, which have been prepared in accordance with GAAP. The preparation of these financial statements requires us to make estimates and judgments that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and related disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities, revenue, and expenses at the date of the financial statements. Generally, we base our estimates on historical experience and on various other assumptions in accordance with GAAP that we believe to be reasonable under the circumstances. Actual results may differ from these estimates under different assumptions or conditions.
We consider an accounting judgment, estimate or assumption to be critical when (1) the estimate or assumption is complex in nature or requires a high degree of judgment and (2) the use of different judgments, estimates and assumptions could have a material impact on the consolidated financial statements. Based on this definition, we have identified the critical accounting policies and estimates addressed below. In addition, we have other key accounting policies and estimates that are described in “Part II – Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data – Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements – Note 1. Description of Business and Accounting Policies”.
Real Estate Inventory
Real estate inventory carrying value is equal to the lower of cost or net realizable value and each home constitutes the unit of account. Real estate inventory cost includes but is not limited to the property purchase price, acquisition costs and direct costs to renovate or repair the home, less inventory valuation adjustments, if any. The property purchase price is net of our service fee and represents the cash proceeds paid to the home seller. Real estate inventory is reviewed for valuation adjustments on a quarterly basis. If the carrying amount for a given home is not expected to be recovered, an inventory valuation adjustment is recorded to cost of revenue and the home’s carrying value is adjusted to its net realizable value. For homes under contract, the net realizable value is the contract price less expected selling costs and any expected concessions. For all other homes, the net realizable value is our internal projection price less expected selling costs. Changes in our pricing assumptions may lead to a change in the outcome of our inventory valuation adjustment, and actual results may also differ from our assumptions.
Stock-Based Compensation
Our stock-based awards include stock options, restricted stock units (“RSUs”), and shares of restricted stock (“Restricted Shares”).
We recognize the cost of stock option awards granted to employees and directors based on the estimated grant-date fair value of the awards. Cost is recognized on a straight-line basis over the service period, which is generally the vesting period of the award. We elected to recognize the effect of forfeitures in the period that they occur. We determine the fair value of stock options using the Black-Scholes-Merton option pricing model, which is impacted by the following assumptions:
Expected Term.   We use the simplified method when calculating the expected term due to insufficient historical exercise data. Management elected to use the simplified method instead of historical experience due to a lack of relevant historical data resulting from changes in option vesting schedules and changes in the pool of employees receiving option grants.
Expected Volatility.   As our shares were not actively traded on Nasdaq until December 2020, the volatility used for stock options granted prior to the Company becoming listed is based on a benchmark of comparable companies within the automotive sales industry and certain real estate technology companies. For stock options granted after the Company became listed, we use the implied volatility from traded Opendoor call options.
Expected Dividend Yield.   The dividend rate used is zero as we have never paid any cash dividends on our common stock and do not anticipate doing so in the foreseeable future.
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Risk-Free Interest Rate.   The interest rates used are based on the implied yield available on U.S. Treasury zero-coupon issues with an equivalent remaining term equal to the expected life of the award.
We evaluate the assumptions used to value our share-based awards on each grant date. Following the Company’s common stock being listed on Nasdaq, the fair value of our stock has been determined based on the quoted market price. Prior to our common stock being listed on Nasdaq, the grant date fair value of our common stock was determined with the assistance of an independent third-party valuation specialist. The grant date fair value of our common stock was determined using valuation methodologies which utilize certain assumptions, including probability weighting of events, volatility, time to liquidation, a risk-free interest rate, and an assumption for a discount for lack of marketability.
Prior to our common stock being listed on Nasdaq, we determined that an Option Pricing Model (“OPM”) was the most appropriate method for allocating our enterprise value to determine the estimated fair value of our common stock. Application of the OPM involves the use of estimates, judgment, and assumptions that are highly complex and subjective, such as those regarding our expected future revenue, expenses and cash flows, discount rates, market multiples, the selection of comparable companies, and the probability of future events. Specifically, we have historically used the OPM back solve analysis in combination with the market comparables approach to estimate the fair value of our common stock. OPM back solve analysis derives the implied equity value for one type of equity security from a contemporaneous transaction involving another type of security; we utilized the OPM back solve analysis with respect to our convertible preferred stock to derive a value of our common stock. In certain periods where there is not a contemporaneous transaction, we utilized the market comparables approach to estimate an enterprise equity valuation which is then allocated using OPM to determine the common stock value.
The grant date fair value calculated using the methodology discussed above is also utilized with respect to RSUs with performance and service conditions to vest and restricted shares. For RSUs with a performance condition based on a liquidity event, as well as a service condition to vest, no compensation expense is recognized until the performance condition has been satisfied. Subsequent to the liquidity event, compensation expense is recognized to the extent the requisite service period has been completed and compensation expense thereafter is recognized on an accelerated attribution method. Under the accelerated attribution method, compensation expense is recognized over the remaining requisite service period for each service condition tranche as though each tranche is, in substance, a separate award. In February 2021, the Company completed an underwritten public offering, which met the liquidity event vesting condition and triggered the recognition of compensation expense for RSUs for which the time-based vesting condition had been satisfied or partially satisfied. For further information on the February 2021 underwritten public offering, see “Part II – Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data – Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements – Note 13. Shareholders’ Equity”.
We determined the grant date fair value of RSUs with market-based vesting conditions by using Monte Carlo simulations. The assumptions for stock price volatility, contractual term, dividend yield, and stock price used in the Monte Carlo simulations are determined using the same methodology as described above. The exception is that with respect to the stock price volatility used for the Monte Carlo simulations, the Company took into consideration the capital structure of each comparable company comprising the benchmark to isolate each comparable company’s equity volatility without the effect of leverage and then re-levered using our capital structure. If we consider the performance conditions probable to be satisfied, we recognize the cost of these RSUs by treating each market-based condition as an unit of account and recognizing the cost over the requisite service period with respect to each unit. We determine the requisite service period by comparing the derived service period to achieve the market-based condition and the explicit service-based period, if any, using the longer of the two service periods as the requisite service period.
The assumptions underlying these valuations represent management’s best estimates, which involve inherent uncertainties and the application of management judgment. As a result, if factors or expected outcomes change and we use significantly different assumptions or estimates, our share-based compensation expense could be materially different. For more detailed information about our historical and outstanding grants and our valuation of our share-based compensation and awards, see “Part II – Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data – Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements – Note 14. Share-Based Awards”.
Public and Sponsor Warrants
On April 30, 2020, SCH consummated its initial public offering (the “IPO”) of 41,400,000 units, consisting of one share of Class A common stock and one third of one warrant exercisable for Class A common stock, at a price of $10.00 per unit. Each whole warrant entitles the holder to purchase one share of Class A common stock at an exercise price of $11.50 per share
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(the “Public Warrants”). Simultaneously with the closing of the IPO, SCH completed the private placement of 6,133,333 warrants to SCH’s sponsor at a price of $1.50 per warrant (the “Sponsor Warrants”). Each Sponsor Warrant allowed the sponsor to purchase one share of Class A common stock at $11.50 per share.
The Sponsor Warrants and shares of common stock issuable upon the exercise of Sponsor Warrants may not be transferred, assigned, or sold until 30 days after the completion of a business combination. Additionally, the Sponsor Warrants are eligible for cash and cashless exercises, at the holder’s option, and are redeemable only if the Reference Value, as defined in the Warrant Agreement, is less than $18.00 per share.
We evaluated the Public and Sponsor Warrants under ASC 815-40, Derivatives and Hedging-Contracts in Entity’s Own Equity, and concluded that the Sponsor Warrants did not meet the criteria to be classified in shareholders’ equity. Specifically the exercise and settlement features for the Sponsor Warrants precluded them from being considered indexed to the Company’s own stock given that a change in the holder of the Sponsor Warrants may alter the settlement of the Sponsor Warrants. Since the holder of the instrument is not an input to a standard option pricing model, a consideration with respect to the indexation guidance, a change in the holder for the Sponsor Warrants impacting their value means the Sponsor Warrants are not indexed to the Company’s own stock. Since the Sponsor Warrants meet the definition of a derivative under ASC 815, we recorded these warrants as liabilities on the balance sheet at fair value upon the consummation of the Business Combination, with subsequent changes in their respective fair values recognized in the consolidated statement of operations at each reporting period. The Company concluded that the Public Warrants, which did not have the same exercise and settlement features as the Sponsor Warrants, meet the criteria to be classified in shareholders' equity.
On July 9, 2021, the Company completed the redemption of all of its outstanding Public and Sponsor Warrants and in connection with the redemption, the Public Warrants stopped trading on the Nasdaq Global Select Market.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
For information on recent accounting standards, see “Part II – Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data – Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements – Note 1. Description of Business and Accounting Policies”.
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
OPENDOOR TECHNOLOGIES INC.
Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk.
We are exposed to market risks in the ordinary course of our business. These risks primarily consist of fluctuations in interest rates.
Interest Rate Risk
We are subject to market risk by way of changes in interest rates on borrowings under our inventory financing facilities and mortgage financing repurchase agreement. As of December 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020 we had outstanding borrowings of $4.2 billion and $346 million, respectively, which bear interest at a floating rate based on a London Interbank Offered Rate (“LIBOR”) reference rate plus an applicable margin. Accordingly, fluctuations in market interest rates may increase or decrease our interest expense. We may use interest rate cap derivatives, interest rate swaps or other interest rate hedging instruments to economically hedge and manage interest rate risk with respect to our variable floating rate debt. Many of our floating rate debt facilities also have LIBOR floors. Assuming no change in the outstanding borrowings on our credit facilities, we estimate that a one percentage point increase in LIBOR would increase our interest expense by approximately $37 million and $4 million for the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020, respectively.
Some tenors of LIBOR were discontinued on December 31, 2021. Although we expect that the capital and debt markets will cease to use LIBOR as a benchmark in the near future and the administrator of LIBOR has announced its intention to extend the publication of most tenors of LIBOR for U.S. dollars through June 30, 2023, we cannot predict whether or when LIBOR will actually cease to be available. It is not possible to predict the effect of any changes in the methods by which LIBOR is determined or any other reforms to LIBOR that may be enacted in the United States or elsewhere. Such developments may cause LIBOR to perform differently than in the past, including sudden or prolonged increases or decreases in LIBOR, or cease to exist, resulting in the application of a successor base rate under our senior revolving credit facilities, which in turn could have unpredictable effects on our interest payment obligations under our senior revolving credit facilities.
Inflation Risk
We do not believe that inflation has had a material effect on our business, results of operations or financial condition. If our costs were to become subject to significant inflationary pressures, we may not be able to fully offset such higher costs through price increases. Our inability to do so could harm our business, results of operations and financial condition.
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
OPENDOOR TECHNOLOGIES INC.
Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data.


INDEX TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
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